Irregular verbs in Modern English # Verbos irregulares

Gramática inglesa. Inglés. Tiempos verbales. Conjugación. Fonética. Infinitivo. Gerundio. Participio. Cambios. Fonética

  • Enviado por: Esther Pajares
  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
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IRREGULAR VERBS IN MODERN ENGLISH

  • Historically regular - because of the dental ( I - VIII )

  • (I).- A < d > is added, and the vowel of the base changes:

    FLEE: to leave somewhere very quickly in order to escape from danger. To run away. Huir de.

    Flee [fli:] (formal) Fled [fled] Fled [fled]

    Fly [fl] (obsolescent in the sense “run away”, being replaced by expressions such as take flight)

    GAINSAY: to say that something is not true, or to disagree with someone. Formal. Contradecir, negar.

    Gainsay [gense] Gainsaid [gensed] Gainsaid [gensed]

    [gensed] [gensed]

    * c.f. Have

    HEAR: to know that a sound is being made using your ears. Oir.

    Hear [h] Heard [h:d] Heard [h:d]

    PAY : Pagar.

    Pay [pe] Paid [ped] Paid [ped]

    SAY: to pronounce a word or sound. Decir.

    Say [se] Said [sed] Said [sed]

    *Says [sez] c.f. Have.

    SELL: to give something to someone in exchange for money. Vender.

    Sell [sel] Sold [sld] Sold [sld]

    SHOE: Herrar. /Shoe with : Calzarse

    Shoe [u:] Shod [d] Shod [d]

    TELL: Contar, decir.

    Tell [tel] Told [tld] Told [tld]

    (II).- A < d > is added, but a consonant of the base is omitted and the vowel of the base is changed. There is a greater change of the base than in (I) (PPV)

    CAN : Poder, saber.

    Can [kn] Could [kd]

    * The basic form of most verbs can function as: (a) Infinitive, (b) Present indicative with the exception of the 3rd person singular, (c) Imperative, (d) Subjunctive. But the verbs CAN, MAY, MUST, OUGHT, SHALL, WILL can only function as (b) Present... Various expressions are used for the corresponding infinitives: BE ABLE TO, HAVE TO, BE OBLIGED TO, WANT TO, BE UNDER AN OBLIGATION TO, HAVE THE WILL TO.

    * The verbs CAN, MAY, MUST, OUGHT, SHALL, WILL do not add a suffix in the 3rd person singular; the same applies to DARE and NEED when followed by an infinitive without to.

    * The verbs CAN, MAY, MUST, OUGHT, SHALL, WILL have no Past Participle. For semantically corresponding P.P.s various expressions are resorted to, such as: BEEN ABLE TO, BEEN ALLOWED TO, HAD TO, WANTED TO, and the like.

    CLOTHE : Vestir/ cubrir, revestir./ Clothe in/with: Vestir de/ cubrir, revestir de.

    Clothe [kl] Clothed [kld] Clothed [kld]

    Clad [kld] Clad [kld]

    * In the sense cover or provide clothes for the verb is regularly inflected. But used as a mannered expression instead of dress -i.e. of the appearance of the clothing- it is irregularly inflected: poorly clad. In addition Clad occurs in many combinations, such as snow-clad.

    HAVE : Tener, haber.

    Have [hv] Had [hd] Had [hd]

    * The addition of -s is combined with a sound change in the verbs HAVE, DO, SAY the 3rd person present being HAS [hz], DOES [dz], SAYS [sez].

    N.B. GAINSAYS is regular [gensez].

    MAKE : Hacer.

    Make [mek] Made [med] Made [med]

    SHALL : Used to form 1st person in future tense and questions.

    Shall [l] Should [d]

    * c.f. Can

    WILL : Auxiliar para formar el tiempo futuro/ wish (querer).

    Will [wl] Would [wd]

    * c.f. Can.

    WONT : To be wont to do sth : soler hacer algo, acostumbrar a hacer algo.(Be used to). It is in the same group as modals.

    Be wont [wnt]/[wnt] Was/Were wont Been wont

    * Wonted [wntd] adj. : acostumbrado.

    (III).- A < t > is added after nasal or liquid [l,r]. These verbs can have the < t > or be completely regular.

    BURN : Quemar/ estar deseando hacer algo.

    Burn [b:n] Burnt [b:nt] Burnt [b:nt]

    Burned [b:nd]

    * The regular preterite is common in the sense longed to (estar deseando hacer algo) : She burned to ask where the boy lived. (In American English this verb is usually regularly inflected.). c.f. Dream.

    DWELL: Morar, vivir./ Dwell on/upon: dar vueltas a (think about), hacer hincapié en.

    Dwell [dwel] Dwelt [dwelt] Dwelt [dwelt]

    LEARN: Aprender.

    Learn [l:n] Learnt [l:nt] Learnt [l:nt]

    Learned [l:nd] Learned [l:nd]

    * Learned : Adjective (person) docto, erudito.

    SMELL : Oler.

    Smell [smel] Smelt [smelt] Smelt [smelt]

    Smelled [smeld] Smelled [smeld]

    *SMELT: Fundir

    Smelt [smelt] Smelted [smeltd] Smelted [smeltd]

    SPELL : Escribir, deletrear.

    Spell [spel] Spelt [spelt] Spelt [spelt]

    Spelled [speld] Spelled [speld]

    SPILL : Derramar, verter.

    Spill [spl] Spilt [splt] Spilt [splt]

    Spilled [spld] Spilled [splt]

    * Only the Past Participle form Spilt is used as the attributive adjective : Cry over spilt milk.

    SPOIL : Estropear, arruinar, dañar, invalidar/ mimar, consentir.

    Spoil [spl] Spoilt [splt] Spoilt [splt]

    Spoiled [spld] Spoiled [spld]

    * In the old sense plunder, rob, the verb is regular: they spoiled the town. In its other sense the verb has both forms. As the attributive adjective spoilt: a spoilt child.

    SWELL : Hinchar(se), inflar(se).

    Swell [swel] Swelled [sweld] Swollen [swln]

    Swelled [sweld]

    * In the verbal function the Past Participle swollen is commoner than swelled . As the adjective swollen is the usual form. Note the difference between a swollen head, with the literal value, and a swelled head of “conceit”(vanidad, presunción, engreimiento).

    (IV).- A < t > is added and < d > disappears (verbs ending in < d >) and the vowel of the base remains. This is a typical characteristic of West-Midlands.

    BEND : Doblar(se), inclinar(se), curvar, combar.

    Bend [bend] Bent [bent] Bent [bent]

    * The regular Past Participle is however to be found in the archaic phrase on bended [bendd] knees. ( de rodillas).

    BLEND : Mezclar, combinar./ To blend with: armonizarse con./ To blend into: fundirse con. (colores).

    Blend [blend] Blended [blendd] Blended [blendd]

    Blent [blent] Blent [blent]

    * The normal forms are those in -ed, but forms in -t are still to be found in literary English.

    BUILD : Construir, preparar, hacer.

    Build [bld] Built [blt] Built [blt]

    GILD : Dorar./ To gild the lily: Embellecer lo perfecto.

    Gild [gld] Gilded [gldd] Gilded [gldd]

    Gilt [glt]

    * In its verbal function only the regular inflection. As attributive adjectives the Past Participle forms are used as follows: Literary, gilt. Metaphorically and formally, gilded.

    GIRD : Ceñir, rodear.

    Gird [g:d] Girded [g:dd] Girded [g:dd]

    Girt [g:t] Girt [g:t]

    * The irregular forms are now found only in formal English.

    LEND : Prestar, dejar.

    Lend [lend] Lent [lent] Lent [lent]

    REND : Rasgar, desgarrar./ Hender(partir).

    Rend [rend] Rent [rent] Rent [rent]

    SEND : Mandar, enviar.

    Send [send] Sent [sent] Sent [sent]

    SPEND : Gastar, dedicar, pasar, agotar.

    Spend [spend] Spent [spent] Spent [spent]

    (V).- A < t > is added but the vowel changes. The vowel of Preterite was closed because it was in closed position and did not suffer GVS.

    BLESS : Bendecir.

    Bless [bles] Blessed [blesd] Blessed [blesd]

    Blest [blest] Blest [blest]

    * In its verbal function the P.P. is regular. As and adjective the P.P. form Blessed is used, whereas Blest is used in the sense “heavenly” or “saved”.

    (BE)REAVE : Privar.

    Bereave [bri:v] Bereft [breft] Bereft [breft]

    * When the verb is used of matters other than death only this inflection is found: Bereft . Of death, Bereaved [bri:vd] is often used; thus always adjectivally. With the verbal function there is some uncertainty.

    CLEAVE¹ : Split. Partir, surcar.

    Cleave [kli:v] Clove [klv] Cloven [klvn]Belongs also to Group (XI).

    Cleft [kleft] Cleft [kleft]

    Cleaved [kli:vd] Cleaved [kli:vd]

    * Cloven foot/hoof ; Cleft palate/In a cleft stick.

    CLEAVE² : Stick. Adherirse a.

    Cleave [kli:v] Cleaved [kli:vd] Cleaved [kli:vd]

    Clave

    CREEP : Deslizarse, arrastrarse, trepar./ (person) Ir cautelosamente, ir muy despacio.

    Creep [kri:p] Crept [krept] Crept [krept]

    DEAL : Asestar, dar./ (cards) Deal out: Dar, repartir./ Deal in: comerciar con, negociar con./ Deal with: tratar con.

    Deal [di:l] Dealt [delt] (!) Dealt [delt] (!)

    DREAM: Soñar.

    Dream [dri:m] Dreamt [dremt] (!) Dreamt [dremt] (!)

    Dreamed [dremt][dri:md] Dreamed [dremt][dri:md]

    * Many verbs with both regular and irregular Preterite and P.P. forms: the supplanting of the irregular forms by the regular applies more in the Preterite than in the P.P. (Dream, burn, lean, broadcast...)

    * In the sense imagine, believe, the regular form of dream is normally used.

    FEEL : Tocar, sentir./ Sentirse, encontrarse./ Feel out: tantear./ Feel sb up: meter mano a alguien.

    Feel [fi:l] Felt [felt] Felt [felt]

    KEEP : Guardar, quedarse con./ Mantener./ Seguir.

    Keep [ki:p] Kept [kept] Kept [kept]

    KNEEL : Arrodillarse, estar de rodillas./ Kneel to: hincar la rodilla ante alguien.

    Kneel [ni:l] Knelt [nelt] Knelt [nelt]

    Kneeled [ni:ld] Kneeled [ni:ld]

    * The irregular form is commoner than the regular.

    LEAN : Inclinarse, ladearse./ Apoyar(se).

    Lean [li:n] Leant [lent] Leant [lent]

    Leaned [li:nd][lent] Leaned [li:nd][lent]

    * c.f. Dream.

    LEAP : Saltar.

    Leap [li:p] Leapt [lept] Leapt [lept]

    Leaped [lept][li:pt] Leaped [lept][li:pt]

    LEAVE : Dejar, marcharse de, salir de, abandonar./ To be left: quedar.

    Leave [li:v] Left [left] Left [left]

    LOSE : Perder.

    Lose [lu:z] Lost [lst] Lost [lst]

    MEAN : Significar, querer decir./ Suponer.

    Mean [mi:n] Meant [ment] Meant [ment]

    SLEEP : Dormir./ (Accommodate) Haber/tener cama.

    Sleep [sli:p] Slept [slept] Slept [slept]

    SWEEP : Barrer, deshollinar.

    Sweep [swi:p] Swept [swept] Swept [swept]

    WEEP : Llorar./ (Med. - wound) Supurar.

    Weep [wi:p] Wept [wept] Wept [wept]

    (VI).- A < t > is added with a greater change of the base than in (V). Πweak verbs I- subdivision 3 (C).

    BESEECH : Suplicar. (To beseech sb to do sth)

    Beseech [bsi:t] Besought [bs:t] Besought [bs:t]

    BRING : Traer, llevar, conducir (person).

    Bring [br] Brought [br:t] Brought [br:t]

    BUY : Comprar.

    Buy [b] Bought [b:t] Bought [b:t]

    CATCH : Coger, agarrar, pillar./ Engancharse, enredarse.

    Catch [kt] Caught [k:t] Caught [k:t]

    DARE : Desafiar, retar./ Atreverse.

    Dare [de] Dared [ded] Dared [ded]

    Durst [d:st]

    * The irregular Preterite is used only in archaic language. c.f. Can.

    MAY : Modal aux. (of possibility)./ (of permission) Poder.

    May [me] Might [mt]

    * c.f. Can.

    SEEK : Buscar./ Solicitar./ Ambicionar.

    Seek [si:k] Sought [s:t] Sought [s:t]

    TEACH : Enseñar, dar clases.

    Teach [ti:t] Taught [t:t] Taught [t:t]

    THINK : Pensar, creer, imaginar(se), recordar, opinar.

    Think [k] Thought [:t] Thought [:t]

    WORK : Trabajar, funcionar./ Hacer trabajar./ Coser, hacer./ Tallar, grabar.

    Work [w:k] Worked [w:kt] Worked [w:kt]

    Wrought [r:t] Wrought [r:t]

    * The irregular inflected forms are found only in certain connections: (be) wrought destruction, ruin./ wrought-up nerves./ wrought iron.

    (VII).- Ending in < d, t >, the vowel of the base does not change.(verbs historically ending in < t > + < ed > = assimilation)

    BET : Apostar, jugar(se).

    Bet [bet] Bet [bet] Bet [bet]

    * Used thus when the stake is stated, but otherwise regularly inflected: Betted [betd].

    BESET: Acosar/ Estar plagado de.

    Beset [bset] Beset [bset] Beset [bset]

    BROADCAST : Emitir, radiar, predecir/ Hablar (por la radio)

    Broadcast [br:dka:st] Broadcast [br:dka:st] Broadcast [br:dka:st]

    Broadcasted[br:dka:std]Broadcasted[br:dka:std]

    BURST : Reventar, romper.

    Burst [b:st] Burst [b:st] Burst [b:st]

    CAST : Echar, lanzar, proyectar./ Mudar./ Fundir, moldear./ Hacer el reparto de, dar (a un actor) el papel de.

    Cast [ka:st] Cast [ka:st] Cast [ka:st]

    COST¹ : Costar, valer./ Cost out: presupuestar.

    Cost [kst] Cost [kst] Cost [kst]

    COST² : Calcular el coste/presupuesto de.

    Cost [kst] Costed [kstd] Costed [kstd]

    CUT : Apagar el motor, rebajar, cortar./ Cruzarse, cortarse.

    Cut [kt] Cut [kt] Cut [kt]

    FORECAST : Prever, pronosticar.

    Forecast [f:ka:st] Forecast [f:ka:st] Forecast [f:ka:st]

    Forecasted [f:ka:std] Forecasted [f:ka:std]

    HIT : Pegar, golpear, dañar, chocar./ Alcanzar, dar con./ To hit the front page/the headlines: salir en primera plana. To hit the papers: salir en el periódico.

    Hit [ht] Hit [ht] Hit [ht]

    HURT : Hacer daño a, lastimar, perjudicar./ Doler, sufrir.

    Hurt [h:t] Hurt [h:t] Hurt [h:t]

    KNIT : Tricotar, tejer./ Hacer punto o calceta./ (bones) Soldarse. (wound) curarse, cerrarse.

    Knit [nt] Knit [nt] Knit [nt]

    Knitted [ntd] Knitted [ntd]

    * Regular in the literal sense; metaphorically generally irregular. ( they are closely knit in friendship )

    LET : Dejar, permitir./ Forming imperative: Let's./ Alquilar, arrendar./ (blood) Sacar.

    Let [let] Let [let] Let [let]

    MUST : Deber, tener que.

    Must [mst] Must [mst]

    * c.f. Can.

    OUGHT : (moral obligation) Deber./ (probabilidad)

    Ought [:t] Ought [:t] * c.f. Can.

    PUT : Poner, colocar, introducir.

    Put [pt] Put [pt] Put [pt]

    QUIT : Dejar de hacer algo./ Abandonar, salir de./ Irse, marcharse (esp. U.S.A)

    Quit [kwt] Quit [kwt] Quit [kwt]

    Quitted [kwtd] Quitted [kwtd]

    * Now nearly always regular in standard English; but the Preterite and P.P. Quit are found in dialect and American.

    RID : Be rid of sth/sb.: librarse de./ Get rid of: deshacerse de.

    Rid [rd] Rid [rd] Rid [rd]

    Ridded [rdd]

    SET : Poner, colocar, componer, fijar, establecer.

    Set [set] Set [set] Set [set]

    SHED : Despojarse de, mudar piel, derramar lágrimas...

    Shed [ed] Shed [ed] Shed [ed]

    SHRED : Hacer trizas, hacer tiras, deshilar, triturar.

    Shred [red] Shredded [redd] Shredded [redd]

    Shred [red] Shred [red]

    SHUT : Cerrar(se).

    Shut [t] Shut [t] Shut [t]

    SLIT : Cortar, abrir. (Slit-eyed: de ojos rasgados)

    Slit [slt] Slit [slt] Slit [slt]

    SPLIT : Partir(se), hender, dividir.

    Split [splt] Split [splt] Split [splt]

    SPREAD : Extender, tender./ Esparcir./ Untar./ Propagarse.

    Spread [spred] Spread [spred] Spread [spred]

    SWEAT : Sudar, transpirar./ Rehogar(verduras)

    Sweat [swet] Sweat [swet] Sweat [swet]

    Sweated [swetd] Sweated [swetd]

    * In English almost entirely the regular inflection, but in American the irregular forms are common.

    THRUST : Empujar, introducir, clavar.

    Thrust [rst] Thrust [rst] Thrust [rst]

    WED : Desposarse, casarse.

    Wed [wed] Wed [wed] Wed [wed]

    Wedded [wedd] Wedded [wedd]

    * In American Wed is found both as the Preterite and the P.P.; in English the irregular form can be found, particularly in formal language.

    (VIII).- Ending in < d,t > , but the vowel changes. Historical long vowel in the Present, short vowel in the past (because it's in closed position).

    BLEED : Sangrar./ (colores) diluirse./ Bleed sb. Dry/white: chupar la sangre a alguien.

    Bleed [bli:d] Bled [bled] Bled [bled]

    BREED : Criar./ Crear, engendrar./ Reproducirse, procrear (animales).

    Breed [bri:d] Bred [bred] Bred [bred]

    FEED : Dar de comer, alimentar./ Suministrar./ meter.

    Feed [fi:d] Fed [fed] Fed [fed]

    LEAD : Llevar, conducir, dirigir.

    Lead [li:d] Led [led] Led [led]

    MEET : Quedar con, verse con./ Conocer./ Satisfacer, cubrir./ Reunirse.

    Meet [mi:t] Met [met] Met [met]

    READ : Leer, decir, estudiar.

    Read [ri:d] Read [red] Read [red]

    SPEED : Correr a toda prisa, darse prisa, apresurarse.

    Speed [spi:d] Sped [sped] Sped [sped]

    Speeded [spi:dd] Speeded [spi:dd]

    * In the sense succeed this veb is always irregularly inflected. Both forms are used of rapid movement. In the special sense increase the speed (of) only the regularly inflected forms are used.

  • Historically strong verbs - there is no consonantal addition, only change of vowel ( IX - XIII )

  • (IX).- The same vowel in Preterite and P.P.

    ABIDE : Aguantar, soportar./ Morar, permanecer, continuar./ Abide by: atenerse a, obrar de acuerdo con, cumplir con.

    Abide [bd] Abode [bd] Abode [bd]

    * This verb is used archaically in the sense dwell, remain; but regularly inflected in the combination abide by = be true to.

    BEHOLD : Contemplar.

    Behold [bhld] Beheld [bheld] Beheld [bheld]

    Beholden [bhldn]

    * A number of verbs have two P.P. forms, one with the ending -en, one without. In many cases the -en forms have only an adjectival function and in some it differs considerably in content from the verb. This applies to the old P.P. of this verb, Beholden, which is found only functioning as a predicative adjective.( the use of Much as an intensive adverb is however a reminder of the verbal origin of the word).

    BIND : Atar, sujetar./ Rodear, ceñir./ Vendar./ Encuadernar./ To bind sb. to sth. : obligar a alguien a cumplir con algo./ Unir, trabar, cuajarse.

    Bind [bnd] Bound [bnd] Bound [bnd]

    * The P.P. Bounden is now used only in the phrase Bounden duty.

    CLING : Agarrarse, aferrarse, pegarse.

    Cling [kl] Clung [kl] Clung [kl]

    DIG : Cavar./ Cultivar./ Meter, añadir.

    Dig [dg] Dug [dg] Dug [dg]

    FIGHT : Combatir, luchar contra./ Discutir, pelear.

    Fight [ft] Fought [f:t] Fought [f:t]

    FIND : Encontrar.

    Find [fnd] Found [fnd] Found [fnd]

    * FOUND¹ : Fundar./ fundamentar, basar.

    Found [fnd] Founded [fndd] Founded [fndd]

    * FOUND² : Fundir.

    Found [fnd] Founded [fndd] Founded [fndd]

    FLING : Arrojar, tirar, lanzar.

    Fling [fl] Flung [fl] Flung [fl]

    GRIND : Moler, machacar, picar, pulverizar./ Afilar./ (machine) Funcionar con dificultad.

    Grind [grnd] Ground [grnd] Ground [grnd]

    HANG : Colgar./ Adornar./ Ahorcar.

    Hang [h] Hung [h] Hung [h]

    Hanged [hd] Hanged [hd]

    * Regular inflection only of execution.

    HEAVE : Tirar, jalar, arrastrar, llevar, levantar, empujar/ Subir y bajar./ Palpitar/ Hacer arcadas/ (Naut.) Virar, cabecear, balancearse, aparecer.

    Heave [hi:v] Heaved [hi:vd] Heaved [hi:vd]

    Hove [hv]

    * The irregular forms are found only in nautical language. Otherwise regular.

    HOLD : Tener, sujetar, coger, agarar/ Mantener, sostener/ Retener, guardar/Soportar.

    Hold [hld] Held [held] Held [held]

    LIGHT : Encender, prender, iluminar.

    Light [lt] Lit [lt] Lit [lt]

    Lighted [ltd] Lighted [ltd]

    * In the literal sense the regular and irregular forms are both common. As an attributive adjective in the literal sense the regular P.P. form is the more usual. Metaphorically the verb is mostly irregularly inflected. Likewise in many combinations. Light = settle also has both forms.

    SIT : Sentarse, estar sentado/ To sit for sb/sth: Posar/ To sit for an exam: Presentarse an un examen/ Estar situado/ Caer, sentar/ Poner, colocar.

    Sit [st] Sat [st] Sat [st]

    SHINE : Brillar, relucir/ Alumbrar/ Sacarle brillo a, limpiar.

    Shine [n] Shone [n] Shone [n]

    SHOOT : Pegar un tiro a, disparar/ Cazar/ Lanzar, arrojar/ Marcar/ Rodar, filmar/ Chutarse/ Moverse muy rápido/ Brotar, germinar.

    Shoot [u:t] Shot [t] Shot [t]

    SLIDE : Deslizar, correr, pasar/ Resbalar, deslizarse.

    Slide [sld] Slid [sld] Slid [sld]

    SLING : Tirar, lanzar, arrojar/ Tirar a la basura/ Colgar.

    Sling [sl] Slung [sl] Slung [sl]

    SLINK : Slink away/off: Escabullirse, zafarse.

    Slink [slk] Slunk [slk] Slunk [slk]

    SPIN : Hacer girar, hacer bailar/ Centrifugar/ Darle efecto (ball)/ Hilar, tejer.

    Spin [spn] Spun [spn] Spun [spn]

    Span [spn]

    * The Preterite Span is now archaic.

    * TO SPAN : Abarcar/ Cruzar.

    Span [spn] Spanned [spnd] Spanned [spnd]

    SPIT : Escupir/ (Oil) Chisporrotear/ (Cat) Bufar.

    Spit [spt] Spat [spt] Spat [spt]

    * TO SPIT : Ensartar en el asador, en el espetón.

    Spit [spt] Spitted [sptd] Spitted [sptd]

    STAND : Estar de pie, estar parado/ Poner(se), colocar/ Seguir vigente/ Aguantar, soportar/ Invitar a.

    Stand [stnd] Stood [std] Stood [std]

    STAVE : To stave in : Desfondar.

    Stave [stev] Stove [stv] Stove [stv]

    * To stave off: Evitar, aplazar, posponer.

    Stave [stev] Staved [stevd] Staved [stevd]

    STICK : Pegar, clavar, poner/ Aguantar, soportar/ Atascar(se).

    Stick [stk] Stuck [stk] Stuck [stk]

    STING : Picar/ Hacer escocer, hacer arder/ Herir profundamente.

    Sting [st] Stung [st] Stung [st]

    STRIKE : Golpear, pegar/ Pulsar/ Chocar/ Atacar/ Encontrar/ Encender/ Suprimir/ Ocurrir/ Hacer huelga.

    Strike [strk] Struck [strk] Struck [strk]

    Stricken [strkn]

    * The P.P. Stricken is used only adjectivally, and mostly in certain phrases.

    STRING : Encordar, templar un instrumento.

    String [str] Strung [str] Strung [str]

    SWING : Balancearse/ Cambiar, oscilar.

    Swing [sw] Swung [sw] Swung [sw]

    UNDERSTAND : Entender, comprender.

    Understand [ndstnd] Understood [ndstd] Understood [ndstd]

    WIN : Ganar, conseguir.

    Win [wn] Won [wn] Won [wn]

    WIND : Ovillar, devanar/ Enrollar/ Envolver/ Hacer girar, darle vueltas a, dar cuerda/ Levantar/ Serpentear.

    Wind [wnd] Wound [wnd] Wound [wnd]

    * TO WIND : Dejar sin aliento, cortarle la respiración a./ Airear.

    Wind [wnd] Winded [wndd] Winded [wndd]

    * TO WOUND : Herir.

    Wound [wu:nd] Wounded [wu:ndd] Wounded [wu:ndd]

    * In the sense sound wind is also regularly inflected.

    WITHHOLD : Retener, ocultar, negar.

    Withhold [whld] Withheld [wheld] Withheld [wheld]

    WITHSTAND : Aguantar, resistir.

    Withstand [wstnd] Withstood [wstd] Withstood [wstd]

    WRING : Escurrir, retorcer, estrujar.

    Wring [r] Wrung [r] Wrung [r]

    (X).-Different vowels in the Preterite and Past Participle.

    BECOME : Llegar a ser, convertirse/ Convertir, favorecer.

    Become [bkm] Became [bkem] Become [bkm]

    BEGIN : Empezar, comenzar.

    Begin [bgn] Began [bgn] Begun [bgn]

    COME : Venir, llegar/ Correrse.

    Come [km] Came [kem] Come [km]

    DRINK : Beber, tomar.

    Drink [drk] Drank [drk] Drunk [drk]

    Drunken [drkn]

    * Used adjectivally, drunk is predicative, but a variant drunken is used attributively. In the sense “habitually drunk”, however, drunken is also predicative.

    OVERCOME : Salvar, superar/ Vencer, triunfar.

    Overcome [vkm] Overcame [vkem] Overcome [vkm]

    RING : Sonar, repicar, tañer/ Tocar el timbre, llavar ala puerta/ Llamar por teléfono/ Resonar.

    Ring [r] Rang [r] Rung [r]

    * TO RING : Cercar, rodear, encerrar en un círculo.

    Ring [r] Ringed [rd] Ringed [rd]

    RUN : Correr/ Gotear/ Presentarse/ Emigrar/ Cazar/ Funcionar, hacer funcionar/ Dirigir, llevar/ Organizar.

    Run [rn] Ran [rn] Run [rn]

    SHRINK : Encoger(se), contraer(se)/ Retroceder, recular.

    Shrink [rk] Shrank [rk] Shrunk [rk]

    Shrunk [rk] Shrunken [rkn]

    * As the Preterite, shrunk is archaic; the P.P. shrunken is only used as an adjective.

    SING : Cantar, entonar/ Silbar (wind, kettle)

    Sing [s] Sang [s] Sung [s]

    Sung [s]

    SINK : Hundir(se), descender, bajar, declinar/ Enterrar, esconder.

    Sink [sk] Sank [sk] Sunk [sk]

    Sunken [skn]

    * The P.P. sunken is generally used as the attributive adjective, but it does occur predicatively. Sunken has no passive value, this being expressed by sunk.

    SPRING : Saltar/ Surgir, nacer, brotar/ Sacar de la cárcel, ayudar a fugarse.

    Spring [spr] Sprang [spr] Sprung [spr]

    Sprung [spr]

    STINK : Apestar.

    Stink [stk] Stank [stk] Stunk [stk]

    Stunk [stk]

    SWIM : Nadar, flotar/ Dar vueltas.

    Swim [swm] Swam [swm] Swum [swm]

    (XI).- Historical suffix -en in Past Participle.

    ARISE : Levantarse, surgir.

    Arise [rz] Arose [rz] Arisen [rzn]

    AWAKE : Despertar(se).

    Awake [wek] Awoke [wk] Awoke(n) [wk(n)]

    Awaked [wekt] (archaic) Awaked [wekt]

    * The Preterite Awaked is archaic. In the P.P. Awoke is not common, and Awoken is regarded as incorrect; compare what is said of Wake.

    BEAR : Aguantar, resistir/ Llevar, portar/ Dar (fruto)/ Dar a luz/ Torcer.

    Bear [be] Bore [b:] Born [b:n]

    Borne [b:n]

    * In connection with birth the P.P. is normally spelt born; in other senses, and of birth when the verb has an object or is followed in the passive construction by the converted subject, the spelling is borne.

    * TO BORE¹: Aburrir(se).

    Bore [b:] Bored [b:d] Bored [b:d]

    * TO BORE²: Perforar, taladrar.

    Bore [b:] Bored [b:d] Bored [b:d]

    BEAT : Golpear, sacudir, batir/ Derrotar, vencer/ Anticipar(se) a/ Latir, palpitar, redoblar.

    Beat [bi:t] Beat [bi:t] Beaten [bi:tn]

    * The P.P. Beat is now considered incorrect, but survives in the combination Dead-beat.

    BEFALL : Suceder(le) a, ocurrir(le) (a).

    Befall [bf:l] Befell [bfel] Befallen [bf:ln]

    BESPEAK: Apalabrar.

    Bespeak [bspi:k] Bespoke [bspk] Bespoken [bspkn]

    * The P.P. Bespoke is also found, used as the opposite of “ready-made”.

    BESTRIDE : Montar a horcajadas/ (stream) Cruzar de un tranco/ (fig.) Dominar.

    Bestride [bstrd] Bestrode [bstrd] Bestridden [bstrdn]

    BETAKE : To betake oneself to = dirigirse a ; trasladarse a.

    Betake [btek] Betook [btk] Betaken [btekn]

    BID¹ : Pujar, hacer una oferta.

    Bid [bd] Bid [bd] Bid [bd]

    * Used thus in the sense Make a bid, but otherwise inflected:

    BID² : Mandar/ To bid sb. good morning: dar los buenos días a alguien.

    Bid [bd] Bade [bd]/[bed](AmE) Bidden [bdn]

    * The P.P. Bid is however also used in this sense in the expression Do as you are bid.

    BITE : Morder, picar/ Agarrar, calar en/ Cortar (wind)/ Corroer (acid).

    Bite [bt] Bit [bt] Bitten [btn]

    * The P.P. Bit , however, in the Biter bit.

    BLOW : Soplar/ Fundir, quemar, reventar, explotar/ Volar/ Despilfarrar/ Largarse de/ Chupar, mamar.

    Blow [bl] Blew [blu:] Blown [bln]

    Blowed [bld]

    * The P.P. Blowed (slang) = Damned.

    BREAK : Romper/ Infringir, violar, no cumplir/ Poner fin a/ Arruinar a/ Forzar/ Parar, hacer una pausa.

    Break [brek] Broke [brk] Broken [brkn]

    * The P.P. Broke = “ruined” is found in colloquial speech.

    CHIDE : Reprender.

    Chide [td] Chid [td] Chidden [tdn]

    Chid [td]

    Chided [tdd] Chided [tdd]

    * Regular inflected forms of this verb are preferred in American English.

    CHOOSE : Elegir, escoger.

    Choose [tu:z] Chose [tz] Chosen [tzn]

    CLEAVE : Split. Partir, surcar.

    Cleave [kli:v] Clove [klv] Cloven [klvn]

    CROW : Cacarear, cantar, pavonearse.

    Crow [kr] Crowed [krd] Crowed [krd]

    Crew [kru:]

    * Of the crowing of a cock both preterite forms are used. In other usages only the regular inflection.

    DO : Hacer/ Lograr/ Atender/ Arreglar, reparar/ Preparar/ Actuar en, imitar/ Ser suficiente, alcanzar/ Terminar/ Verbo auxiliar.

    Do [du:] Did [dd] Done [dn]

    [d][d][d]Weak forms.

    * cf. Have.

    DRAW : Descorrer/ Tirar, jalar/ Tensar (a bow=arco)/ Sacar/ Cobrar/ Arrastrar/ Hacer reventar/ Atraer/ Causar, provocar/ Dibujar/ Explicar/ Empatar.

    Draw [dr:] Drew [dru:] Drawn [dr:n]

    DRIVE : Conducir/ Clavar, hincar/ Volver (loco, furioso, etc).

    Drive [drv] Drove [drv] Driven [drvn]

    EAT : Comer/ Molestar (What's eating her?=¿qué le pica?)

    Eat [i:t] Ate [et][et] Eaten [i:tn]

    * The Preterite form is normally pronounced [et], rarely [et]; in American however the latter is the received pronunciation.

    FALL : Caer(se)/ Bajar, descender.

    Fall [f:l] Fell [fel] Fallen [f:ln]

    *TO FELL : Talar, derribar/ Sobrecoser, sobrecargar.

    Fell [fel] Felled [feld] Felled [feld]

    FLY : Volar/ Correr/ Pilotar/ Izar.

    Fly [fl] Flew [flu:] Flown [fln]

    FORBEAR : Contenerse.

    Forbear [f:be] Forbore [f:b:] Forborne [f:b:n]

    FORBID : Prohibir/ Impedir.

    Forbid [fbd] Forbade [fbed] Forbidden [fbdn]

    Forbad [fbd]

    FORGET : Olvidar(se)/ To forget oneself : Perder el control.

    Forget [fget] Forgot [fgt] Forgotten [fgtn]

    * In American there is a P.P. variant Forgot.

    FORGIVE : Perdonar.

    Forgive [fgv] Forgave [fgev] Forgiven [fgvn]

    FORSAKE : Abandonar, renunciar a.

    Forsake [fsek] Forsook [fsk] Forsaken [fsekn]

    FREEZE : Helar(se), congelar(se)/ Paralizarse.

    Freeze [fri:z] Froze [frz] Frozen [frzn]

    GIVE : Dar, regalar/ Ceder, dar de sí.

    Give [gv] Gave [gev] Given [gvn]

    GROW : Crecer/ To grow + adjective = volverse + adjetivo.

    Grow [gr] Grew [gru:] Grown [grn]

    HIDE : Esconder(se), ocultar, tapar.

    Hide [hd] Hid [hd] Hidden [hdn]

    Hid [hd] (Archaic)

    * Adjectivally only the P.P. Hidden is used. In the verbal function Hidden is the normal form, Hid as P.P. is bookish.

    KNOW : Saber, conocer/ Reconocer.

    Know [n] Knew [nju:] Known [nn]

    LIE : Echarse, acostarse, tenderse/ Yacer/ Estar, encontrarse/ Extenderse/ To lie with somebody = acostarse con (Archaic).

    Lie [l] Lay [le] Lain [len]

    * LIE : Mentir.

    Lie [l] Lied [ld] Lied [ld]

    * LAY : Poner/ Apostar/ Tirarse o follarse a. Belongs to group (I).

    Lay [le] Laid [led] Laid [led]

    RIDE : Montar (caballo, bicicleta)/ Dejarse llevar por/ Aguantar.

    Ride [rd] Rode [rd] Ridden [rdn]

    RISE : Subir, elevarse/ Mejorar/ Nacer (river)

    Rise [rz] Rose [rz] Risen [rzn]

    SEE : Ver/ Imaginarse/ Salir con/ Acompañar a alguien a la puerta.

    See [si:] Saw [s:] Seen [si:n]

    * SAW : Cortar, serrar. (c.f. Group XII)

    Saw [s:] Sawed [s:d] Sawn [s:n]

    Sawed [s:d]

    SEETHE : Bullir/ Estar furioso.

    Seethe [si:] Seethed [si:d] Seethed [si:d]

    Sod [sd] Sodden [sdn]

    SHAKE : Agitar, sacudir, zarandear/ Hacer flaquear/ Impresionar, afectar/ Temblar.

    Shake [ek] Sook [k] Shaken [ekn]

    SHRIVE : Confesar.

    Shrive [rv] Shrove [rv] Shriven [rvn]

    Shrived [rvd] Shrived [rvd]

    SLAY : Asesinar, dar muerte a.

    Slay [sle] Slew [slu:] Slain [slen]

    * SLEW : Girar bruscamente/ Patinar (coche)

    Slew [slu:] Slewed [slu:d] Slewed [slu:d]

    SMITE : Golpear/ Remorder (conciencia).

    Smite [smt] Smote [smt] Smitten [smtn]

    SPEAK : Hablar, decir.

    Speak [spi:k] Spoke [spk] Spoken [spkn]

    Spake [spek] (Archaic)

    STEAL : Robar, hurtar.

    Steal [sti:l] Stole [stl] Stolen [stln]

    STRIDE : Andar a grandes zancadas.

    Stride [strd] Strode [strd] Stridden [strdn]

    STRIVE : To strive for/after something = luchar, esforzarse por alcanzar algo/ To strive against = luchar contra.

    Strive [strv] Strove [strv] Striven [strvn]

    SWEAR : Jurar/ Decir palabrotas.

    Swear [swe] Swore [sw:] Sworn [sw:n]

    TAKE : Llevar(se)/ Tomar, coger7 Comer/ Germinar, brotar.

    Take [tek] Took [tk] Taken [tekn]

    TEAR : Romper(se), rasgar(se), desgarrar(se).

    Tear [te] Tore [t:] Torn [t:n]

    THRIVE : Prosperar, desarrollarse.

    Thrive [rv] Throve [rv] Thriven [rvn]

    Thrived [rvd] Thrived [rvd]

    THROW : Tirar, echar, arrojar, lanzar/ Desconcertar.

    Throw [r] Threw [ru:] Thrown [rn]

    TREAD : Pisar/ Marcar/ Seguir.

    Tread [tred] Trod [trd] Trodden [trdn]

    Trod [trd]

    WAKE : Despertar(se).

    Wake [wek] Woke [wk] Woken [wkn]

    Waked [wekt] Waked [wekt]

    Woke [wk]

    * The resemblance in sound to Break seems to be making the Preterite Woke and P.P. Woken the commonest forms, but the others given above are still common.

    WEAR : Llevar, llevar puesto, ponerse/ Hacer/Permitir, consentir/ Durar, aguantar/ Desgastarse.

    Wear [we] Wore [w:] Worn [w:n]

    WEAVE¹ : Tejer, urdir.

    Weave [wi:v] Wove [wv] Woven [wvn]

    WEAVE² : Zigzaguear.

    Weave [wi:v] Weaved [wi:vd] Weaved [wi:vd]

    * The regular inflection is not used of actual weaving, and is rare in metaphorical use.

    WITHDRAW : Retirar, apartar.

    Withdraw [wdr:] Withdrew [wdru:] Withdrawn [wdr:n]

    WRITE : Escribir.

    Write [rt] Wrote [rt] Written [rtn]

    Writ [rt]

    * The old P.P. Writ is met with in the phrase Writ large corresponding to “only more so”.

    (XII).- P.P. has two different forms. Mixture of weak and strong verbs.

    AWAKE : Despertar(se).

    Awake [wek] Awoke [wk] Awoken [wkn]

    Awaked [wekt] Awaked [wekt]

    * The Preterite Awaked is archaic. In the P.P. Awoke is not common, and Awoken is regarded as incorrect; compare what is said of Wake.

    BEGET : Engendrar.

    Beget [bget] Begot [bgt] Begotten [bgtn]

    Begat [bgt]

    GET : Conseguir/ Tener/ Recibir/ Comprar/ Coger, agarrar/ Entender/ Molestar/ Llegar/ Ponerse, volverse.

    Get [get] Got [gt] Got [gt]

    Gotten [gtn]

    * The P.P. Gotten is frequent in American; in English now only in the expression Ill-gotten gains.

    GRAVE : Grabar.

    Grave [grev] Graved [grevd] Graved [grevd]

    Graven [grevn]

    * The verb is used only in archaic language; note “graven image”.

    HEW : Cortar, talar/ Labrar, tallar.

    Hew [hju:] Hewed [hju:d] Hewn [hju:n]

    Hewed [hju:d]

    LADE : Cargar, tomar cargamento.

    Lade [led] Laded [ledd] Laden [ledn]

    MELT : Derretir(se), fundir(se), ablandar(se).

    Melt [melt] Melted [meltd] Melted [meltd]

    Molten [mltn]

    * The irregular P.P. form is used only as an attributive adjective, and only of high melting-points ( and even in these cases Melted also occurs).

    MOW : Segar, cortar.

    Mow [m] Mowed [md] Mown [mn]

    Mowed [md]

    * As an attributive adjective the P.P. is Mown. Verbally both forms are common.

    RIVE : Hendir, rasgar, desgarrar.

    Rive [rv] Rived [rvd] Riven [rvn] (Adjective)

    Rived [rvd]

    SAW : Serrar.

    Saw [s:] Sawed [s:d] Sawn [s:n]

    Sawed [s:d]

    * As an attributive adjective only Sawn, in the verbal function Sawn more often than Sawed.

    * c.f. See (Group XI).

    SEW : Coser.

    Sew [s] Sewed [sd] Sewn [sn]

    Sewed [sd]

    * The irregular P.P. form is used adjectivally. Used verbally the regular and irregular forms are interchangeable.

    SHAVE : Afeitar(se), rasurar(se).

    Shave [ev] Shaved [evd] Shaven [evn]

    Shaved [evd]

    * The irregular P.P. is used adjectivally.

    SHEAR : Esquilar/ Partirse, romperse.

    Shear [] Sheared [d] Shorn [:n]

    Shore [:] Sheared [d]

    * The Preterite Shore is archaic only; in its adjectival function the P.P. is Shorn; in the verbal function both forms of the P.P. are found.

    SHOW : Enseñar, mostrar, exhibir/ Demostrar/ Notarse, verse.

    Show (Shew) [] Showed (Shewed) [d] Shown (Shewn) [n]

    Showed (Shewed) [d]

    * The forms spelt with e are now mannered.- The usual P.P. is Shown, Showed being infrequent when followed by its object and non-existent in the passive.

    SOW : Sembrar.

    Sow [s] Sowed [sd] Sown [sn]

    Sowed [sd]

    * Only the P.P. Sown is used adjectivally. In the verbal function the P.P. has both forms.

    STREW : Regar, esparcir/ Cubrir, tapizar.

    Strew [stru:] Strewed [stru:d] Strewn [stru:n]

    Strewed [stru:d]

    SWELL : Inchar(se), inflarse/ Aumentar, crecer.

    Swell [swel] Swelled [sweld] Swollen [swln]

    Swelled [sweld]

    * In the verbal function the P.P. Swollen is commoner than Swelled. As the adjective Swollen is the usual form. Note the difference between a swollen head, with the literal value, and a swelled head of “conceit”.

    * c.f. Group III.

    WAKE : Despertar(se). * c.f. Group XI.

    Wake [wek] Woke [wk] Woken [wkn]

    Waked [wekt] Waked [wekt]

    * The resemblance in sound to Break seems to be making the Preterite Woke and P.P. Woken the commonest forms, but the others given above are still common.

    (XIII).- Suppletive verbs. Different verbs to create one conjugation.

    BE : Ser/ Estar.

    Be [bi:]/[b] Was [wz]/[wz] Been [bi:n]/[bn]

    Were [we]/[w:]/[w]

    * The Basic Form Be has three functions: (1) Infinitive; (2) Imperative; (3) Subjunctive. But not the function of the Present Indicative. The forms of the latter are: 1st person singular Am [m]/[m]; 2nd person singular Are [a:]/[]; 3rd person singular Is [z]/[z]/[s]; Plural Are [a:]/[].

    * Be has two Preterite forms: 1st and 3rd person singular Was; 2nd person singular, the whole plural and all persons singular and plural in the Subjunctive Were.

    GO : Ir(se), marcharse, salir/ Venderse.

    Go [g] Went [went] Gone [gn].

    Groups: I-VIII Historically weak verbs (Dental)

    IX-XIII Historically strong verbs

    I and II add a <d>.

    III, IV, V, VI, add a <t>

    VII, VIII, end in <d> or <t>.

  • A <d> is added and the vowel of the base changes.

  • (II) A <d> is added, a consonant of the base is omitted and the vowel changes.

    (III) A <t> is added after nasal or liquid [r]. Can have <t> or be completely regular.

    (IV) Verbs ending in <d> : a <t> is added and <d> disappears, and the vowel of the base remains.

    (V) A <t> is added but the vowel changes (Pret. : no GVS)

    (VI) A <t> is added with a greater change of the base than (V)

    (VII) Ending in <d, t>, the vowel of the base doesn't change.

    (VIII) Ending in <d, t>, the vowel of the base changes. (Pret.: no GVS, closed position.)

    (IX) Same vowel in preterite and past participle.

    (X) Different vowels in preterite and past participle.

    (XI) Historical suffix -en in past participle.

    (XII) Past participle has two different forms (mixture of weak and strong verbs)

    (XIII) Suppletive verbs.

    Irregular Verbs in Modern English 29