Ireland

Europe. Population. Economy. History. Culture. Agriculture. Industry. Government

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Republic of Ireland

Introduction:

The Republic of Ireland takes up the 85% of the island of Ireland aproximately, located in the Atlantic ocean at about 18 km to the west of Great Britain, wich is separated by the sea of Ireland. The country is formed by Leinster, Munster, Connaught, and a part of Ulster. It have a superfice of 70.273 km2. The Irland´s capital is Dublin.

The island of Ireland, goberned by england during more than 400 years became integral of the United Kingdom starting from 1800.

Weather:

Ireland have a warm weather, the temperatures are relatively uniform during the whole year.

Population:

In Ireland are people of origin celts. It have a population of 3.619.480 persons.

Divisions office workers and main cities:

Irland is divided in 5 municipal counties. Dublin is the biggest citty, as weel as its capital. Cork is the second city for its size and an important part. Other cities are Limerick, Galway and Waterford.

Religion and language:

Near the 95% of the inhabitants of Ireland are catholic and almost 4 % are protestants.

Almos all the inahibants speak english and near the third part, irish population speak the language traditional gaelic of the country.

Education and Culture:

Between the centuries VI and VIII when the west Europe was analfabet, almost 1000 irish missionaries traveled to England for preach the christianity. During the half age, the irish missionaries founded monasteries that ended up having great cultural influence; Sankt Gallen's monastery, in Switszerland, it is specially famous for their contribution to the education and the literature.

Literature:

Ireland is famous for the contribution to the world literature. It has got two big mitologic cycles gaelics -(the Ulster and the feniano)- that narrate the adventures of legendary heroes. After a long colonization, Ireland gave to the world some of the most brillant writters in english language.

Music:

In the Arpist's Festival of Belfast (1792), Edward Bunting in his book “Irish Melodies” (1807) The pianist Jhon Field was the first irish composer that, with his nocturne, got international recognition.

Art:

Between V and IX, the irish minasteries produced works of art of world fame, in principles in form of illuminated manuscripts. The most important is the Book of Kells, with some of the most beautiful calligraphies of the half age. Some of the irish painters, with sir Joshua Reynolds, founded in 1768 the Real Academy.

Culture Institutions:

The Ireland's Nationality Library, with more than 500.000 books, is a public library and the bigger one. The Library of the Trinitry College, founded in 1601, contains near 2.8 millions books. The National Galery of Ireland, in Dublin, has many admirable colections of paintings belonged to all the schools.

Economy:

Traditionally the Irish economy has been agricultural. Nevertheless, from half-filled of the decade of 1950 the industrial base of the country has been enlarged a lot. In the last years the dominant sector is that of services: in 1990 it used to the active population's 57% and in 1995 it supposed 62% of the GDP. The gross interior product of 1997 it rose to 75.030 million dollars.

Agriculture and livestock:

The agricultural sector has been modernized a lot in the last thirty years and today is very efficient. 19% of the total of the floor of Ireland is devoted to pastures, cultivation earth or mountain grasses: the bovine livestock of meat prevails in the central plains and the livestock milkman in the south. The breeding of swinish livestock is also important and is usually sheep livestock in the uneven pastures of the mountains. A lot of winning horses of careers have been raised in the country, what has given great fame to the equine ones Irish.

Fishing:

The waters that surround Ireland are excellent fishing ground. The annual captures of 1996 reached the 412.722 tons. The captures in waters of height but outstanding they are of herrings, cod, mackerel, whiting and plaice. In the rivers and interior lakes are fished salmon and trouts of excellent quality.

Industry:

Among the alimentary industries they highlight the packed of meat, the elaboration of beer, the distillation, the mill of cereals, the refined of sugar and the factory of milky products, margarine, preserve and marmalade. Other important industrial articles are the office machinery and computers, electric machinery, derived products of the tobacco, wool articles and stamen, clothes, cement, furniture, soap, candles, construction material, footwear, cotton fabrics, rayon and linen, hosiery, paper, leather, machinery, refine of petroleum and chemical products.

Money:

The irish pound is the basic monetary unity.

Government:

Ireland is a State democratic sovereign and independent. It became a republic in 1949, year in that broke up the knots with the Commonwealth. The boss of State is the president, elect for a seven years period for direct voting. Mary Robinson became president in 1990.

History:

April of 1949, 18 Monday of Easter, Eire became the Republic of Ireland, formally free of alliances with the British Crown and the Commonwealth of Nations. The following month, the British Parliament confirms the status of Ireland of the North as part of the United Kingdom. The Republic entrance in the Organization of the United Nations (OUN) the 14 of December of 1995, but I don't accept the integration in the Organization of the Treaty of the North Atlantic (OTNA).

In June of 1959 De Valera, in his 77 years old , was elected president, position that would maintain during 14 years, and Seán Francis Lemass became the first minister.

Lemass and Jhon Mary Lynch that it happened him in 1966, tried to develop the industry and this way to reduce the unemployment and to increase the exports.

To the increase of the violence between the Protestants and the Catholics in Ireland of the North, they would follow the terrorist activities of the provisional branch of the IRA inside and outside of the Republic of Ireland. At the beginning of 1972 Ireland signed the treaty of union with the European Community (at the moment European Union), effective 1° January of 1973, that was supported by 83% of the voters. In a later referendum put on end to the special status of which enjoyed the Catholic Church.