Inglés

Gramática. Tiempos verbales. Verbos. Vocabulario

  • Enviado por: Victoria
  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
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Ingles global


Unidad 1

Present simple: (Amo)

Situaciones permanentes, hábitos, rutinas, algo científico…

jhon grites science fiction books.

Does your brother work in this café?

Wknow wheter there is intelligent life in space.

Present continuos: (Amando).

Cosas que están pasando ahora, situaciones temporales, algo futuro fijo.

Hill is reawing a smart new jackect

They aren´t coming toi the club whith us.

What are you doing tomorrow night?

Past simple (Amó).

Algo finalizado en el pasado.

Sarah invited me to her party last weekend

We didn´t watch the film about aliens after all.

Dis mick and carol go shopping yesterday?

Past continuos: (amaba).

Algo que continúa o que no ha finalizado desde el pasado.

Jhon was mending his motorbike in the garage.

The woman wasn´t walking very fast.

Was your friend waiting for us in the café.

Subject and object questions

*Cuando who o what es el sujeto de la pregunta, usamos la forma afirmativa del verbo: someone phoned late last night.

Who phoned last night?

*Cuando who o what es el objeto usamos do, does o did:

something happened at school.

What did happen at school?.

Unidad 2

Will:

Pedicciones generales, decisiones tomadas en el momento de hablar, (con can se pone will be able to)

Gloval warming Hill be a seriousproblem in the future

It{s very hot, i will open a window.


Going to:

Predicciones basadas en la evidencia, describe intenciones o planes tomadas antes del momento de hablar.

According to the weather, it´s going to be hot and sunny tomorrow.

We´re going to buy a new computer this weekend.

Infinitivos con “to”:

Se pone después de adjetivos y de algunos verbos(agree, arrenge, ask, decide, forget, offer, manage, plan, promise, want...: my dad promised to buy me some new clothes.

Infinitivos con “-ing”:

Después de algunos verbos (admit, enjoy, finish, imagine, sep, stop, suggest…), después de preposiciones, como nombre: hunting animals is an increasing problem. He enjoys listenings to heavy metal music…

Unidad 3

Present perfect simple: (ha amado)

Experiencias en la vida de alguien, accion pasada en con resultado en el present, una accion que paso en el pasado y continua en el present,

Sue have released another new album.

The band haven´t sung together for years.

Have you been to the new club in green street?

Present perfect continuous: (estado amando)

resultado de un actividad, cúanto dura una actividad.( the band have been touring for five months.

We have been listening to cds in the living room.

Ana hasn´t been feeling well today.

Have they been waiting outside for a long time?

For and since:

For 5 days, since 1987.

Just, yet and already:

Just - acaba de pasar (I have just bought a new cd).

Yet -todabia (have you had your exams results yet?).

Already -ya (I have already bought it).

Unidad 4

-ed y -ing adjetivos:

-ed lo que sientes (I did´t enjoy the party because I was bored.)

-ing describe cosas o gente (she is an interesting writer and I´m interested in the subjects she writes about).

Phrasal verbs:

a bit- un poco, break down-venirse abajo, be fed up-estar harto, fit in-sentirse bien y contenta, have a fit-furiosa, live it up-derrochar, put off-apagar o quitar las ganas, take to-tomar, wind down-relajarse.

modal verbs:

Presente:

Obligacion - must, have to.

Sin obligacion - need y don´t have to.

Consejo - should, ought to, had better.

Habilidad - can.

past perfect simple: (habia amado)

Una accion que pasó antes de otra accion o de un tiempo definido en el pasado.

Sam had been an athlete before he became a stuntman.

We hadn´t finished our meal when jenny arrived.

Had you done much training before the competition.

past perfect continuos: (habia estado amando)

acción que pasó antes de otra acción o el tiempo definido en el pasado, cuando nosotros queremos dar énfasis a cuánto tiempo una continuó una actividad.

She had been running foro ver two hours when she collapsed.

The team hadn´t been playing for more than two minutes when it started raining.

Had you been practising for a long time before i got there?.

Unidad 5

unless, as long as, provided that

sino, con tal de que, si es que

phrasal verbs

bring out: llevar, bring round: convencer, brought off: obtener éxito, bring back: traer recuerdos, brought up: educar, bring up: sacar a relucir, bring back: traer recuerdos, bring in: utilizar a alguien como experto

Unidad 6

reported speech


Direct = reported speech

Say+that+clause

Tell+object+that+clause


Today = that day

Tomorrow = the following day

Yesterday = the day before

Next month = the following month

Last Saturday = the sturday before

*ejemplos: i really like my new girlfriend----he said that he really liked his new girlfriend.

i wish and if only

subject + wish/ if only:subject + simple past (present)

:subject + past perfect (past)

i wish i knew more people / If only i had listened to my mum. Ojala / solamente

vocabulario:

Fall in love,Get divorced, Get a job, Bring up children, Get married, Have a baby, Retire, Get engaged, Go to university.

Phrasal verbs:

break off a relation ship: romper una relacion.

Fall out: reñir con alguien

Get on: seguir con alguien, tener éxito en una relacion

Get over: superar

Go out: salir con alguien

Let down: decepcion

Split up: dejar

Unidad 7

too and enough

Se usa enought antes de nombres pero antes de verbos, adj, o adv: most people get enought food to eat.

Se usa too antes de adj, adv, o de much/many + nombres: i´m too lazy to go for a run

so / such

se use so+ adj/adv + that + clause: after walking all day, we were so tired that we went to bed really aerly.

Se usa so much + incontable nombre y so many concontables + that+ clause: clare ate so much food taht she coldn´t move for an hour.

Se usa such (a/an) + nombre (+that + clause): gladiator is such a good film that i have seen it three times.

relativos

Vocabulario:

Adjetivos: Unnecessary (Innecesario), uncomfortable (incómodo), uneasy (difícil), inusual (raro)

Invisible (invisible), inconsiderate (desconsiderado), sensitive (sensible).

Impatient (impaciente), impolite (mal educado), impractical (impractico).

Ilegal (ilegal), illegible (ilegible), illogical (ilogico).

Dishonest (deshonesto), disobedient (desobediente), disatisface (descontento).

Aspecto fisico: wavy(ondulado,), blonde( rubio), attractive, shoulder-length(hasta el hombro), plump(gordo), curly(rizado), pale(palido), short(corto), spiky(puntiagudo), petite(pekeño), pretty, tall, denim(vakero), woollen(lana), dark, bald(oscuro), slim, well-built, red, flowery, modern, cotton, striped(rayado).

Personality: self-assured,(seguro de sí mismo) absent-minded (distraído), open-minded(de mente abierta), self-centred( egocentrico) easy-going(buen trato) bad-tempered.(mal genio).

Expression: La expresión:

Gesture: El gesto:

Impression: La impresión:

Psychology: La psicología:

Sign: La señal:

Tone of voice: El tono de voz:

Unidad 8

pasivas

have or something done

he is having his hair cut tomorrow

will you get the car repaired at that new garage?

reported questions

had you seen the film before?-she asked me if i had seen the film before.

when are you taking your exams?-he asked me when i was taking my exams

do you understand the question?-she asked him if he understood the question

vocabulario:

Pass, graduate from, revise for(repasar para), write, get(consegir), study for, train as(entrenarse), take(cojer)

Campus: campus

College: universidad

Hall of residence: residencia de estudiantes

Lecture: conferencia

Library: biblioteca

Pressure: presion

Scholarship: beca


Seminar: seminario

Shared house: casa compartida

Student: studiante

Term: termino

Tuition: matricula

University: universidad

Adjetivos:

Academic: academico

Financial: financiero

Hectic: agitado

Part-time: tiempo partido

Stressful: estesante

Nombres:

Class: clase

Homework: deveres

Primary school: escuela primaria

Principal: director

Teacher: profesor

Test: test

Expresiones

Get good marks: tener buenas notas

Graduate from university: graduarse para la universidad

Pass an exam: aprobar un examen

Revise for a exam: preparar y estudiar un examen

Study for a degree: estudiar para un grado

Take notes: tener nota

Train as a teacher: repadar con un profesor de apoyo

Write an essay: escribir un texto

Absent from: ausente

Aware of: consciente

Disappointed with: en descuerdo

Good at: bueno

Interested in: interesado en

Relevant to: importante

Typical of: tipico

Verbos:

Borrow: prestar

Bring: traer

Expect: esperar

Fit: ataque

Lay:disposicion

Lend:prestar

Lie: mentira

Remember: recordar

Remind: recordar

Take: tomar

Wait for. esperar


Unidad 9

modal verbs:

may, might, could: cuando creemos que algo es posible:

“eating less animal fats could help you live longer”

must es cuando estamos seguros de que algo es cierto:

“she must be very Cléber, she went to university a year early.”

Se pone can´t cuando tenemos la certeza de que algo es imposible:

“he can´t be hungry. He´s just eaten 3 pizzas!”

used to:

Se use used to para hablar de pasados habitos o estados que no eran verdad.

affirmativa: used to+ infinitivo:

“i used to go running every day”

negativa: didn´t + use to + infinitivo:

“anna didn´t use to work very hard.”

Interrogativa: did +subject+use to+ infinitive:

“did she use to go to your school?”

be used to/get used to:

cuando algo es unusual, dificil, o straño en el pasado pero que ya nos emos acostumbrado a ello.

“i´m used to doing a lot of exercise now, but i found it difficult at first.”

Be used to describe estados de costumbre, y get used el proceso de acostumbramiento.

Vocabulario:


Comedy: comedioa

Humor: humor

Joke: chiste

Giggle:risita

Laugh:risa

Smile:sonrisa

Bloo pressure:tension arterial

Diet.dieta

Cancer:cancer

Cold:frio

Flu:gripe

Heart:corazon

Lungs: pulmones

Illness: enfermedad

Immune system: sistema inmunologico

Operation:operacion

Pain: dolor

Sore throat: mala garganta

Therapy: terapia

Boost: empujon

Faint:desmayo

Hurt:herida

Lose weight: perder peso

Recover: recuperar

Contagious: contagioso

Dizzy: vertiginoso

Sick: enfermo

Unconscious: inconsciente

Feel: sentir

Look as though: parecer como si

Look like: parecer como

Seem:parecer

Smell:olor

Sound: sonido

Taste:sabor

Burn off calories: quemar calorias

Come down with: venirse abajo

Come round :venir al rededor

Pass out: desmayarse

Aerobics: aerobic

Energy: energia

Fitness: aptitud

Gym: gimnasio

Jog:yoga

Karate

Kickboxing

Martial art

Salsa

Energetic

Strong

Unfit: incapaz


Look frightened: verse nervioso

He looks like a film star: le gustaria ser una etrella

He appears to be bored: el parece aburrido

Less/full

presente simple-these computers are made in japan.

Present continuos-the exam papers are being marked this week.

Past simple-the house was built in 1900

Past continuos-the girls were being questioned.

Present perfect-some money has been taken from my bag.

Past perfect- the accidnt had been reported to the police

Will- the new college wil be opened on 4 may

Future perfect-all the candidates will have been intervewed by then.

Should- each estudents should be given a certificate.

Ejemplos: “we believe peter and mari are unhappy”-it is believe that peter an mary are unhappy-peter and mary are believe to be unhappy

Present s .= past s. {i really like my new girl-he said that he really like his new girl}

Present c .= past c. {i´m seeing john this evening-she said that she was seeing jhon that evening}

Past s .= past perfect s. {i went to the new cafewith sara-she said that he had been to the new cafe with sara}

Present perfect s.= past perfect s. {i have sent him last emails- she said that she had sent him lost of emails}

will/won´ t= would/wouldn´t {i will phone her later -he said that he would phone her later}

Can = could {i can imagine going out with him-she said that she could imagine going out with him}

first conditional

situaciones posibles y facil que ocurran, se pone if + presente, will / won´t + infinitivo.

If the advert is a success, we will sell a lot of products.

second conditional{

situaciones hipotéticas y dificileso imposibles, se pone if + pasado, would + infinitivo.

If i heard a burglar in my house, i would phone the police.

third conditional

Situacionesimaginarias o imposibles, se pone if + past perfect, would/wouldn´thave + past participle.

If you had paid for more lessons, you would have passed your driving test.

Defining: para dar informacion esencial, el pronombre relativo puede omitirse cuando es el objeto, no se usan las comas, xa cosa (who , whon), xa cosas (which, that), xa sitos (were), xa tiempo (when): people who are shy don´t usually like parties.

“mr smith was the teacher i liked best”= mr smith was the teacher who i liked best

Non defining: información extra, el pronombre no se omite, se usan comas, gente(who, whom, whose), cosas (which), lugares (where), tiempo (when).

“ her last book, which was a best -seller, was about human behaviour”.

Present s .= past s.

Present c .= past c.

Past s .= past perfect s.

Present perfect s.= past perfect s.

will/won´ t= would/wouldn´t

Can = could