Inglés

Gramática. Modal. Reporter Speech: change, modals, statements, time expresions

  • Enviado por: Maria
  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
  • 5 páginas
publicidad
publicidad

CAN

Habilidad, Imposibilidad negativa, Permiso informal, Preguntas informales

COULD

Habilidad en el pasado, Posibilidad (no certeza), Pregunta formal, Imposibilidad, Sugerencias

MAY

Posibilidad futura y negativa, Pregunta y Permiso formal, Prohibición

MIGHT

Posibilidad (-) Pasado de MAY

WILL

Predicción (certeza), Decisión instantánea, Pregunta formal

WOULD

Pregunta formal, acción pasada, Preferencias (Would rather), Pasado de WILL

SHALL

Pregunta formal, Ofrecimientos

SHOULD/OUGHT TO

Consejo, Pregunta formal, 90% certeza

MUST

Obligación, Intención futura, Necesidad fuerte, Certeza, Consejo persuasivo

MUSTN´T

Prohibición

HAVE/HAS TO: Obligación, Necesidad ausente

NEEDN´T

= don´t have to: ausencia de obligación

BE ABLE TO (CAN)

Habilidad general y específica

MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

Algo sucedió con seguridad y extrae conclusiones lógicas (DEBE HABER.......)

MUST NOT/ CAN´T + HAVE + PART

Seguridad de que algo no sucedió (NO DEBE HABER....)

MAY/MIGHT/COULD HAVE + PART

No hay seguridad porque no se conoce el pasado (PUEDE HABER...)

COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

Cuando se puedo hacer algo y no se hizo (PUDE HABER......)

SHOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIP.

Cuando no se han cumplido unas expectativas

(DEBIA HABER.......)

SHOULD NOT HAVE + PARTICIP.

Cuando se hizo algo que estaba mal (NO DEBIA HABER........)

WOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

Cuando quisimos hacer algo pero no pudimos

(PODÍA HABER.....)

MODALES

BREAK DOWN > equivocarse, pararse

LOOK UP TO > respetar, admirar

CALL OFF > cancelar

TAKE AFTER > parecerse

CLEAN UP > limpiar

TAKE APART > hacer pedazos

GET OVER >

TAKE UP > empezar a hacer algo

GO DOWN > descender

COME ON WITH > sugerir

GO ON > continuar

CUT BACK ON > reducir

GO UP > escender

GET DOWN TO > ponerse a hacer algo

LIE (LAY DOWN) > toma un descanso

GET HOLD OF > agarrar, coger

PUT BACK > retornar

GO OUT WITH > salir con

PUT OFF > posponer

HANG ON TO > agarrarse de

STICK TOGETHER >

LOOK FOWARD TO > tener ganas de

TAKE OFF > imitar, separar, ridiculizar

PUT UP WITH > aguantar

WATCH OUT FOR > estar alerta de algo

STAND UP FOR > defenderse

CALL ON > visitar

STAND AWAY FROM > no acercarse

KEEP ON > continuar

LOOK UP TO > admirar

KEEP OUT > no entrar en

RUSHED OUT > sacar

KEEP TO > no salirse de algo

PASS ON > seguir adelante

KEEP OFF > no empezar a

MAKING FUN OF > pensar algo de alguien

KEEP DOWN > agacharse

TALKED BACK > llevar a alguien a dar una vuelta

KEEP BACK > retirarse

RUN OFF > funcionar con

LOOK AFTER > cuidar de alguien

TURN ON > encender

LOOK DOWN ON > menospreciar

MOVE IN WITH > irse a vivir con alguien

REPORTER SPEECH

CAMBIOS:

PRESENT SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE

PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUS

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PAST PERFECTS SIMPLE

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

PAST SIMPLE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE

PAST CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

FUTURE SIMPLE CONDITIONAL SIMPLE

FUTURE CONTINUOUS CONDITIONAL CONTINUOUS

MODALS:

CAN COULD

MAY MIGHT

SHALL SHOULD

HAVE TO HAD TO

NOTA: SHOULD, COULD, WOULD, MIGHT, OUGHT TO

PAST SIMPLE CONTINUOUS

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE

STATEMENTS

“ SUJ + VB + OD + CC ” he told me

He told me THAT ___________________

YES/ NO QUESTIONS

She asked me “ AUX + SUJ + VB + COM ? ”

She asked me IF/WHETER + SUJ + (AUX) + VB + COM

WH - QUESTIONS

“ WH + AUX + SUJ + VB ? ” She asked me

She asked me WH + SUJ + (AUX) + VB

COMMANDS

She said “ VB + PRONOM + OD + NOUN ”

She told NOUN + TO + VB + ________________

TIME EXPRESSIONS

NOW > THEN

TODAY > THAT DAY

YESTERDAY > THE DAY BEFORE, THE PREVIOUS DAY

TOMORROW > THE NEXT/ FOLLOWING DAY, THE DAY AFTER

NEXT WEEK > FOLLOWING WEEK, THE NEXT WEEK

LAST WEEK > THE WEEK BEFORE, THE PREVIOUS WEEK

A WEEK AGO > THE WEEK BEFORE

DEMONSTRATIVES

THIS > THAT

THESE > THOSE

HERE > THERE

PASSIVE VOICE

PRESENT SIMPLE: Am/ are + participle

She types the letters >The letters are typed

PRESENT CONTINUOUS: am/ are + BEING + participle

She is typing the letters > The letters are being typed

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE: have/ has + BEEN + participle

She has types letters > The letters have been typed

PAST SIMPLE : was/ were + participle

She typed the letters > The letter were typed

PAST CONTINUOUS: was/ were + BEING + participle

She was typing the letters > The letters were being typed

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE: HAD + BEEN + participle

She had typed the letters > The letters had been typed

FUTURE SIMPLE: WILL + BE + participle

She will type the letters > The letters will be type

FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE: WILL + HAVE + BEEN + participle

She wiil have typed the letters > The letters will have been typed

BE GOING TO: are/am + BE + GOING TO + participle

She is going to type the letters > The letters are going to be typed

MODALS: modal + BE + participle

She has to type the letters > The letters have to typed

She can type the letters > The letters can be typed

She must type letters > The letters must be typed

NO CAMBIAN DE FORMA

NO SE USA SAY EN INDIRECTO