Hitory of the english lenguage # Historia de la lengua inglesa

Evolution of the words cap, care, chafer-chaffer, chaff, chalice

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CAP.- (kæp), sb. Forms: I. (cappa), cæpe, 3 keppe, 4-6 cappe, (5 cape), 5-7 capp, 6 cap.

I. A covering for the head.

1. A hood, a covering for the head.

c 1000 Ælfric Voc. in Wr.-Wüclker 152 Capitulum vel capitularium, heafod-claÞ uel cappa.

a 1225 Ancren Riwle (Cadman Society 1853), 420 if e muwen beon wimpel leas, beo bi warme keppen.

1596 Shakespeare, The taming of the shrew, IV.iii 70 Ile haue no bigger, this doth fit the time, And the Gentlewomen weare such caps as these.

OE cæppekæpe)>ME cappekape), depalatalisation of OE anterior almost-open short V /æ/ (æ) to ME central fully open short V /a/ (a) in closed syllable. Process: OE /æ/ (æ) < palatalisation of WGmc /a/ in closed syllable, e.g. a + C or a + (2/3) C + V > eME (1100) /a/ (a) (Kent and WM /e/ (e) since lOE, 12c WM ea , otherwise æ still possible; from 13 c (a) throughout) in closed syllable, and its representation ortographically by means of the change of (ae) by (a) instead> Mod E cap (kæp)>palatalization, protaction and closing of ME fully-open short V /a/ (a) to Mod E anterior almost-open short V / æ / (a ). Process: ME /a/ (a)> eMod E (1500) / a /, /æ/ (a)> (16c) / a /, /æ/ (a)> (17c) / a /, /æ/ (a)> lMod E (18c) / æ/ (a). Ortographically simplification/reduction, also in eMod E, final (pe) /pe/>Ø=CE.

Letters (c) /k/, and first (p) /p/ of the word, have the same ortographical and phonetical value OE,ME,ModE,CE. Second (p) /p/ and second (e) /e/ of the word also the same ortographical and phonetical value OE,ME, until its simplification or loss in eModE, that is = Ø.

OE æ / æ (:) / was variously replaced in (e)ME, since 1100, according to the different regiolectal areas:

  • S a

  • WM ea

  • In various regiolects, WM + K e

  • CARE.- (Ker), /Ke"(r)/, /k"r/, sb. Forms: caru, cearu, 2-4 kar(e, 4 car, 3-care.

    †1. Mental suffering, sorrow, grief, trouble. Obsolete.

    Beowulf 1303 (Gr.) Cearu waes eniwod eworden in wicim.

    c 1250 Hymn to God in Trinity College Homilies (Old English homilies of the twelfth century. From the MS. in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge. Second series) 259 Bring us ut of wo and kare.

    a 1300 Cursor Mundi (The Cursur o the world). A Northumbrian poem of the 14th century in four versions 13..,14.. (E.E.T.S. 1874-92) 3212 Sara...deed..and Abraham hor hir hadde care.

    OE caru /´karu/>ME kar(e) /ka:r/, lenghthening within open, stressed syllables in disyllables (13c). During the 12c (N) and the first half of 13c elsewhere,central fully-open short V /a/ (a (+CV)) results in central fully-open long V /a:/ (a,aa)> Diphthongisation (and apocope of postvocalic, final alveolar flapped liquid [r]) of ME final [a:r] (ar(e)) > to lModE (18c) centring diphthong /"/ (are). Process: ME final [a:r] (ar(e)) > eModE (1500, shortening, protaction and palatalisation /a:/> /ae/) [aer] (ar(e))> (16c, lengthening /ae/> /ae:/) [ae:r] (are)> (raising and palatalisation /ae:/>/:/)> [:r] (are) > (17c, shortening /:/> // and diphthongisation before postvocalic alveolar flapped liquid [r]; progressive apocope pf postvocalic alveolar flapped liquid [r] ["r] (are) > lModE (18c, apocope of postvocalic alveolar flapped liquid [r] /"/ (are). Paradigm: ME & lME (14c) care [ka:r]> lME &eModE (15c) care [ka:r]> eModE (1500, shortening, protaction and palatalisation /a:/>/ae/) care [ka:r]>[kaer]>(16c, lengthening /ae/>/ae:/) care [kae:r]> (raising and palatalisation /ae:/>/:/> [k:r]> (17c, shortening /:/>// and diphthongisation before postvocalic alveolar flapped liquid [r]; progessive apocope of postvocalic alveolar flapped liquid [r]) care [k"r]> lModE (18c, apocope of postvocalic alveolar flapped liquid [r]) care [k"] “care”.

    Letter (c) /k/, in OE, also (k) /k/ (kar(e)) in ME, CE with (c) /k/. The eOE scribes represent voiceless plosive /k/ by means of c initial. Also the OE scribes use c to represent velar voiceless plosive /k/ in contact with: posterior vowels, central open and central almost closed vowels, and also consonants. In ME grapheme c is used for velar voiceless plosive /k/ value before central and back vowels and consonants, for both Germanic and Romance vocabulary, in initial, medial and final positions=ModE=CE.

    In ME anaptyxis of (u) /u/ is possible alongside with that of /"/ as (e) or other graphemes=ModE=CE. It could be that this /"/ (represented by (e), finally) was an anaptyctic element between dento-alveolar rolled liquid /r/ (r) and labiodental voiced fricative /v/ (u,v) that have produced the correspondent change in the ortography from (u) to (e), in ME, probably because this schwa was better heard and/or produced than /u/, that´s why its intrusion, and final expression until today.

    CHAFF.- (t"æf), (t":f), sb. Forms: I.ceaf, cef, 2 chaef, 2-4 chef, (2,4 cheue,4 chaue), 4 cheff, 3-5,7 chaf, 4-7 chaffe, 3-4,6-chaff; north.4 caff. (occasional 4 schaf, 5 shaffe). The Southern form in ME was chef, the midland chaff; the northern caf, caff, still extant; in Scotland also cauve. Commonly collective.

    A collective term for the husks of corn or other grain separated by threshing or winnowing.

    ß. Form chaff.

    1000 Ælfric Voc. in Wr.- Wülcker 148 Palea, ceaf

    c 1200 Ormin The Ormulum And siþþenn winndwesst tu þin corn, And fra þe chaff itt shaedesst.

    eOE (ceafon, ceaf) / ´kæavon/ palatalisation/ assibilation of initial velar voiceless plosive /k/ (c) + anterior diphthong [aea] (ea) to palatal voiceless affricate / t" / (c) up until 9c. > OE ceafon [ `t"æavon]> > Monopthongisation and retraction/velarisation of OE anterior diphthong /æa/ (ea) to eME (12c) central fully-open short V /a/ (a) . Process: OE [æa] (ea)>lOE-eME (11c) /æ/ (æ) >eME (12c) /a/ (a). Paradigm: OE ceafon / `t"æavon/ > lOE-eME (11c, monophthongisation /æa/ ea > /æ/ æ; levelling of non-tonic vowels to /e/) ceafen [ `t"æav"n] > eME (1100 depalatalisation, retraction and velarisation /æ/ æ > /a/ a), retraction and centralisation of non- tonic /e/ > /"/), and syncope of> (en) /"n / [ `t"av"(n)]> [`t"af] > ME (chaff) (t"af)> palatalisation, protaction and closing of ME central fully open short /a/ (a) to ModE anterior almost-open short V /æ/ (a). Process: ME /a/ (a)> eMod E (1500) / a /, /æ/ (a)> (16c) / a /, /æ/ (a)> (17c) / a /, /æ/ (a)> lMod E (18c) / æ/ (a)=CE.

    Double consonants are used to reflect short vowel/checked syllables, like chaff. Phonologically speaking, double consonants are superfluous in final position, yet CE shows double ff in medial and final positions with labiodental voiceless fricative /f/ value.

    In OE, f between voiced phonemes has the allophonic labiodental voiced fricative [v] value, e.g. lufu [´lv ] “love”. In ME the labiodental voiced fricative /v/ and its corresponding graphemes f (but also u, v and the like) are lost by syncope of medial vowels, the same as heafod [´hæ:avod]. Here, in chaf (ME), f doesn´t dissappear and its [v] value changes to [f], because this f is in final position when dissappears (en) /"n/. And in CE, f also represents the labiodental voiceless fricative [f], except in the preposition of, where it stands for the labiodental voiced fricative [v] lacking sentence stress. It is not pronounced in the archaic referent halfpenny.

    Introduction in 1160-1200 of continental (ch) for /t"/ value.

    CHALICE.- (´t"ælis). Forms: .I cel(i)c, cælc, cælic, I-3 calic, 2 calc, 3 calch; .3 caliz, calis, 4 calice; .4-6 chalis, -ys, -yce, 4 chalice (chaleys, 5-6 chales, 6 challes, -is, -ece, -yce, chalesse, chalays, -eis, chaliche, chailles, calles, 7 challice).

    [L.calix, calic-em, cup, has appeared in English in various forms. (I) eOE clic, genitive clces, corresp. To OS kelik (Mdu kelec, kelc, Du kelk), OHG kelihh, chelih (MHG and modG kelch):- WGer *kalik, an early (pre-Christian) adoption of L. calic-em. (2) The Latin word was re-adopted in later OE, in Christian use, as calic, cælic, cælc, whence early ME calc, calch. (3) These were ousted in 12c by the OF caliz, calice.(4) Before 1350 this was in turn ousted by a central OF form chalice, which gave Eng.chalis, chalice. While this was the case in English, in France itself calice was the form which came down to modern French.

    1. A drinkin-cup or globet. (Now only in poetic or elevated language).

    . c 825 Vespasian Psalter (in Sweet, Oldest English texts, E.E.T.S 1885). xv.5 Dryhten dael erfewordnisse minre and celces mines [elsewhere calices, calic).

    c 950 Lindisfarne gospels (The Holy Gospels, in Anglo-Saxon, etc., Skeat 1871-87). Matt. x 42 Caelc vel scenc wætres caldes.

    c 1000 Anglosaxon Gospels. Matt xxiii. 26 þæt wiinann ys calicys and discys

    c 1000 Saxon Leechdoms, Leechdoms, wortcunning, and starcraft of Early England (ed. Cockayne, Rolls series 1864-66).II. 268 Sele þonne cælic fulne to drincanne.

    . a 1225 Ancren Riwle (Cadman Society 1853), 284 þe caliz þet was imelt ie fure.

    . 1382 Wyclif, John The Holy Bible, made from the Latin Vulgate by John Wycliffe and his followers. Genesis xl.13 Thow shalt yue to hym a chalice, after thin office.

    eOE cælic / `kæalik / palatalisation/ assibilation of initial velar voiceless plosive /k/ (c) + anterior diphthong [æ] (æ) to palatal voiceless affricate / t" / (c) up until 9c ; palatalisation/assibilation of final velar voiceless plosive /k/ (c) to palatal voiceless affricate / t" / after anterior almost closed short V /i/ (i) up until 9 c OE cælic [`t"ælit"] > eME 1100 depalatalisation, retraction and velarisation /æ/ æ > /a/ (a) >ME (chalice) (`t"alis) palatalisation, protaction and closing of ME central fully open short /a/ (a) to ModE anterior almost-open short V /æ/ (a). Process: ME /a/ (a)> eMod E (1500) / a /, /æ/ (a)> (16c) / a /, /æ/ (a)> (17c) / a /, /æ/ (a)> lMod E (18c) / æ/ (a)=CE, chalice /´t"ælis/.

    Introduction in 1160-1200 of continental (ch) for /t"/ value.

    AÑADIR AQUÍ LO QUE FALTA¡¡¡¡ DE LA PAG 39 Y 40 SOBRE LA C (ORTOGRAFÁÍA)

    The ending (ce) is used to represent (dento) alveolar voiceless fricative sibilant /s/. (In ME, lME and ModE, grapheme (c) with /s/ value is extended from French loan). In ME ch loans contrast with ONF loans in c, resulting, even, in doublets, see calc, calch.

    The l /l/ has the same value OE,ME,ModE,and CE.Phonollogically =consonant pulmonic lateral approximant dento-alveolar sound.

    CHAFER, CHAFFER.- (`t"eif"r), (`t"æf"r). Forms: I. Ceafor, cefer, 5 cheaffer, cauer, 7 chafer, chaffer. [OE cefer corresponds to OS (Mdu and modDu) keuer, OHG chevar (chevaro), MHG kever, kefere, Ger käfer beetle:- Oteut type kefro-z; OE ceafor, it from earlier *cafr, points to Oteut ablaut-variant *kafroz,-uz. Possible derivations are from a stem kaf- to gnaw, or from that of CHAFF, an animal enclosed in scales or husks. Mod. German use applies the name to all Coleoptera, from the ladybirth to the stag-beetle].

    A name given to certain beetles, now chiefly the COCK-CHAFER and ROSE-CHAFER; used alone, it generally means the former of these. Apparently, originally applied to species destructive to plants.

    . form chafer

    c 1000 Ælfric Gloss. In Wr.-Wülcker 121 Bruchus, ceafor.

    c 1400 John de Bartholomeus (de Glanvilla) Trevisa, Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden (Rolls series 1865-86) II.211 (MS ) Of hors i-roted comeÞ cheaffers.

    1609 Charles Butler, The feminine monarchie; or a treatise concerning bees, (1634) 59 These [dors].. do openly engender with their Females, as the chafers do.

    . form chaffer

    1669 John Worlidge, Systema agriculturæ; the mystery of husbundry discovered (1681) 314 The great appearances of Chaffers, or other Insects.

    eOE ceafor / `kæavor/ palatalisation/ assibilation of initial velar voiceless plosive /k/ (c) + anterior diphthong [aea] (ea) to palatal voiceless affricate / t" / (c) up until 9c. > OE ceafor [`t"æavor]> Monopthongisation and retraction/velarisation of OE anterior diphthong /æa/ (ea) to eME (12c) central fully-open short V /a/ (a); levelling of non-tonic vowels to /"/ (e) chafer [ `t"æv"r] > ME (chafer) (`t"afer)> palatalisation, protaction and closing of ME central fully open short /a/ (a) to ModE anterior almost-open short V /æ/ (a). Process: ME /a/ (a)> eMod E (1500) / a /, /æ/ (a)> (16c) / a /, /æ/ (a)> (17c) / a /, /æ/ (a)> lMod E (18c) / æ/ (a)=CE, chafer /´t"æf"r/.

    ME Monopththongisation, palatalisation and raising of OE anterior /ae:a/ (ea) to anterior half-open long /:/ (e, ee, ea) > GVS diphthongisation of ME and lME anterior half-open long V /:/ (e, lME also ea) to lModE (19c) closing diphthong /ei/ (ea, a), chaffer /´t"eif"r/.

    Introduction in 1160-1200 of continental (ch) for /t"/ value.

    Double f (ff) Consonant doubling was systematised by Orm to indicate a preceding short vowel. This practice was picked up by Anglo-Norman scribes, though only sporadically used throughout the ME period.

    Double consonants are used to reflect short vowel/checked syllables, like chaffer Phonologically speaking, double consonants are superfluous in final position, yet CE shows double ff in medial and final positions with labiodental voiceless fricative /f/ value.

    Double ff for chaffer, ortographically speaking, is produced, in this case, by reduplication /gemination before dento-alveolar rolled liquid /r/ in ME.

    In ME, the spelling (-or) is substituted by (-er), principally by the levelling of the non-tonic vowel to /"/ (e). (-or) spelling is found in ME in syncopated technolectic lexemes of Latin origin, in ModE (-or) is found in Classical loans or in the etymologically conscious rewriting of previous Romance loans, also as in other European languages. In CE the digraph (-or) has the same phonetic value as (-er), that is /"/ (same phonetic value from ME).

    HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

    EVOLUTION OF THE WORDS CAP, CARE, CHAFER/CHAFFER, CHAFF, CHALICE.