Greetings and Farewells

Intercambio cultural # Using a non-native language. Cultures different. Politeness. Communication skills. Taboos. Folclore

  • Enviado por: Adah
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: España España
  • 91 páginas
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INDEX:

1. GREETINGS AND FAREWELLS.

1.1. Introduction.

1.2. Learning and using a non-native language.

1.3. Politeness in communication.

1.4. Communication skills.

1.5. Non-verbal miscommunication.

1.6. Typology of greetings and farewells in English.

1.7. Typology of greetings and farewells in German.

1.8. Ways of saying “Hello” in English.

1.9. Activities.

2. TABOOS AND EXCHANGES.

2.1. Introduction.

2.2. General taboos.

2.3. Specific taboos.

2.4. Verbal interaction.

2.5. Student's exchange.

2.6. Activities.

3. FESTIVALS AND FOLKLORE.

3.1. Introduction.

3.2. Differentiation between Spanish festivals and British festivals.

3.3. Different festivals.

3.4. Royal festivals.

3.5. Activities.

4. HOLIDAYS AND SCHOOL SCHEDULES.

4.1. Introduction.

4.2. Timetables in European schools.

4.3. An interview: Differences between French and Spanish schools.

4.4. Teaching in internet.

4.5. Games file.

4.6. Activities.

5. REFERENCES.

1.GREETINGS AND FAREWELLS.

1.1. Introduction.

There are many important areas to study when people are learning English as a second language. Teaching this language involves four aspects that we research in this work: taboos and exchanges, festivals and folklore, holidays and school schedules, and greetings and farewells.

Greetings and farewells are necessary in every language, because the “going-on-well” of a relationship, depends directly on the first contact.

English people have differents habits, with regard to this subject.

When a Spanish woman first meets ( and after says “good-bye ) an English man/woman, she goes right to his/her face and kiss twice on their cheeks. This contact, that is an everyday thing in Spain, is totally opposite to the English tradition of greeting and farewell. English people only kiss to their family. Maybe between women is a more extended habit, but not in all social levels.

Spanish people are used to maintain any little touch when conversating, thing that is unthinkable in English habitual relationships. This common touch refers to the area of haptics (any touching between humans).

Another important point in greetings and farewells is proxemics that deals with spatial concepts. There are four zones in one's personal space: public, social, personal and intimate. The inappropriate invasion of these space zones can be used to exhibit power or domination.

Returning to the Spanish example, Spanish people when conversating, are very close to their partner/s. In English relations, this is seeing as an invasion of the personal space.

All the examples shown, just demonstrate one thing: greetings and farewells in teaching English as foreign language, is one of the most important subjects.

1.2.Learning and using a non-native language.

Fishman (1971) writes that a frequent comment about American traveller abroad is that they know, at most, only one variety of the language of the country they are visiting. As result, they speak in the same way to a child, a professor, a shoe cleaner or a shopkeeper. This reveals not only their foreignness but also their ignorance of the appropriate ways of symbolising a social relationship linguistically.

What is essential to realise is that a word-view underlies all of cultural behaviour of which language is but an apart. However, it is generally the linguistic channel via which culture and its accompanying thought-word is felt to be active. An Englishman below acutely describes this feeling:

"When I speak German to Germans, I automatically shift my orientation as a social being. I spontaneously adapt myself to the atmosphere characteristic of their status, outlook, and prejudices. The very use of the customary formulae of politeness injects a distinct flavour into the conversation, colouring attitudes and behaviour. Some of these modes of expression, to be sure, are merely meaningless formulae, but by no means all. The retention of titles, in European fashion, for example, colours mutual relations, as does the free and easy American way of dropping them altogether." ( Lowie 1945, p. 257 ).

These observations reveal how speaking another language may involve adopting another outlook on life. It is not the second language learner per se which calls for this but the body of beliefs and practices contained in the second language culture, which are reflected and expressed in linguistic interaction.

Classroom culture: the Latin American students, for example, surprise/displease the teacher in their different attitudes towards spatial distance and body touching, because they are less distant than Anglos, as well their louder and spontaneous expression of emotion.

If any readers have tough speakers of cultures different from their own they are probably well aware of the problems, prejudices and antagonism evoked by conflicting cultural attitudes in the second language classroom, and the necessity to overcome this through cultural awareness.

Cultural and contextual ways: the paralinguistic (facial and gestual), proxemic (spatial), and language-organisational patterns which are so essential for communicating are closely orchestred with our speech. They are also carefully studied by those in communication with us in order to understand what we mean in a fuller and more accurated way, beyond the mere words we utter.

Symbolising patterns: there are actually many cases where habitual verbal patterns which are satisfactorily employed in a first language for dealing with recurrent situations will cause problems if transferred to a second language context. This is particularly so with formulae. Every speech community possesses a stock of ritual routines which may not include formulae for greeting, leave taking, thanking, apologising, congratulating, stumbling, cursing, toasting, introducing and so on. When speakers employ formulae, they draw upon the community's resources and demonstrate recognisable familiarity with and loyalty to the community's code and implicity to its values since the petrified forms relate and refer to a special, historically given social framework. Adherence to this framework is expressed and partly achieved in the employment of formulae which in turn, contributes to an affirmation of the social order which is metaphorically alluded to in the uses of the formulae (Loveday 1981).

When first language speakers do not possess formulistic competence they can be interpreted not only as lacking in politeness and sophistication but also as incompletely socialised. Formulae also define status and the situation, e.g. "hi" versus "Good morning".

To illustrate this there is a Japanese example: Japanese speakers express gratitude more intensively by means of apologies:

“...During my early days in America - when a psychiatrist who was my superior did some kindness or other - I have forgotten exactly what, but it was something quite trivial. Either way, feeling the need to say something, I produced not “Thank-you” as one might expect, but “I'm sorry”.”What are you sorry for?” he replied promptly, giving me an odd look. I was highly embarrassed. My difficulty in saying ´thank-you´ arose, I imagine, from a feeling that it implied too great an equality with someone who was in fact my superior...The reason, of course, was undoubtedly my deficiency in English at that time. But I had already begun to have an inkling the difficulty I faced involved something more than the language barrier” (Doi 1977, p.122).

What the Japanese psychologist was facing here was a different cultural interpretation of what for him was a simple linguistic symbolisation of gratitude.

1.3. Politeness in communication.

Politeness and politeness formulas: because speech events regularly include both a speaker-writer and a listener-reader, it is not surprising that language is particularly sensitive, in the rules for speech use, to the relations between the two parties. Just as good actor can utter a single sentence expressing a wide range of emotional states of the speaker, so the choice of an appropriate message form can be modified to express a wide range of attitudes of the speaker to the listener. Given the same general situation, I can pass information or make a request or simple greet in a whole set of different ways that will define my attitude to the listener and the importance I give him/her.

In its simplest terms, politeness consists of this recognition of the listener and his or her rights in the situation. Requests, which are an imposition on the listener, are mitigated by being made indirectly, as questions (Could you possibly pass me the salt?) or as statements (´I think that is the salt beside your plate), or by adding formulas like ´Please´and ´if you would be so kind´. Social relations are eased by complimenting (´I do like your new car!´or ´Congratulations´).In some laguages,there are elaborated sets of politeness formulas,like in Arabic saying mabruk to someone who has just bought something new,or na? iman to someone who has just had a haircut or a bath or a short nap. For each formula, there is an appropriate reply, ´allah ybarik fik´ (may God bless you) to the first and ´allah yn?am?alek´ (may God refresh you) to the second.In American-English, the equivalent is saying ´You´re welcome´in reply to ´Thank-you´.

The most common kind of politeness formulas are involved with greetings. Greetings are the basic oil of social relations. To fail to greet someone who expects to be greeted, signals either some unusual distraction or a desire to insult the person. Each social group has its own set of rules about who should be greeted, who should greet first and what is an appropriate form of greeting.

English greetings range from an informal ´Hi!' through a neutral ´Good morning´ to a slowly disappearing formal ´How do you do!'. It is common to add a second part of the greeting, a purely phatic ´How are you!´ to which no reply is expected. Arab greetings use an elaborated set of paired greetings-plus-responses, depending on time of day or other social aspects of the situation.

The study of greetings, therefore, provides a first useful method of exploring the structure of a social group. A second area showing patterned variation in speech and similarly studied within the ethnography of communication has been the conditions on the use of terms of address.

Terms of address: a related phenomenon in languages that do not have the Tu (in French)/Vous (also in French) distinction is the use of address terms. English once had the thou/you distinction and still offers a range of address terms, ranging from Title Alone (Sir, Your Majesty, Madam, Constable) through Title + Last Name (Mr. Jones, Dr. Smith, Lord Clark, Miss Jones, Mrs. Jones, perhaps, Ms. Jones) to First Name to Multiple Names (including Nicknames). The conditions for choosing vary socially. Increasingly, in North America and British academic circles, people who have just been introduced as ´Professor X, meet Dr.Y´move inmediately to first names. There are still interesting cases of uneven usage. American doctors and dentists use first names to all their patients, but expect Dr. X in return. Teachers in many societies receive Title or Title + Last Name, but return first name (or in some schools, last name).

Title plus first or last name is a common pattern in many languages. Non-relatives may also be addressed with terms of relationships, as in an English pattern of training children to address adults of the parent's generation as Uncle John or Auntie Mary.

Military usage related to address systems shows special patterns. Peacetime armies with strict discipline and emphasis on ceremonial are likely to have strict rules for addressing superiors. In the US Marine Corps, senior officers were addressed in the third person (´Would the General like me to bring him a cup of coffee?') and other officers received ´sir' from their inferiors. Non-commissioned officers were addressed by rank (´Yes, sergeant.'). In a different setting, such as under battle conditions, things changed. An officer was addressed directly, often by a regular nickname. Company commanders, for instance, were addressed as ´Skipper´and sergeant majors as ´Gunny´. More democratic armies often make a point of dropping special address rules along with saluting. These changes parallel the changes from Vous to Tu under similar circumstances.

The ethnography of speaking moved the focus of analysis from the sentence to the speech event, and offered a first approach to the analysis of natural speech, by showing patterns that could be understood if social information were included. In this, as in any other study of language in use, the aspect that became more obvious to the sociolinguist was the existence of regularly patterned variation. It provided a wider canvas on which to paint the complexity of language behaviour in its social setting and technique for capturing some of the ways in which each may reflect the other. It opened up the way to the study of language in use, to the importance of different channels, to the critical importance of relations between speaker and hearer, and to the social context of language.

1.4. Communication skills.

Communication skills: body language is one of the most important conversational skills. Research indicates that 70% of communication is non-verbal. Body language can communicate our feelings and attitudes. Examples of receptive body language: open posture, eye contact and friendly smile. Examples of non-receptive body language: closed posture, little eye contact and no-smile. Non-receptive body language often leads to short non-sustancial conversations. First impressions need to be positive and friendly.

Pleasant smile is strong indication of a friendly and open attitude and willingness to communicate. It is appositive, non-verbal signal sent with the hope that the other person will smile back. When you smile, you demonstrate that you have noticed the person in appositive manner. The other person considers it acompliment and will usually feel good. The result? The other person will usually smile back. Smiling does not mean that you have to put on a phony face or pretend that you are happy all of the time. But when you see someone you know, or would like to make contact with, do smile. By smiling you are demonstrating an open attitude to conversation.

You might not realise that closed posture is the cause of many conversational problems. Typical closed posture is sitting with your arms and legs crossed and your hand covering your mouth or chin. This is often called “thinking pose”, but just ask yourself this question: Are you going to interrupt someone who appears to be deep in thought? Not only does this posture give off “stay away” signals to others, but also prevents your main “signal sender” (your mouth) from being seen by others looking for receptive conversational signals. Without these receptive signals, another person will most likely avoid you and look for someone who appears to be more available for contact.

To overcome this habitual way of standing or sitting, start by keeping your hands away from your mouth, and keep your arms uncrossed. Crossed arms tend to indicate a defensive frame of mind, and thus one not particularly favourable to outside contact. They can also indicate impatience, displeasure, or judgement - any of which would discourage people from opening up.

Open posture is most effective when you place yourself within communicating distance of the other person - that is, within about five feet. Take care, however not to violate someone's “personal space” by getting too close, too soon.

Leaning forward slightly while a person is talking to you indicates interest on your part, and shows you are listening to what the person is saying. This is usually taken as a compliment by the other person, and will encourage him to continue talking.

Often people will lean back with their hands over their mouth, chin or behind their head in the “thinking” poses. This posture gives off signals of judgement, scepticism, and boredom from the listener. Since most people do not feel comfortable when they think they are being judged, this leaning back posture tends to inhibit the speaker from continuing.

It is far better to lean forward slightly in a casual and natural way. By doing this, you are saying: ´I hear what you're saying and I'm interested - keep talking!' This usually let's the other person feel that what he is saying is interesting, and encourages him to continue speaking.

In many cultures the most acceptable form of first contact between two people who are just meeting is a warm Hancock. This is true when meeting members of the same or opposite sex - and not just in business, but in social situations, too. In nearly every situation, a warm and firm handshake is a safe and positive way of showing an open and friendly attitude toward the people you meet.

Be the first to extend your hand in greeting. Couple this with a friendly ´Hello', a nice smile, and your name, and you have made the first step to open the channels of communication between you and the other person.

The strongest of the non-verbal gestures are sent through the eyes. Direct eye contact indicates that you are listening to the other person, and that you want to know about him/her.

Eye contact should be natural and not forced or overdone. It is perfectly okay to have brief periods of eye contact while you observe other parts of the person's face - particularly the mouth. When the person smiles, be sure to smile back. But always make an effort to return your gaze to the person's eyes as he/she speaks. It is common to look up, down, and all around when speaking to others, and it's acceptable not to have eye contact at all times.

Too much eye contact, especially if it is forced, can be counterproductive. If you stare at a person, or leer in a suspicious manner, the other person may feel uncomfortable and even suspicious about your intentions. A fixed stare can appear as aggressive behaviour if it takes the form of a challenge as to who will look away first.

1.5. Non-verbal miscommunication.

Sara's supervisor approaches her about the financial analysis that she is preparing for Tuesday's meeting. He walks towards her, leans on the edge of her desk, and looks down to question her. His position, high above Sara, looking down, causes Sara to become uneasy and fidgety. She ruffles her papers and updates her boss on the progress of the analysis, exhaling a sigh of relief when he leaves her desk. Sara's supervisor has caused an anxious response by invading her personal space, and made her intimidated by her boss' body language. Non-verbal communication, commonly referred to as body language, gives clues to our innermost thoughts and desires, our non-verbal communication can send strong signals about our desire for dominance or power, but if misread by another can send an incorrect and inappropriate signal.

Body language is not simply how our hand move or where we lean. The field of non-verbal communication covers all aspects of our bodies. Therefore, before we begin a study of powerplays through non-verbal communication, let me examine some basics concepts of body language. Physical appearance refers to one's “image, attractiveness, race, height, weight, body shape, hairstyle, dress and artefacts”(Masterson p.1).

Appearance plays role because we all make certain assumptions based on one's physical appearance; firm eyes, a general look of stability, still hands, big fingers, large nostrils, and one overriding facial feature contribute to the “look of power”(Korda p.16). Kinesics, a word derived from the Greek word for movement, encompasses any movement except those that involve touch. Kinesics, which is further broken down into categories such as diactics, metamorphics, emblematics, and other similarly cryptic and confusing subgroups, all refer to the way our body “speaks” to others via its movements. In specific reference to the facial area is occulesics, which many non-verbal scholars exalt as the most significant form of non-verbal communication. The movement of eyes, crinkling of the nose, and raising of the eyebrow all fall under occulesics. Most important to our exploration of dominance and power are the areas of haptics and proxemics. Haptics refers to any touching between humans. Whether it is between two lovers or a chiropractor and his patient, haptics tells us about the touch's purpose as an indicator of the participants' relationship. As we shall soon see, touch can be used in an unequal power relationship to intimidate or motivate. Finally, proxemics refers to the area of personal space that exists between humans. The example at the start of this writing describes Sara's response to personal space invasion; personal space invasion is one of the most intimidating forms of non-verbal communication when inappropriate.

Researcher E.T. Hall created the term proxemics in 1.963, which is the area of non-verbal communication study that deals with spatial concepts; he categorises one's personal space into four zones: public, social, personal and intimate. The inappropriate invasion of these space zones can be used to exhibit power or domination. The four zones of personal space can be likened to four doors. The first door is unlocked and open to everyone (public space). This space is used for public speaking and separates people by 12 feet or more. The second door, accessible only after you “penetrate” the first, is social distance. Acquaintances and those without a large degree of intimacy are allowed into the social distance zone, which extends from 4 to 12 feet. Door #3 is the personal space zone, which converse within each other's personal space zone. The fourth and final zone is the intimidate space zone, which ranges from 6 to 18 inches. This zone, strictly reserved for those who have a high degree of intimacy, is used for “embracing and whispering” (Scrolls p.2).

These zones, if invaded by an unwanted person, will cause uncomfort and anxiety in the person whose space is being incurred. Business executives are actually trained to invade other's space, causing others to become anxious, establishing their superiority and dominance. One example is the “overrunning technique” that executives use at meetings and lunches. The purpose is to make a frontal assault, therefore intimidating and overpowering. The powerplayer will gradually and slowly, throughout the course of the meeting, encroach upon another's personal space. The executive may remove her wallet from her purse, her lipstick, and then a mirror or changepurse, gradually placing them on the other side of the table where another is sitting. A male executive might pull the same maneuver by placing a lighter, cigarettes, his wallet, and other trinkets on the opposite side of the table. A wargame is almost played out on the table: the point is to take over their space and dominate. One person attempts to occupy as much of the other's space as possible. Outside of the business world, personal space invasion is just as intimidating. Walking down the street, and unknown stranger who passes too closely (i.e. in social, personal, or intimate space) we make the passer-by very cautious. A man “moving in” on his romantic target too quickly sounds alarm in the object of his eye. His use of aggressive proxemic and haptic behaviour is easily read by the one he seeks, and causes uncomfort because he appears too forward and dominating.

In social interactions, the person with more power sends signals with there eyes to show dominance; our eyes in particular control interpersonal interactions. Our eyes sending slight yet easily decipherable signals that are the most common form of "social control" (Webbink p.36). Webbink later says that eye behaviour "reveals the balance of power: persons of greater power stare at others more, look less than they listen, and command a larger visual `space´, while persons with less power avert their gaze when stared at, look more attentively as they listen, and assume less visual space." Those wishing to assume a greater power role can adopt the eye behaviour of powerful people. Making little eye contact while listening, as if the speaker must beg for your attention, and staring at someone (thereby showing that you are not afraid to look at them) proves to enhance someone's role as a powerful figure. Those adopting these techniques, however, need to be mindful to not appear hostile. Those already in a power role, such as teacher's presence in the classroom (Hodge p.264 as quoted in Webbink p.45). In assertiveness training programme for teachers showcased the use of forceful eye contact, using the child's first name, and placing a hand on the student's shoulder. The combination of dominant eye contact, an encroaching on the student's personal space makes the student know that the teacher is serious.

The teacher is very purposeful in sending non-verbal communication signals, but some people will mistakenly send inappropriate power and dominance signals that misread. Many factors influence our non-verbal communication, and misunderstandings and cultural differences can make one party alarmed or anxious when it is uncalled for. Gender, ethnicity, and age are all determinants of our non-verbal behaviour. In proxemics tests, separated by gender, female dyads stand closer to each other; mixed dyads stand the next closest, while all-male dyads stand the farthest apart (cited in Remland 2). Women and mixed sex dyads also use more touch than all-male dyads (Remland 2). Overall, many studies confirm that women are more accepting of touch and proximate behaviour than men. Women are not held back by the worldwide stereotype that necessitates a certain "roughness and toughness" in men. Women are "allowed" by society to approach each other closer and touch each other more, whereas men who stand close and touch often are accused of being homosexual by other men, even when no basis for accusation exists.

Our ethicity also determines non-verbal communication. Americans live in a culture that does not promote close touch (Scrolls p.3) and extended eye contact. Even between close friends, Americans are very conscious of their personal space (Scrolls p.3). In a tightly packed subway car or on a crowded dance floor, Americans make every effort to hold onto their sense of personal space and "individuality". Americans avoid any eye contact, and brush up against others with the most "asexual" parts of their bodies: when forced to touch, Americans touch with their arms and sides of the body, and only when absolutely necessary. Other cultures differ greatly; in fact, many cultures encourage proximate and kinesic behaviour. Based on a study by Remland et alii, touching was observed by 12.5% of the overall sample group. 21% of Greeks used touch, while percentages for "non-contact" cultures became smaller; 14% of Italians, 12% of Irish, 11% of English, 5% of French, and only 4% of Dutch used in normal conversation.

Observation of touching:

Greetings and Farewells

Finally, our age also determines our non-verbal behaviour. Even though age is a minimal factor (Remland 10) in determining actions, large variations are seen via observation. College-aged people tend to accept much personal space invasion and touch, while middle age men and women are wary of too much invasion by the opposite sex. These findings are obvious and easily explained. Children and adolescents, as general rule, accept more touch, while middle aged people (many of whom are married) do not want to appear "unfaithful" to their spouse. Interestingly, those age 60 and over accept more kinesic and proximate behaviour as they age (Remland 10).

Men, especially, often mistakenly send inappropriate and unwelcome power and dominance signals by their kinesic, proximate, and occulesic behaviour. From the beginning of known history, men have controlled their family groups and been dominant figure of the household. Men have been hunters, defenders, breadwinners, and executives. Even though women are fast assuming many of these roles, society still rests the power and control on men's shoulders. Therefore men tend to be the dominant figures in society; Remland's study states than men more often initiate touch in mixed dyads (Remland 10). Society teaches men to be more physical and "powerful". Men are to be callous and always in control. Men attempt to assume this role. They voice their opinions, stand above the opposite sex (because of physical size) and dominate. Because men are taught to dominate, they often assume too many in social interactions with women. A woman as forceful and dangerous may interpret what a man may see as normal and appropriate behaviour. Once again I return to Sara's situation, described earlier in this work. If Sara's boss were a man, she would feel very intimidated by this stance standing over her and trapping her beneath him. As stated before, men are further encouraged by the business world to be the dominant and controlling figure.

Men are most often initiators especially in the courting process, which is largely based on body language. In some instances, this body communication may have negative repercussions. Men are taught to be dominators, but sometimes take it too far and become intimidators, causing complaints of "he's smothering me". Women often construe men's direct body language as forceful and inappropriate behaviour. In a survey of Australian taxi-riders, women riders of all ages assumed the seat directly behind the taxi driver, where she could not meet his eyes or sit too close. Men, as a rule, sat in the front seat next to the driver, however (Kenner 626). Moreover, men's position and body language often intimidate women.

Sensitivity and understanding are necessary when deciphering non-verbal communication. In the business world, as well as in everyday interpersonal encounters, non-verbal communication can be a very effective dominator and intimidator. In our interactions in social situations, non-verbal communication speaks what we are thinking deep inside, but the way we may, as in speech, miscommunicate. Our body language says what we feel, but not always what we mean.

1.6. Typology of greetings and farewells in English.

Greetings:

HELLO/HI GOOD MORNING/DAY

WELCOME GOOD EVENING

GREETINGS GOOD AFTERNOON

GOOD NIGHT HOW ARE YOU?

HOW IS IT GOING? WHAT'S UP?

GOD BE WITH YOU DEAR MADAM/SIR

Response to these possible greetings:

FINE, THANKS. AND YOU?

NOT VERY WELL.

OKAY.

SO-SO.

VERY WELL.

NOTHING SPECIAL.

NOT MUCH.

Farewells:

GOOD-BYE.

BYE.

GO WITH GOD.

SEE YOU LATER.

SEE YOU TOMORROW.

I'LL MISS YOU.

SEND MY LOVE TO...

GREETINGS TO...

REGARDS.

ALL THE BEST.

BEST WISHES.

HAVE A NICE DAY!

1.7. Typology of greetings and farewells in German .

Gesprochen Begrüssungen. Spoken greetings.

Hallo Hello

Servus Hi

Grüss Gott God be with you

Guten Morgen Good morning

Guten Tag Good day

Guten Abend Good evening

Guten Nacht Good night

Schriftliche Begrüssungen. Written greetings.

Sehr geehrte Frau/Sehr geehrter Dear Madam/Sir

Herr -----------------------

Gesprochen Abschied. Spoken farewells.

Tschüss Bye! See you!

Ade So long

Einen schönen Tag noch Have a nice day

Schönes Wochenende Have a nice weekend

Schönen Feiereabend Have a nice day

Auf Wiedersehen Until we meet again

Auf Wiederhören Until we speak again

Leben Sie wohl Live long

Schriftliche Abschied. Written farewells.

Gruss Regards

Viele Grüsse Many greetings

Mit freundlichen Grüssen (MFG) With friendly regards

Sonder Begrüssungen. Special greetings.

Frohe Ostern Christmas blessings

Schönen Urlaub Happy Easter

Geniessen Sie ihre Ferien Enjoy your holidays.

1.8. Ways of saying `hello' in English.

Here you find some ways of saying HELLO in different situations:

· The big sexy way: a male voice says "Well, well! Aren't YOU a big sexy...whatever you are!" .

· Cartoony-sweet voice "Okay, I love you! Bye-bye!

· A female HELLO, "Hello, darling".

· A cute way said by a little girl, "Hi everybody!"

· The HIYA way. A female: "It's me! Hi! How ya doin'? Oh my god, how've you been? I've just missed you SOOOO much...!"

· The NITE NITE way said by a cute little kid: "Nite nite!"

1.9. Activities .

Here you'll find some exercises extracted from a “website”. These are made for English speakers that want to learn a foreign language, in this case the Spanish language.

Greetings/ Saludos:

Dígalo en español / Say it in Spanish.

1.Saludos.

Hola!

Hello! : your choices ¡Hola!

¡Hóla!

Buena!

Hi! Or Hello! : your choices ¡Buenos!

!Buenas!

Buenos días!

Good morning! : your choices ¡Buenos días!

¡Buenos dia!

¡Buenas tarde!

Good afternoon!:your choices ¡Buenas tardes!

¡Buena tardes!

¡Buenas noches!

Good evening!:your choices; ¡Buenas tardes!

Good nigh! ¡Buenos días!

2. ¿Cómo estás? / How are you?

¿Cómo estás?

How are you?: your choices ¿Cómo está?

(formal). ¿Como esta?

¿Que tal?

How is it going?: your choices ¿Qué tal?

Qué tal?

¿Qué hacés?

What's up? : your choices ¿Que haces?

¿Qué haces?

3.Respuesta / Response.

Bien, gracias.¿Y tú?

Fine, thanks; and you?:your choices Bien, gracias.¿Y usted?

(formal) Bién, gracias.¿Y usted?

No muy bien.

Not very well : your choices No bien muy.

Bien no muy.

Vastante bien.

Okay : your choices Okay.

Bastante bien.

Más o menos.

So-so : your choices Menos o más.

Menos o mas.

Requetebien.

Very well : your choices Rebien.

Muy bien.

Nada en special.

Nothing special : your choices Nada en especial.

Nada special en.

No mucho.

Not much : your choices No mucha.

No muchos.

Farewells / Despedidas.

Dígalo en español / Say it in Spanish.

4.Despedidas / Farewells.

Chao.

Good-bye : your choices Adiós.

(formal) Adios.

Nos vemos pronto.

See you later : your choices Hasta la vista.

Hasta luego.

Hasta luego.

See you tomorrow: your choices Hasta mañana.

Hasta manana.

Te echaré de menos.

I'll miss you : your choices Le echare de menos.

La echaré de menos.

Mándele cariños a su familia.

Send my love to your family: Mándale cariños a tu familia.

Mandele cariños a tu familia.

2. TABOOS AND EXCHANGES

2.1. Introduction

Taboo shows two opposite meanings to us: what is sacred and what is restless, dangerous, forbidden or impure.

The taboo prohibitions are something more different than the moral and religious ones. They do not spring from any divine command, but they extract their authority from themselves. The taboo bans do not have any ground. Their origin is unknown. Although they are incomprehensible for us, they seem natural for the people who live with these taboos.

Regarding to this, Northcote W. Thomas says at his article of the “British Library”: “The word taboo appoints to the three following notions: a) the holy nature (or impure) of persons or objects; b) the nature of the prohibition, and c) the consecration as a result of the rape of the same one. From a larger point of view, we can distinguish several kinds of taboo: 1º. A natural taboo, result of a mysterious strength which is suitable for a person or a thing. 2º. A transmitted or indirect taboo, sprung from the same strength, but it may be acquired by a priest, a boss or any other person; and 3º. An intermediate taboo, for example, when a man has a woman as an object which is his.”

We know that the person who has ravished a taboo, touching something that was taboo, makes himself a taboo, and nobody must be in contact with him. On the other hand, if the idea of taboo is common for everybody, a taboo may be considered or may not be considered as a taboo, attending to the country in which we are. In addition to this, we will try to explain all of this with some examples.

2.2. General taboos

A Maori boss never try to reanimate the fire with his breath, because his sacred breath would communicate its strength to the fire, the fire to the vessel placed over it, the vessel to the food which is boiled in it and the food to the person who eat it. As a result of it, the person, who had eaten the food prepared into the vessel, would have died.

Another example of taboo is an English patient: this patient requires that an object, which her husband has just bought was moved away from the house. If this is not possible, she will not be able to live in that house because she has heard about that this object has been bought in a shop placed, for example, in the street of the Stags. Furthermore, one of her friends lives in a distant city and nowadays is Mrs. Stag. This friend is impossible for her now and the object bought here in Vienna is also a taboo like the friend with who she does not want to have any relation.

The taboo is an ancient prohibition, imposed by the outside (by an authority) and driven against the most powerful wishes of men.

2.3. Specific taboos

2.3.1. The enemies' taboo

In the island of Timor, when the warriors come back home, it is usual to offer sacrifices to calm the enemies' souls. If they did not make this offering, it would be a misfortune for the warriors. In addition to this, they dance and play a song in which they cry for the dead enemy and they ask for his pardon.

The same habit appears among the pales of the Celebes Islands. The galas offer their dead enemies to the spirits as a sacrifice, before going into their native town.

When the dayaks of the coast of Sarawak bring an enemy's head after an expedition, they treat it with a lot of kinds of amabilities for whole months.

Since the day a Choctaw has killed an enemy, it begins a period of mourning in which he imposed on himself serious prohibitions. It happens the same with the Dakotas Indians.

In Loggia Island, nearly New Guinea, the men, who have killed one or several enemies, lock up themselves in their houses for a week, avoid any kind of relation with their wives and their friends, do not touch with their hands the food and they only feed with vegetables prepared by themselves.

2.3.2. The sovereign's taboo

The primitive nation's attitude towards their bosses, kings and priests is governed by two principles which complete each other. The citizen must keep safe himself of them and he must protect them.

We already know why is necessary to preserve from the masters: they have that magic, mysterious and dangerous strength, which (as an electric charging) communicates by contact and provokes the death. Therefore, it must be avoided any kind of direct or indirect contact with the dangerous sanctity.

So, the Nubs of the Eastern Africa think that they will die if they go into their king-priest's house, but they can ran away from this danger if the king touches their naked left shoulder with his hand. Thus, the king's contact becomes a medium of cure and protection against the illnesses; it must be pointed out that the dangerous contact appears when the citizen takes the initiative.

The kings of England had this power to cure the diseases that were named “the king's evil”. It has been said that Charles I cured 100 patients in 1633. Later on, during his son Charles II's kingdom. This cure reached its larger increase. William III of Orange, king of England, after expelling the Stuart, distrusted of that power and finally he put into practice that royal function saying to the sick people: “God gave you a better health and made you more reasonable”

.

2.3.4. The dead persons' taboo

This taboo appears in the consequences which the contact with the dead persons and in the special treatment of the people who are closer to the deceased person. Among the Maories, those ones, who have touched a dead body or have gone to a burial, become impure. The person, who has been in contact with a dead body, is not allowed to get into a house or to touch another person or another object. He must not touch any sort of food with his hands. The food is put on the ground and he has to eat using his lips and his teeth. Sometimes someone is allowed to give food to him, but this person must not touch the taboo man.

These taboo habits are the same in Polynesia, Melanesia, a part of Africa, Hawaii Islands, British Colombia, Philippine Islands, British New Guinea, etc.

The hypothesis, which defends that the loveliest dead persons become devils, suggests the following question: Which were the reasons of that affectionate transformation?

When a woman has lost her husband or a daughter has lost her mother, the survivors often have distressing doubts called “obsessive reproaches” and they also ask themselves if they have done some negligence to contribute to the loved person's death. Although they have looked after the sick person, the individual's torment is going to increase for a long time. The dead person's taboo comes from an opposition between the conscious pain and the unconscious satisfaction (p.85). In addition to this, it must be said that this pain and this satisfaction are consequences of death.

Finally, we can point out that those spirits, which are devils for us, may become ancestors whose help is often invoked.

2.3.5. The taboo of the mother cow

Indians venerates cows because they are the symbol of all living things. As soon as Mary is God's mother for Christians, the cow is the mother of life for Indians; there is no highest sacrilege that an Indian kills a cow.

The taboo, which forbids them to slaughter and to eat meat of cow, may be a product of the natural selection; it is the same that the so small size and the wonderful capacity of retrieving of Cebu races. Regarding to this, in times of drought and lack, the farmers are tempted to kill or to sell their cattle. The people who do that are destined for their death, although they survived the drought, because when it rained, they would not be able to plough their fields.

2.3.6. The taboo of pigs

Half of the riddle, which refers to the fear of pigs, is well known by Jews, Islamics and Christians. The ancient Hebrews' god denounced the pig as an impure being, as a beast that contaminates all people who touch it or who taste it. One thousand and five thousand years later, Ala said to his prophet Mahoma that the status of the pig had to be the same for the followers of the Muslim religion.

Moses Maimonides, who was the doctor of Saladine's court, has given the first naturalist explanation of the Jewish and Muslim rejection of pigs. Maimonides said that God had wanted to forbid the meat of pig like a measure to preserve the health. The rabbi wrote that the meat of pig “had a bad and harmful effect”

.

Other studies have suggested that pigs, gathered together with other taboo animals that appear in the Bible and in the Coran, were totemic symbols in a past time. Maybe the Bible and the Coran condemned pigs because of ecological and cultural reasons. Later on, the meat of pig became a costly article. During a long period of time, the human population increased in a very serious way. With this increase there was a lack of vegetation. Shade and water, which were the natural conditions to breed pigs, were scarce; the meat of pig became an ecological, economical luxury.

2.3.7. Other taboos: taboo words

The values of a society can also have an effect on its language. The most interesting way in which this happens is through the phenomenon known as taboo. Taboo can be characterised as being concerned with behaviour, which is believed to be supernaturally forbidden, or regarded as immoral or improper; it deals with behaviour which is prohibited or inhibited in an apparently irrational manner. In language, taboo is associated with things which are not said, and in particular with words and expressions which are not used. In practice, this simply means there are inhibitions about the normal use of items of this kind .

Taboo words occur in most languages, and failure to adhere to the often strict rules governing their use can lead to punishment or public shame. Many people will never employ words of this type, and most others will only use them in a restricted set of situations. For those who do use taboo words, however, breaking the rules may have connotations of strength or freedom, which they find desirable.

Generally, the type of the word that is tabooed in a particular language will be a good reflection of at least part of the system of values and beliefs of the society in question. In some communities, word-magic plays an important part in religion, and certain words regarded as powerful will be used in spells and incantations. In different parts of the world taboo words include those for the left hand, for female relations, or for certain game animals. Some words, too, are more much severely tabooed than others. In the English-speaking world, the most severe taboos are now associated with words connected with sex, closely followed by those connected with excretion and the Christian religion. This is a reflection of the great emphasis traditionally placed on sexual morality in our culture. In other, particularly Roman Catholic, cultures the strongest taboos may be associated with religion, and in Norway, for example, some of the most strongly tabooed expressions are concerned with the devil.

Until recently, the strict rules associated with some taboo words in English received legal as well as social reinforcement. Not so long ago, the use in print of words such as fuck and cunt could lead to prosecution and even imprisonment, and they are still not widely used in newspapers. Laws of this type have been relaxed in Britain and America, but there are still some parts of the English-speaking world where this is not the case. It may be unwise even now to use such words in public in Britain, although at least one magistrate has ruled that fuck is no longer obscene, i.e. legally tabooed.

There is a certain amount of doublethink about words of this type. Although their use was, and may still be, technically illegal in some cases, they occur very frequently in the speech of some sections of the community. This is largely because taboo-words, which is in turn because they are powerful. Most people in modern technologically advanced societies would claim not to believe in magic. There is still, however, something that very closely resembles magic surrounding the use of taboo-words in English. The use of taboo-words in non-permitted contexts, such as on television, provokes violent reactions of apparently very real shock and disgust. The reaction, moreover, is an irrational reaction to a particular word, not to a concept. It is perfectly permissible to say sexual intercourse on television. Taboo is therefore clearly a linguistic as well as sociological fact. It is the words themselves which are felt to be wrong and are therefore so powerful.

The strength of this magic is illustrated by the way in which BBC has on some occasions gone to considerable technical lengths to ensure that telephoned contributions from the public to certain radio programmes broadcast live could be cut off if they contained taboo words. One can infer that they were worried or perhaps even frightened by the prospect of the use of certain words or the effects of their use. It has also been suggested that one reason for the general exclusion of uneducated people from widespread participation in broadcast programmes is the fear that they will not know the rules about taboo. Taboo-words may be in order in certain situations, but they are not yet generally acceptable on television.

The phrase not yet indicates the rapidity with which patterns of taboo in English are changing. Legal sanctions are disappearing and there is a growing tendency for more rational, less magical attitudes to develop towards taboo- breaking the rules is now less dramatic than it used to be, at least in certain situations. (A well-known example of this is Shaw's use of bloody, now relatively harmless, as a shock-word in Pygmalion. Here, too, social change is reflected in a change in linguistic behaviour.)

A further interesting point is the secondary effect that taboo can have on language itself. Because of the strong reluctance of speakers to utter taboo-words, or words like them, in certain circumstances, words which are phonetically similar to taboo-words can be lost from a language. It is often said, for example, that rabbit replaced the older word coney in English for this reason. A similar explanation is advanced for the widespread American use of rooster rather than cock. In the case of bilingual individuals, this can even take place across languages, apparently. American Indian girl speakers of Nootka have been reported by teachers to be entirely unwilling to use the English word such because of the close phonetic resemblance it bears to the Nootka word for vagina. Similarly, Thai students in England are said to avoid the use of Thai words such as kha:n `to crush´ when speaking Thai in the presence of English speakers, in the belief that this could cause offence.

2.4. Verbal interaction

If we consider that there are so many different cultures as global deficits or specifically linguistic deficits, the scholar eagerness will be dedicated to pass that lack and the immigrants will receive a general or linguistic education. On the other hand, in USA the introduction of minorities in terms of regional disadvantages is considered; thus, it must be necessary to mark percentages to reach the best numeric complementarity of the different social sectors and to move pupils from a school to others.

Although the quantity of immigrants in Europe was about sixteen or twenty million at the year ninety-two, the proportion is weak in all the E.C: only the four per cent of the total population. Distributed in a non-equal way among the different countries (see Fig. 1).

Inmigrants in countries

%

Areas of more concentration

%

France

7.7

Ile-de France

13.3

Germany

7.2

Frankfurt

40

Holland

2.5

--

--

Spain

1.95

Cataluña

2.2

United Kingdom

--

Great London

20.0

Figure 1: Juliano, Dolores. Educación intercultural: escuela y minorías étnicas. Madrid: Eudema, 1993.

In Spain this proportion is very low: it reaches the two per cent according to the estimations of the Institute of Immigration. The proportion of the scholar population is still minor, so most of immigrants are men in working age (see graphics 1 and 2).

IMMIGRANTS' AGE: 1986

Graphic 1.

AGE REPRESENTATION: SPAIN, 1986

Graphic 2.

Factors of the speech event define the context for verbal communication, but verbal interaction is a continuos, shifting process in which the context and its constituent factors change from second to second. In normal everyday verbal interaction, addresser and the addressee are constantly changing roles. The addresser of one minute is the addressee of the next, and vice versa. Purpose and content change as the interaction progresses. Even setting may change, as time moves on and the participants perhaps move from one place to another.

Interaction can be seen as a process of mutual accommodation, with the addresser acting upon the addressee to cause a reaction, which in turn informs an action performed by the previous addressee, now turned addresser, upon the new addressee, which causes a reaction in the same way, and so on.

When involved in this reciprocal exchange, the participants are engaged in carrying out certain social actions. They perform these actions through language: they give orders, make promises, offer suggestions, tender apologies, lay bets, and so on. These are known as speech acts. Each utterance in a conversational interaction such as that outlined above can be seen as a speech act, a social action performed through language by the addresser, and intended to have some sort of effect upon the addressee.

One interesting area of speech act theory is the differentiation between the addresser's intention and the addressee's interpretation. The addresser has an intention, a purpose, in performing any speech act. This is known as the illocutory force of the act, what the speaker intends the act to achieve.

The actual effect of the act is known as its perlocutionary effect, the reaction of the hearer to what the speaker says. In the same way that action does not always achieve the desired reaction, the addresser's intention in performing any speech act does not always match the addressee's interpretation of it.

2.5. Student's exchange

2.5.1. Exchange and instructions for doing it

WHAT IS A HOME EXCHANGE?

Is an exchange of one home for another for an specific period of time with no money involved

WHY SHOULD I CONSIDER HOME EXCHANGES?

You don't pay for accommodation

As you are living in a house, you can cook as you would do at your own home, so you will not spend money on restaurants.

You will live as comfortable as you would in your own home.Sometimes even better, .

It provides you with the ability to live as a "native"

You and your children will make new friends.

Almost all the exchanges include a car exchange, so you don't need to rent a car.

Your own home is occupied and looked after while you are away

For all that, exchanging homes is the most inexpensive way to know other cultures, people and countries.

WHAT DO I NEED?

You only need to have a house. Even if you are not the owner, just a renter, you can ask for permission to exchange and there's no poblem.

Do not be concerned if your home isn't exactly a mansion. Your exchange partner is looking for exactly the same as you: a clean comfortable place to stay during the holidays which will accommodate his family.

It's not necessary either that you live in a popular or touristic area. Many exchangers prefer places not so popular: they want to experience the "real" country. Provide all the information you can on the local attractions and be honest in all matters. That's the very essence of a successful exchange.

WHAT ABOUT LEAVING MY HOUSE WITH STRANGERS?

As it takes several weeks, or months, to arrange an exchange, you'll get to know the other party quite well, so they will be hardly strangers. And of course they too will be just as concerned as you that their home will be properly looked after. It is a mutual concern which will ensure each party treats the other's home with care and respect.

And, also, having someone occupying your home while you are away is probably safer than leaving it empty.

HOW TO ARRANGE THE EXCHANGE?

You can list your home in our listing page and just wait for people to contact you. And be sure they'll do.

But you also can browse our database and look for suitable homes in the location you would like to visit, and find people who also want to visit your area. Don't worry if you don't find a partner that want to exchange specially your area. Most of the exchangers are open to suggestions and someone who is thinking in traveling to Sweden can change his mind and go to Spain if the offer is attractive.

When you find what you are looking for, just e-mail them, describing what you can offer, making reference to their/your advertisement at the ICV web page.

Most people are just like you: honest, friendly, and keen to make a success of the exchange.

WHAT HAPPENS WITH HOUSEHOLD EXPENSES OR DAMAGES?

Electricity, water, insurance, etc… are normally paid by the owner of the house but telephone calls should be paid by the user. It is useful to be provided with a telephone card that charge the calls to your credit card. This is something you have to agree before the exchange. You must also agree for the damages that can occur.

WHAT ABOUT THE CARS?

Most of the exchangers like to exchange also the car. That saves a considerable amount of money. Agree with the other party any restrictions (eg mileage, age of drivers, etc…) and confirm with your insurance company that your policy will cover the others drivers for the required period.

HOW CAN WE TEACH THE OTHER PARTY ABOUT OUR HOUSE?

If you are not going to meet the other party, either in your country or in theirs, someone (a friend, relative, etc…) should meet them, give the keys, and show them the house and how everything works (washing machine, dryer, etc..) you can also write the instructions and put them in a very visible place.

In most exchanges one of the parties meets theh other one before he leaves. If flight schedules make it possible, this option is very good for you meet personally your partner.

But be sure that for the time the exchange is done, you and the other party will be friends, all questions

will be answered and any problems that can occur will be solved.

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2.5.2. An example of listing

FORMULARIO PARA SOLICITUD/LISTING FOR AN EXCHANGE

La informacion siguiente servirá para crear su listado en ICV. Intente ser tan descriptivo como pueda. Si tiene alguna pregunta o ncesita ayuda no dude en enviarnos un e-mail

The following information will be utilized to create your listing on ICV. Please be as descriptive as possible. If you have any questions or need some help, please send us an e-mail, and we will be pleased to assist you.

Pueden añadir fotos a su listado, hasta un maxnmo de tres. Pueden hacerlo bien enviandolas por e-mail como fichero adjunto a:

HIPERV

NCULO "mailto:icv@intercasa.com"

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, o por correo a:

Fray Junipero Serra, 23

08320 El Masnou (Barcelona)

No hay ningun cargo adicional por incluir las fotos, pero no devolveremos los origionales de las mismas.

You can add up to three photos to your listing. You can do so by either attaching them to an e-mail to:

HIPERV

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or by mailing them to

Fray Junipero Serra, 23

08320 El Masnou (Barcelona)

Spain

There is no additional charge for the photos, but we are not going to send them back to you. envelope, if you need them returned.

Top of Form 1

INFORMACION DE CONTACTO - CONTACT INFORMATION

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Nombre completo - Full Name

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Calle - Street

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Ciudad/Provincia - City and State/Province

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Pais - Country

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Codigo Postal - Zip or Postal Code

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Telefono - Phone Number

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Marque aqui si solo desea que aparezca su direccion de e-mail en el listado. - Check Here if you only wish your E-Mail Address to appear in your listing

CATEGORIAS - LISTING CATEGORY

Indique la categoria en la que quiere incluir su listado - Please indicate the categories that you would like included in your listing

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Intercambio de casa - Home Exchange

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Intercambio de Hospitalidad - Hospitality Exchange

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Alquiler - Vacation Rentals

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Otras ofertas - Open to Offers

Indique el periodo de tiempo en que desea realizar el intercambio - Please indicate time period of availability:

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Localizacion - Location of Home Listed

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Area metropolitana mas cercana - Nearest Metropolitan Area

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Destinos preferidos - Preferred Destinations

Haga una descripción concisa de su casa en dos lineas - Please provide a concise two line attention grabbing description of your home:

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Describa a continuacion su vivienda asi como los complementos. Incluya tambien las atracciones que pueda haber en los alrededores. Si lo que desean es alquilar la casa indique el precio. Si tiene una pagina personal y quieren que les pongamos un enlace, indiquenos la URL completa

The following area should be utilized to describe your home and its features. Also, be sure to list attractions which are in close proximity. If your listing is a vacation rental, please indicate the rental rate. If you would like us to link your listing to your personal home page, please include the complete URL.

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MARQUE LO QUE CORRESPONDA - CHECK ALL THAT APPLY TO YOUR LISTING:

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Television

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Ordenador - Computer

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Video - VCR

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Balcón/Terraza - Balcony/Terrace/Deck

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Piscina privada - Private Pool

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Piscina comunitaria - Community Pool

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HotTub/Jacuzzi

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Chimenea - Fireplace

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Automóvil disponible - Auto Available

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Accesibilidad para minusvlís - Handicapped Accessible

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Tenis - Tennis

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Ski - Skiing

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Restaurantes y tiendas en las proximidades - Dining and Shopping Nearby

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Transporte público - Public Transportation Available

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Galerias/Museos - Galleries/Museums

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Niños No - No Children

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Fumadores No - No Smoking

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Animales No - No Pets

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Experiencia en intercambios - Experienced Exchanger

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SU LISTADO - YOUR LISTING.

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El listado tardara aproximadamente tres dias en ser incluido - Please allow three days for your listing to be posted.

para mas información - For Further Information On

ICV

E-Mail:

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2.6. Activities

2.6.1. A cloze text

_ Read the following text and fill in the missing words in the blanks with one word only.

Encouraged by the devolutionary movements.............the world, the Southern Party is now calling..........independence from the largely northern-controlled United States. .............. in Houston, Texas and organising...........all 18 southern states, the ........... stands for Southern economic self-confidence and .......... to be non-racist, adopting the third Confederate flag.......... was used when black volunteers ........... accepted into the Confederate army. ........... platform is for devolution and............. leadership from politicians and against abortion, gun controls ............. federal taxes.

_ Solutions: around, for, registered, in, party, proclaims, which, were, its, moral, and.

2.6.2. A reading activity

Pre-reading:

You are going to read two little texts about toilet law and taboo words. Here are some words and phrases from the texts. Find them in the texts and explain their meanings.

gallon, repeal, flush, proud, borrow, report-.

Reading:

Read the texts in detail. Can you make a brief summary of what the texts are about?

The teacher makes questions about the text 1:

Does Congress agree with toilet law?

Who is trying to repeal the toilet law in a legal way?

The teacher gives some sentences which refer to the text 2 and the students guess whether they are true or false:

T.S.Eliot and W.H.Auden have published The F Word.

The book contains a history of the word fuck.

The f-word is always appearing into “The New York Times”.

4. Correct the answers.

Text 1

AMERICANS AGAINST TOILET LAW

Until 1992 Americans simply took their toilets for granted, the impressive 3.5-gallon models of cleanliness and efficiency. But in 1992, with the aim of saving water and money in mind, Congress enacted a law to make toilets in the US comply with a 1.6-gallon toilet standard.

Americans have been complaining ever since, and now Michigan Congressman Joe Knollenberg is trying to repeal the toilet law, claiming thousands of supporters who demand the right of “a decent flush” in the land of the free.

Text 2

Faber & Faber, the publisher of T.S.Eliot, W.H. Auden and Ted Hughes, is now also the proud publisher of The F Word: THE COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE WORLD IN ALL ITS ROBUST AND VARIOUS USES. Edited by Jesse Sheidlower, editor of the RANDOM HOUSE DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN SLANG, the book contains a history of the word fuck starting from the 15th century, when the English probably borrowed it from Germanic languages. Surprisingly, the f-word never made it into THE NEW YORK TIMES until just under two years ago, when Kenneth Starr wrote his infamous report on the affair between President Clinton and Monica Lewinsky.

2.6.4. A role play

Role situation: An interviewer and his guests.

Make a group of 3 or 4. One of you will be the interviewer and the others will be his guests. The guests are the owners of a restaurant where they cook octopus and another restaurant which offers mouse among its dishes (main dishes).

The teacher helps them to rehearse (careful with intonation).

The teacher asks two or three pairs to come to the front and improvise the conversation.

Freud, Sigmund. Tótem y tabú. Madrid: Alianza Editorial,1972.

HARRIS, Marvin. Vacas, cerdos, guerras y brujas: los enigmas de la cultura. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1996.

Trudgill, Peter. Sociolinguistics. An introduction to language and society. London: Penguin Books, 1983.

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Miguel Gimeno

A:\enseñanza2.doc

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Miguel Gimeno@C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\Guardado con Autorrecuperación de enseñanza2.asd

Miguel Gimeno

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Miguel Gimeno

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Miguel Gimeno

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Miguel Gimeno

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F. Filologia

Miguel Gimeno

F. Filologia

Miguel Gimeno

3. FESTIVALS AND FOLKLORE

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN SPANISH AND BRITAIN FESTIVALS

3.3 DIFFERENT FESTIVALS

January: Up-helly-aa

February: St. Valentine´s day

Pancake day

March: St. David´s day (Wales)

April: April fool´s day

Easter time

May: May day

June: Midsummer´s day (England)

August: The Nottinghill carnival

The Edimbourgh festival (Scotland)

Eisteddfods

October: Hallowe´en

November: Guy fawkes night

The lord mayor´s show

December: Christmas

London´s Christmas decorations

Cards, trees, mistletoe...

Carols

Christmas Eve

Christmas Day

Boxing Day

Firts Footing

New year resolution

Boxing day hunts

3.4 ROYAL FESTIVALS

The trooping of the colour

The changing of the guard

Maundy money

Swan upping

The Queen´s telegram

The birthday honour list and the new year´s honour list

The state opening of Parliament

The order of the garter ceremony

The Queen´s Christmas speech

The tower of London

3.5 ACTIVITIES IN A REAL SCHOOL

3.1 Introduction

The British customs and traditions are famous all over the world and a lot of them have very long histories. Some are funny and some are strange but they are all part of the British way of life. They are all interesting.

The British Isles is the name that refers to all the island off the north west coast of the European continent: Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales), the whole of Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.

The United Kingdom´s flag is the Union Jack which is made up of three crosses. The upright red cross is the cross of St. George, the white diagonal cross of St. Andrew and the red diagonal cross is the cross of St. Patrick.

Each country also has a national “emblem” or sign.

The English emblem is a red rose. The Welsh emblem is a vegetable or flower, a lee or a daffodil. The Scottish emblem is a wild plant, a thistle. And the Irish emblem is another wild plant, a shamrock. It´s traditionally in Britain to wear your country´s emblem on its saint´s day. The Welsh often wear a daffodil because the leek doesn´t go in a buttonhole.

The Britain´s patron saint´s and their days are:

England: St. George - April 23rd.

Ireland: St. Patrick - March 17th.

Scotland: St. Andrew - November 30th.

Wales: St. David - March 1st.

The Scottish, Welsh and English don´t really celebrate their national saint´s days. But St. Patrick´s Day is important for Irish people all over the world and they celebrate it with a big St. Patrick´s Day parade.

3.2 Differentation Spanish festivals and Britain festivals.

GREAT BRITAIN

SPAIN

JANUARY: Up-helly-aa (Scotland)

----------

FEBRUARY: St. Valentine´s day

14 FEBRERO: San Valentín

FEBRUARY: Pancake day

FEBRERO-MARZO: Carnaval

MARCH 1ST: St. David´s day (Wales)

19 MARZO: San José

APRIL: April fool´s day

----------

APRIL: Easter time

MARZO-ABRIL: Pascua

MAY: May day

1 MAYO: Dia del trabajador

JUNE 24TH: Midsummer´s day (England)

24 JUNIO: Dia de San Juan

AUGUST: The Edimburgh festival (Scotland)

-----------

AUGUST: The nottinhill carnival

------------

AUGUST: Eisteddfods

FECHA VARIABLE: Juegos florales

OCTOBER 31ST: Hallowe´en

1 NOVIEMBRE: Todos los Santos

NOVEMBER: Guy fawkes night

-----------

NOVEMBER: The lord mayor´s show

-----------

DECEMBER: Christmas

24-26 DICIEMBRE: Navidades

3.3 Different festivals

JANUARY: Up-helly-aa

Up-helly-aa is a festival celebrated at the Shetlands which are islands near Scotland.

In the ninth century , men from Norway came to the Sthetlands. These were the Vikings. They came to Britain in ships and carried away animals, gold, and sometimes women and children, too.

Now, 1000 years later, people in the Sthetlands remember the Vikings with a festival. Every winter the people of Lerwick, a town in the Sthelands, make a model of a ship. It´s a Viking “long-ship”, with the head of dragon at the front. Then, on Up -Helly-Aa night in January, the Shetlanders dress in Viking clothes. They carry the ship through the town to the sea. There they burn it. They do this because the Vikings put their dead men in ships and burned them. But there aren´t any men in the modern ships.

FEBRUARY: St. Valentine´s Day

St. Valentine is the saint of people in love. It is February 14th. On that day many people send a card to the one they love or someone whom they have fallen in love with. Traditionally you must never write your name on it. So a lot of time is spent trying to guess who has sent them.

In Spain, the tradition is the same. This festival was a shepherd´s celebration his aim was to secure the fertility of the countrysides, the flocks and the same shpherds.

FEBRUARY: Pancake day British people eat pancakes on Shrove Tuesday in February or March.

For pancakes you need flour, eegs and milk. Then you eat them with sugar and lemon.

In some parts of Britain there are pancake races on Shrove Tuesday. People race with a frying pan in one hand. They have to “toss” the pancake, throw it in the air and cath it again in the frying pan.

It is said that it started because a woman, on a Sunday, was making pancakes, and she had forgotten to take off her apron, cooking mitts and had not changed for church. She ran all over the town and arrived all her grander. Then, to have some fun with this, some people decided to have a race, while simulating that you are cooking the pancake while running to church.

In Spain, carnaval is celebrated during three days, which are named “carnestolendas”. “Carnestolendas” are fancy-dress balls, masked balls and float in procession by the streets.

MARCH: St. David´s day

It is a very important day for Welsh people. St. David is their “patron” or national saint.

On March 1st, the Welsh celebrate St. David´s Day and wear daffodils in the button holes of their coats or jackets.

In Spain, especially in Valencia, this day is celebratted with the “Fallas”. The “Fallas” are big monuments which are of cardboard and wood.

Too, in this day is celebrated the Father´s day, this is the custom of setting aside a day to honor fathers where the children offer presents at their fathers.

APRIL: April fool´s day

April 1st is April Fool´s Day in Britain.

This is a very old tradition from the Middle Ages (between the fifth and the fifteenth centuries). At the times the servants were masters for one day of the year. They gave orders to their masters, and their masters had to obey.

Now April Fool´s Day is different. It´s a day for jokes and tricks.

APRIL: Easter time

The British celebrate the idea of new birth by giving each other chocolate Easter eggs which are opened and eaten on Easter Sunday.

On good Friday bakers sell hot cross buns, which ae toasted and eaten with butter.

In Spain, this festival is celebrated in commemoration of the Christ´s resurrection.

People to celebrate this festival go to the countryside or other places with the family and friends where they eat the traditional “panquemado”, boiled egg and the long pork sausage.

MAY: May day

May 1st was an important day in the Middle Ages. In the very early morning, young girls went to the fields and washed their faces with dew. They believed this madde them very beautiful for a year after that.

Today this festival is to celebrate the end of the winter. Much of this celebration is connected with dancing, which is performed to encourage life and growth and to drive away harmful spirits.

Children may be seen dancing roound the Maypole on village greens, weaving their brightly coloured scarves into a beautiful pattern. Morris men dance all day long on 1st May, waving their wife handkerchiefs to drive away the evil spirits and welcome in the new ones.

In Spain, the first day of May is celebrated the workman´s day, to commemoratte at the “mártires de Chicago”, some workers that were murdered. ¡Workman´s day” as symbol of the fight by the worker´s rights.

JUNE: Midsummer´s day

Midsummer´s Day, June 24th, is the longest day of the year.

On that day is celebrated a very old custom at Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge is one of Europe´s biggest stone circles. A lot of the stones are twelve metres high. It´s also very old, the earliest part of Stonehenge is nearly 5000 years old.

The Druids used it for a calendar. The Druids were the priests in Britain 2000 years ago. They used the sun and the stones at Stonehenge to know the start of months and seasons.

There are Druids in Britain today, too. And every June 24th a lot of them go to Stonehenge. On that morning the sun shines on one famous stone, the Heel stone. For the Druids this is a very important moment in the year but for a lot of British people it´s just a strange old custom.

In Spain, this day is celebrated in lots of places coinciding with the saint of the King, Juan Carlos I, who makes a speech. A festival in commemoration at this saint will be, for example, the bonfires of San Juan celebrated in Alicante.

AUGUST: The Nottinghill carnival

This is Europe´s biggest street carnival.

A lot of people in the Notting Hill area of London come from the West Indies (a group of islands in the Caribbean). And for two days in August,Notting Hill is the West Indies.

There´s West Indian food and music in the streets. There´s also a big parade and people dance day and night.

AUGUST: The Edimburgh festival

This is the biggest art festival in Europe.

There are plays, concerts and exhibitions from countries all over the world. That´s the “official” festival. But there´s an “unofficial” festival too. This is called the Edimburgh “Fringe”. At the Fringe, visitors can see cheaper concerts and plays by students.

AUGUST: Eisteddfods

It is an arts festival in Wales.

People sing and read their poetry in the Welsh language. The Welsh name for these poets is “bards”. People also play music, the harp is very popular here.You can always hear harp music at an Eisteddfods. But Eisteddfods aren´t just a festivals. They´re also competitions to find the best singers, musicians and poets in Wales.

In Spain, this festival is called “Juegos Florales”. This is a poetic competition formed in Toulouse in 1324 and carried to Barcelona by Juan I of Aragón in 1393. Currently, these competitions are celebrated in other towns, too.

There are three rewards:

“la flor natural”

“la englantina d´or”

“viola d´or”

OCTOBER: Hallowe´en

Hallowe´en means “holly evening” and takes place on 31st October.

On that night of the year, ghosts and witches are free. That´s the traditional story. A long time along people were afraid and stayed at home on Hallowe´en.

Now in Britain it´s time for fun. There are a lot of parties on October 31st. At parties people wear masks and they dress as ghosts and witches,or as Dracula, Frankestein´s monster... People may play difficult games such as trying to eat an apple from a bucket of water without using their hands.

In recent years children dressed in white sheets knock on doors at haloowe´en and ask if you would like a “trick” or “treat”. If you give them something nice, a “treat”, they go away. However, if you don´t they play a “trick” on you, such as making a lot of noise or spilling flour on your front doorstep!

In Spain, Hallowe´en takes place on 31st October, too.

There are some towns that have adopted his customs as wear masks and dress as ghosts and withes...This festival goes before at the Chistian festival of the “Dia de Todos los Santos”, this day people go to the Christian Eucharist to remember at the dead.

NOVEMBER: Guy fawkes night

November 5th is Guy Fawkes´ Night in Britain.

It is celebrated by burning a dummy made of straw and old clothes on a bonfire, while at the same time letting of fireworks. This dummy is called a “guy” like Guy Fawkes.

On November 5th 1605, Guy Fawkes tried to kill King James I. This king is a protestant, was very unpopular with Roman Catholics. Some of them planned to blow up the Houses of Parliament when the King was going to open Parliament. Under the House of Lords they had stored thirty-six barrels of gunpowder, which were to be explored by Guy Fawkes. However one of the plotters spoke about these plans and Fawkes was discovered. The King´s men took him to the Tower of London and there they cut off his head.

Now, children can often be seen on the pavements before 5th November using their guys to make money. They stand in the street and shout “Penny for the guy”. If they collect enough they can buy some fireworks.

NOVEMBER: The lord mayor´s show

Every year there´s a new Lord Mayor of London. The Mayor is the city´s traditional leader.

The second Saturday in November is always the day for the Lord Mayor´s Show. This caremony is over six hundred years old. It´s also London´s biggest parade.

The Lord Mayor drives to the Royal Courts of Justice (near Fleet Street) in a coach. The coach is two hundred years old. It´s red and gold and it has six horses.

DECEMBER: Christmas

There are a lot of Christmas and New Year traditions in Britain.

For most families, this is the most important festival of the year, it combines the Christian celebration of the birth of Christ with the traditional festivities of winter.

London´s Christmas decorations:

Most families decorate their houses with brightly-coloured paper or holly, and they usually have a Christmas tree in the corner of the front room, glittering with coloured lights and decorations.

The streets have usually wonderful decorations.

Every year the people of Norway give the city of London a present. It´s a big Christmas tree and it stands in Trafalgar Square. Also in central London, Oxford Street and Regent Street always have beautiful decorations at Christmas.

Cards, trees, mistletoe...

In 1846 the first Christmas cards began in Britain.

That was five years after the first Christmas tree. Queen Victorian´s husband, Prince Albert, brought this German tradition to Britain. He and the Queen had a Christmas tree at Windsor Castle in 1841. A few years after, nearly every house in Britain had one.

Traditionally people decorate their trees on Christmas Eve, that´s December 24th. Family members wrap up their gifts and leave them at the bottom of the Christmas tree to be found on Christmas morning.

An old tradition is Christmas mistletoe. People put a piece of this green plant with its white berries over a door. Mistletoe brings good luck, people say. Also, at Christmas British people kiss their friends and family under the mistletoe.

Carols:

On the Sunday before Christmas many churches hold a carol service where special hymns are sung.

Sometimes groups of singers go from house to house. They collect money and sing traditional Christmas songs or carols.

There are a lot of very popular British Christmas carols. Three famous ones are: “Good King Wenceslas”, “The Holly and the Ivy” and “We Three Kings”.

Christmas Eve:

Children leave a long sock or stocking and the end of their bed on Christmas Eve, 24th December, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and bring them lots of presents, fruits and nuts. Some people leave something for him, too. A glass of wine, biscuits...There´s another name for Father Christmas in Britain, Santa Claus. That comes from the European name for him, Saint Nicholas. In the traditional story he lives at the North Pole. But now he lives in big shops in towns and cities all over Britain.

Christmas day:

In Britain the most important meal on December 25th is Christmas dinner. Nearly all Christmas food is traditional, but a lot of the traditions are not very old. For example, there were no turkeys in Britain before 1800. And even in the nineteenth century, goose was the traditional meat at Christmas. But not now.

A twentieth-century British Christmas dinner is roast turkey with carrots, potatoes, peas, Brussels sprouts and gravy. There are sausages and bacon too. Then, after the turkey, there, s Christmas pudding.

Crackers are usual at Christmas dinner. These came to Britain from China in the nineteenth century. Two people pull a cracker. Usually there is a small toy in the middle. Often there´s a joke on a piece of paper too. So the cracker will make a loud crack and a coloured hat, small toy and joke will fall out.

Boxing Day:

December 26th is Boxing Day. This name comes from th eboy´s wooden boxes.

Traditionally boys from the shops in each town asked for money at Christmas. They went from house to house on December 26th and took boxes made of wood with them. At each house people gave them money. This was a Christmas present.

Firsts Footing:

In Scotland the name for New Year´s Eve is Hogmanay.

After midnight people visit their friends. And they take a piece of coal like a present.

Traditionally the first visitor of the year must carry coal into the house. It brings good luck. It also help to make a fire in the middle of winter.

New year resolution:

In Britain a lot of people make New Year Resolutions on the evening of December 31st. It is because they want to change their faults.

Royal festivals

The trooping of the colour:

The British Queen has two birthdays. Her real birthday is on April 21st, but she has an “official” birthday, too. That´s on the second Saturday in June.

On the Queen´s official birthday, there is a traditional ceremony called the Troping of the colour. It is a big parade with brass bands and hundreds of soldiers at Horse Guard´s Parade in London. A “regiment” of the Queen´s soldiers, the Guards, march in front of her. At the front of the parade is the regiment´s flag or “colour”.

The guards are trooping the colour. Thousands of Londoners and visitors watch in Horse Guards´ Parade. And millions of people at home watch it on television.

The Changing of the Guard:

This happens every day at Buckingham Palace, the Queen´s home in London.

Soldiers stand in front of the palace. Each morning these soldiers (the “guard”) change. One group leaves and another arrives.

In summer and winter tourists stand outside the palace at 11.30 every morning and watch the Changing of the Guard.

Maundy money:

Maundy Thursday is the day before Good Friday, at Easter.

On that day the Queen gives Maundy money to a group of old people. This tradition is over 1000 years old. At one time the king or queen washed the feet of poor, old people on Maunday Thursday. That stopped in 1754.

Swan upping:

Here´s very different royal tradition. On the River Thames there are hundreds of swans. A lot of these beautiful white birds belong, traditionally, to the king or queen. In July the young swans on the Thames are about two months old. Then the Queen´s swan keeper goes, in a boat, from London Bridge to Henley. He looks at all the young swans and marks the royal ones.

The Queen´s telegram:

This custom is not very old. It´s for very old people. On his or her one hundredth birthday, a British person gets a telegram from the Queen.

The birthday honour list and the New Year´s honour list:

Twice a year at Buckingham Palace, the Queen gives titles or “honours”, once in January and once in June.

There are a lo of different honours. A few honours are:

C.B.E.: Companion of the British Empire.

O.B.E.: Order of the British Empire

M.B.E.: Member of the British Empire.

(These honours began in the nineteenth century. The Britain had an empire.)

Knighood: a knight has “Sir” before his name. A new knight kneels in front of the Queen. She touches first his right shoulder, then his left shoulder with a sword. Then she says “Arise, Sir...”(his first name)” and the knight stands.

Peerage: a peer is a lord. Peers sit in the House of Lords. That's one part of the Houses of Parliament. The other part is the House of Commons. Peers call the House of Commons “another place”.

Dame/Baroness: these are two of the highest honours for a woman.

The state opening of Parliament:

Parliament, not the Royal family, controls modern Britain. But traditionally the Queen opens Parliament every autumn. She travels from Buckingham Palace to the Houses of the Parliament in a gold carriage -the Irish State Coach -. At the Houses of Parliament the Queen sits on a “throne” in the House of Lords. Then she reads the “Queen´s Speech”. At the State Opening of Parliament the Queen wears a crown. She wears other jewels from the Crown Jewels, too.

The Order of the Garter ceremony:

The Order of the Garter ceremony has a long history. King Edward III started the Order in the fourteenth century. At that time, the people in the Order were the twenty-four bravest knights in England.

Now the knights of the Order are not all soldiers. They are members of theHouse of Lords, church leaders or politicians. There are some foreign knights, too. For example, the King of Norway, The Grand Duke of Luxembourg and the Emperor of Japan. They are called Extra Knights of the Garter. The Queen is the Sovereign of the Order of the Garter. But she is not the only royal person in the Order. Prince Charles and Prince Philip are Royal Knights, and the Queen Mother is a Lady of the Garter.

In June the Order has a traditional ceremony ar Windsor Castle. This is the Queen favourite castle. It is also the home of the Order of the Garter. All the Knights walk from the castle to St. George´s Chapel, the royal church at Windsor. They wear the traditional clothes or “robes” of the Order. These robes are very heavy. In fact King Edward VIII once called them “ridiculous”. But they are an important part of one of Britain´s oldest traditions.

The Queen's Christmas Speech:

This is a modern royal custom.

On Christmas Day at 3.00 in the afternoon, the Queen makes a speech on radio and TV. It´s ten minutes long. In it she talks to the people of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth about the past year.

Traditionally in speeches, kings or queens say “we”, not “I”. Queen Elizabeth II doesn't do this. She says “my husband and I “, or just “I”.

The Tower of London:

William the Conqueror and his army landed in England from France in the year 1066. In 1078 he started to build the Tower of London.

Now this famous castle is full of history and tradition.

The guards of the Tower are called Beefeaters. Their name comes from a French word, boufitiers were guards in the palaces of French Kings. They protected the King´s food.

You can see some large, black birds at the Tower of London. These are the ravens at the Tower. Ravens have lived at the Tower of London for hundred of years.

People go to see the Beefeaters and the ravens, but that is not all. Visitors to the Tower go to see the Crown Jewels, too. There are eight crows. There are also a lot of others a very famous jewel in the jewel room. In fact the Crown Jewels are the biggest tourist attraction in London.

In the evening there is another old custom at the Tower of London, the ceremony of the Keys. At 9.53 exactly, the Beefeaters clos the Tower. Then at 10.00 they give the keys to the Governor of the Tower. That is because a long time ago the Tower was a prison for important prisoners like Anne Boolean, Sir Walter Raleigh, Guy Fakes...

Holidays and School Schedules

4.1. Introduction

In this part of the work, we are going to write about timetables in schools all over the world and the differences between them, and of course , we will explain why exists these differences.

We are going to observe a different duration of time in school, how many holidays children have during the year, how man hours children do in classes, etc. And, in the end, we will be able to appreciate a big difference between Mediterranean countries and countries like Germany, Ireland, England or Denmark.

On the other hand, we are going to analyse different games for playing children and, even, it can be read an interview that was done to a French girl where she explained how French methodology is different from the Spanish one.

In this part of the work can be observed that there is a big part that have been taken from Internet. This is because in the net there are a lot of interesting pages for teachers or for the same children who want to play, but at the same time, they can learn a lot of things from there. It is interesting to analyse these pages because there a lot of information for giving different classes that we are used to assist.

Finally, I would like to thank MT Servicios Educativos (situated in Valencia city) because it has given us a lot of information about games and they have allowed us to play with children from Vilavella school.

4.2. Timetables in Europe

In the following pages, we are going to study different timetables in Europe. We can observe how different is school in different places, in respect to timetables. Maybe, this fact is due to the hours of sun or, simply, a different way of living, a different hour of having lunch, etc. And ,for this reason, timetables are different.

For example, we can see that children start school at 9.00 a.m. and finish at 17.00 p.m. in Spain, while in Ireland finish school at 15.00 p.m. and we can ask ourselves, why? One answer could be that Irish children usually have their dinner at 18.00 p.m. But, in Greece, a similar way of life that Spain, children finish school at 19.30 p.m.

Observing the list, we could affirm that Mediterranean places like Spain, Greece or Italy, school's timetables are very similar while in others European schools or high-schools is totally different.

In respect to holidays we could note that the same as before: Mediterranean countries have more or less the same timetable. We could say that, for example in Spain, it would be totally impossible giving classes to children in August because of the heat in this country. For this reason, holidays are more extensive than Germany or Denmark. But, in other festivals, mainly in Christmas, countries like Germany or Ireland have more holidays than others countries like Luxembourg or The Low Countries. In the duration of time school, we ratify the same as before, depending on the country's geographical-situation school have a timetable or another, this is to say, timetable makes suitable to the temperature of the aforementioned country.

To end with, we add that all the information given about timetables in different countries can be found in the file called “Organisation of School Time in the member states of the European Community” by Eurycide, 1993.

NUMBER OF DAYS AT SCHOOL

COUNTRIES PRIMARY SCHOOL SECONDARY SCHOOL

Belgium

182

128

Denmark

200

200

Germany

188/208

188/208

Greece

175

175

Spain

175

170

France

180

180

Ireland

184

180/200

Italy

Min. 200

Min.200

Luxembourg

212

216

The Low Countries

200

216

Portugal

200

200/195

Great Britain

England and Wales

North-Ireland

Scotland

Min. 190

Min.190

190

Min.190

Min.190

190

1

Organisation of school time in the member states of the European Community

Ages which full-time education is compulsory

Countries Age

Belgium

6 to 15/16 years

Denmark

7 to 16 years

Germany

6 to 15/16 years

Greece

5 ½ to 14 ½ years

Spain

6 to 14/16 years

France

6 to 16 years

Ireland

6 to 15 years

Italy

6 to 14 years

Luxembourg

4 to 15 years

The Low Countries

5 to 16 years

Portugal

6 to 14/15 years

Great Britain:

England and Wales

North-Ireland

Scotland

5 to 16 years

4 to 16 years

5 to 16 years

1. Organisation of School Time in the member states of the European Community

Secondary School

Classes per week/duration of a class

Countries classes per week duration of a class

Belgium

French Community

Germany Community

Flemish Community

28/32

32/36

32/36

50 min

50 min

50 min

Denmark

30/32

45 min

Germany

30/36

45 min

Greece

30/36

45 min

Spain

29/30

50 min

France

29 ½ to 31 ½

55 min

Ireland

45

35/40 min

Italy

27/40

50 min

Luxembourg

30/38

50 min

Portugal

31/32

50 min

Organisation of School Time in the member states of the European Community EURYCIDE,1993

School Holidays

Countries Summer Christmas Easter others

Belgium

* French and Flemish Community

* Germany Community

9 weeks

8 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

5 holidays

5 holidays

Denmark

7 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

3 holidays

Germany

6 weeks

6/17 days

3/17 days

15 holidays

Greece

10/12 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

10 holidays

Spain

11/13 weeks

15 days

10 days

9 holidays

France

9 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

5 holidays

Ireland

9/13 weeks

10 days

10 days

13 holidays

Italy

9 weeks

2 weeks

1 weeks

5 holidays

Luxembourg

9 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

3 holidays

The Low Countries

6/7 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

3 holidays

Portugal

10 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

10 holidays

Great Britain

* England and Wales

* North-Ireland

* Scotland

6 weeks

8 weeks

6 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

***

***

***

Duration of time school

Countries Primary school Secondary school

start end start end

Belgium

1st September

End of August

30th June

July

1stSeptember

15th August

3oth June

20th June

Denmark

15th August

20th June

15th August

20th June

Germany

1st August

31st August

1st August

31st July

Greece

11th September

15th June

1st September

3oth June

Spain

First two weeks

September

Lasts two weeks June

1st October

30th June

France

First two weeks September

Beginning July

First two weeks of September

Beginning July

Ireland

1st September

End of June

1st September

End May

Italy

10th September

30th June

10th September

3oth June

Luxembourg

15th September

15th July

15th Septemb.

15th July

The Low Countries

1st August

31st July

1st August

31st July

Portugal

2nd week of September

End of July

Lasts two weeks of September

End of 2nd week of June

Great Britain

*England and Wales

*North-Ireland

*Scotland

1st week of September

Beginning of Sep

3rd week of August

3rd week of July

end of July

beginning of July

1st week of September

beginning of September

3rd week of August

3rd week of July

end of July

beginning of July

4.2. Differences between French and Spanish school

In this pages, we are going to write the experience of a Spanish girl, Sofia, who was born in France in 1972. Her experience in a French school was during 1976 and 1986. Then, she came back to Spain. Now, we reproduce her words during the interview we realised in March 2000.

I: What time did you start and finish the school in France?

S: In French school (old plan) started, in the morning, at 8.30 a.m. and finished at 12.00 but in the afternoon, was from 14.00 to 16.30 p.m. This was in Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday. But in Wednesday and Saturday, classes were from 8.30 to 12.00 a.m.

I: And, what about in high-school?

S: An intense working-day, this is to say, students were all morning in classes but they didn't go to the high-school during the evening.

This timetable is very similar to Spain excepting in what we used to call E.G.B.. Classes in Spanish-E.G.B. started at 9.00 a.m. and finished at 12.00, and during the afternoon, from 15.30 to 17.00 p.m. Now, this is very different, like in France, because a new method has been established both in Spain and France. In B.U.P. it's the same timetable.

I: How many holidays had you in France?

S: The same as in Spain, excepting a few ones like what we used to call “Armishiea”, this is to say, the celebration of the end of the First World War. And, in Christmas we had 15 days like in Easter. But, for example, in Summer we had only one week. In February, we used to have a week, you know, for skiing.

I: Tell me something about your exams, how were they, oral, etc.?

S: In E.G.B., we had a continuos evaluation and, at the end of the course, we usually had finals exams where everything given during the course could be asked. We had French and English grammar, subjects which were difficult because we had to speak a lot during a conversation we had with the teacher at the end of the course and during classes. While in B.U.P., things were a little different because in June we normally had all the exams and in subjects like English, French and Spanish or Germany we used to do oral examinations.

I: You have mentioned a lot of languages. Did you have four languages in the school and high-school?

S: No, no. French and English were compulsory while we had to choose between Spanish or Germany. In my case, I chose Spanish because I spoke it at my home, my father and my mother are from Spain. All this was from E.G.B.

I: Do you know if , what we call “Selectividad” exists in France?

S: Yes, of course. But in France is called Bacalaureat (Bac en Blanc) and the main difference is that this final and decisive exam, is oral.

I: Could you remember which were your timetable in France, you know, what time did you eat, study, etc?

S: I usually had for breakfast at 7.30 a.m. , lunch was at 12.30 while the afternoon snack was at 16.30. At my home, we normally had for dinner at 20.00 p.m., and because I was a child, I went to bed at 21.00. Students usually studied in the afternoon, between 16.30 and 20.00 p.m.

I: Sofia, thank you very much for this interview.

S: You're welcome. It's nice to remember old times.

4.3 Activities in a real school

The activity is about asking children what they think about their school and, if they would like to make extra-activities like interviewing or filming. The results are given next.

How would you film an interview in a class or in a house? Give ideas and explain the methods you would use.

What would you ask if you are request to do an interview with a person who has been living abroad a lot of time? Please, give ideas related to studies and habits in school.

Have you ever recorded conversations in class or have you ever filmed advertisements or maybe a film? What did you do and which materials did you use?

Would you like doing extra activities like filming or recording in school subjects or do you prefer traditional classes? In which subjects did you do it?

Do you think Spanish methodology in schools is very boring or, otherwise, do you think is exciting and fabulous?

Do you creative activities are necessary in primary schools and, of course in secondary school? Is this necessary for improving our studies and our careers?

If you know what is “Comunicación Audiovisual”, do you think are they really prepare to be in a future stage managers having in mind that our school are not really interested in this subjects?

Results from the school

The results from the school's questions about filming have been ,to a large extent, unexpected because of age of asked children and, on other hand, have been surprising due to children prefer mathematics rather than creative activities like preparing a advertising or recording an interview.

Children, who have been asked, are twelve and thirteen. All of them are female and they are studying in Vilavella (Centro de Fomento) .They prefer doing “compulsory”

subjects like Spanish, English or Mathematics rather than doing activities like filming. They were asked to think about this kind of activity and they answered that these were “silly” or unnecessary for the school. They didn't know anything about “Comunicación Audiovisual” and they have never filmed or recorded people or interviews.

Furthermore, they think the Spanish school system is well-constructed and, they think that they will be enough prepared to do any career in their life. But, we can see they are only twelve or thirteen years old and, of course, they haven't been in a high-school and in a University where the system is totally different. At the moment, they think that, what they are studying is the best and their school is well enough to prepare them.

Also, they were asked to prepare an interview, and we could say that interviews were a little incomplete and there were a lack of imagination about questions for asking to a foreign person. A big part of the questions were repeated, and we could observe that they children were unable to think properly about how to ask a person about her/his life and her/his studies. They needed a lot of help during the activity and, of course, motivation for doing it, and they asked us about simple questions that they didn't understand.

To finish with, I would like to thank the school for allowing me to do this activity with her students and for showing that our schools need more creative activities and a different kind of focus in our studies.

4.4. Teaching in Internet

In the following pages, we are going to see different places or activities that have been found in the net. Like we can observe, there are pages that give us ideas about how children could film in the class or, for example, the “weekly question”, an original activity like the “Newsday”. In this pages we can find interesting activities for L2 classes or for L1 as well. These activities are entertaining as well as original due to they are creative and unusual.

Another point I would like to mention is the “Global Schoolhouse's” page where we can find other activities like unreal travels or ,simply, a help to create stories or helping students learn about our world.

To end with, I would like to point there are a lot of interesting pages and, with them, a full extent of interesting activities . I would like to advertise children that Internet is very useful for their classes activities as well for their imagination ,as I have observed in the net. Although there are a lot of unusual and entertaining pages, there are more with useful extra-activities that teachers could use in their, sometimes boring, classes.

4.5. Games for children in English and Spanish

In the following pages, we are going to observe different games that can be realised in a school with children from 3 years old to young adults. Some of them are very entertaining as well as new for us. But, there are a lot that can remind us old times, and not only for us, but also for old people that play these “historical” games like “La Zapatilla por detrás”. These games are explained in “Juegos tradicionales”.

Some of these games were played by children between three and four years old and were observed by us in Vilavella's school, situated in Valencia city. Results were fantastic and children enjoyed a lot with them. Children knew traditional games and all of them participated with us. But, new games were not as successful as old games but they participated as well.

In the file from MT Servicios Educativos there are a lot of traditional games that were in use in this aforementioned school and we can assure that the result was incredible surprising and it was very funny for all of us. Children were asked to give ideas about new games but they preferred old and traditional ones. The games that we played were “Toca Azul”, “La Zapatilla por detrás”, “Fila Loca”, “Dibuja el Aire”, “El Lazarillo”, ”El Telegrama”, “Espejos” or “El Micrófono Mágico”.

5. CONCLUSION

First of all, we would like to say that in this work we have described four main points about culture in the classroom; for example, in Greetings and Farewells we have learnt principal features about polite and unpolite actions among students in class or in their own life. On the other hand, we could point that in Taboos and Exchanges is specialised in what we could say what is incorrect or correct to say while in Festivals we have seen different kinds of holidays around the world, but specially in England, Ireland, Scotland and Spain. Finally, we have observed in Holidays and School Schedules differences between Spanish and English school due to their timetables and we have experienced different games with children, too.

All of us would like to thank people that has allowed us to realised our works in real schools, and, with this, we could observe different reactions between students while they were answering our questions or playing with our games.

We hope you have enjoyed a lot with this work and, of course, you have learnt a bit more about classrooms nowadays and the differences between the past and the present.

6. References

De Castro, Mi viaje a Gran Bretaña, Bilbao: FMER, 1973.

Freud, Sigmund, Tótem y tabú, Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1972.

Harris, Marvin, Vacas, cerdos, guerras y brujas: los enigmas de la cultura, Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1996.

Holden, Susan, What's cooking, London: Evans, 1976.

Juliano, Dolores, Educación intercultural: escuela y minorías étnicas, Madrid: Eudema, 1993.

Loveday, Leo,The Sociolinguistics of Learning and Using a Non-native Language, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1986.

Organisation of School Time in the Member States of the European Community, London,: Eurycide, 1993.

Orlando, Jeffrey W. , “What Our Bodies Say and What our Bodies Mean: Non-verbal Miscommunication of Power”, 1999.

Rabley, Stephen, Customs and Traditions in Britain, England: Longman, 1986.

Spolsky, Bernard, Sociolinguistics, Oxford: University Press, 1998.

Spratt, Mary & Taylor, Lunda B., The Cambridge CAE Course, Cambridge: University Press, 1997.

www.britannica.com

www.businesspanish.com

www.geocities.com/Athens/Troy/9087/main.html

file://A:/englishfolklore.htm

www.lightspan.com

www.members.tripod.com

www.ika.com/stories/abacadabra/activity.html

References extracted from The Sociolinguistics of learning and using a non-native language, by Leo Loveday.1982.

References extracted from The Sociolinguistics, by Bernard Spolsky. (Oxford University Press.1.998).

References extracted from The Cambridge C.A.E. Course, by Mary Spratt and Lynda B. Taylor. (Cambridge Examinations Publishing).

References extracted from the article “What our bodies say and what our bodies mean : non-verbal miscommunication of power”, by Jeffrey W. Orlando.

References extracted from the website: www.britannica.com.

These exercises has been extracted from the website: www.businessspanish.com.

1 Organisation of School Time in the member states of the European Community EURYCIDE, 1993

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Greetings and Farewells

Greetings and Farewells

Greetings and Farewells