Gramática inglesa

Inglés. Verbos. Conjugación verbal. Adverbios. Comparativos y superlativos

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  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
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Present simple

From

Affirmative

I

Play

He/she/it

Plays

We/you/they

Play

Negative

I

Do

He/she/it

Does

Not play

We/you/they

Do

Questions

Do

I

Does

He/she/it

Play?

Do

We/you/they

Contractions

Do not > don't

Does not > doesn't

Uses

  • To talk about a habit or something that happens regularly (a routine).

How often do you play football?

He watches TV every evening.

  • To talk about a fact, a state, or something which is always true.

She doesn't like coffee.

Coffee contains caffeine.

  • To talk about a future, timetabled event.

The train leaves at 9.00 tomorrow morning.

Present continuous

Form

Affirmative

I

Am

He/she/it

Is

Playing

We/you/they

Are

Negative

I

Am

He/she/it

Is

Not playing

We/you/they

Are

Questions

Am

I

Is

He/she/it

Playing?

Are

We/you/they

Contractions

I am (not)

I'm (not)

He is/she is/ it is

He's/ she's/ it's

He is not/ she is not/ it is not

He's not OR he isn't/ she's not OR she isn't/ it's not OR it isn't

We are/ you are/ they are

We're/ you're/ they're

We are not/ you are not/ they are not

We're not OR we aren't/ you're not OR you aren't/ they're not OR they aren't

Spelling variations

  • If a verb ends in -e:

Come > coming

  • If a verb ends in one vowel +

one consonant:

begin > beginning

Uses

  • To talk about an action happening now, at the moment of speaking.

It's raining.

  • To talk about an action happening about now, but not necessarily at the time of speaking.

She's learning to play the guitar.

  • To talk about a future plan.

I'm going out this evening.

Past simple

Form

Affirmative

I/ he/ she/ it

Listened

We/ you/ they

Negative

I/ he/ she/ it

Did not listen

We/ you/ they

Questions

Did

I/ he/ she/ it

Listen?

We/ you/ they

Contraction

Did not

Didn't

Spelling variations

  • If a verb ends in one vowel + one

Consonant:

Plan > planned

Stop > stopped

Travel > travelled

  • If a verb ends in consonant + -y :

Carry > carried

Marry > married

(Only regular verbs)

Uses

We use the past simple to talk about a finished action in the past.

They left at 10.30.

She went home and had lunch.

Past continuous

Form

Affirmative

I/ he/ she/ it

Was

Listening

We/ you/ they

Were

Negative

I/ he/ she/ it

Was

Not listening

We/ you/ they

Were

Questions

Was

I/ he/she/ it

Listening?

Were

We/ you/ they

Contractions

Was not

Wasn't

Were not

Weren't

Uses

  • An action which was in progress at a particular time in the past.

I was having breakfast at 7.30

  • To describe an interrupted action

in the past. The longer (interrupted) action is in the past continuous, the shorter action is in the past simple.

We were watching the news when you rang.

Present perfect simple

Form

Affirmative

I

Have

He/ she/ it

Has

Changed

We/ you/ they

Have

Negative

I

Have

He/ she/ it

Has

Not changed

We/ you/ they

Have

Questions

Have

I

Has

He/ she/ it

Changed?

Have

We/ you/ they

Contractions

Have not

Haven't

Has not

Hasn't

Uses

  • To talk about experiences in life, but not about exactly when they happened.

Have you ever been to France?

I've never seen Elton John play live.

  • To talk about a situation that started in the past and continues in the present.

I've lived in Madrid all my life.

Have you had this bicycle for a long time?

I've had this CD since Christmas.

  • To talk about something that happened in the past and that has a result in the present.

“Where's Pete?” - “He's gone to town”. (= He isn't here now.)

Present perfect continuous

Form

Affirmative

I

Have

He/ she/ it

Has

Been waiting

We/ you/ they

Have

Negative

I

Have

He/ she/ it

Has

Not been waiting

We/ you/ they

Have

Questions

Have

I

Has

He/ she/ it

Been waiting?

Have

We/ you/ they

Uses

  • When a recently finished (or unfinished) action has a result in the present.

It smells in here! Have you been cooking?

You look very tired. Have you been working hard?

“You're wet!” - “Yes, it's been raining.”

  • To talk about an action that started in the past and that has continued up to the present. We often use for and since to talk about how long the action has been continuing.

I've been reading this book for three weeks.

It's been raining non-stop since last night.

I've been waiting at the bus-stop for an hour!

Verbs not used in continuous tenses

Some verbs are not normally used in the present continuous, present perfect continuous, or past continuous tenses:

Verbs of thinking: believe, forget, know, remember, understand

Verbs of liking and disliking: hate, like, love, prefer

Verbs of being and possession: be, own

Future: going to

Form

Affirmative

I

Am

He/ she/ it

Is

Going to come

We/ you/ they

Are

Negative

I

Am

He/ she/ it

Is

Not going to come

We/ you/ they

Are

Questions

Am

I

Is

He/ she/ it

Going to come?

Are

We/ you/ they

Uses

We uses going to talk about something we plan/ intend to do.

I'm going to visit my friends.

Future: may/ might

Form

Affirmative and negative

I/ he/ she/ it

May/ may not

Come

We/ you/ they

Might/ might not

Uses

  • We use may/ might to talk about future possibility and to make predictions about things which are uncertain.

The sky's grey. It might rain.

They may come, but they aren't sure.

  • We do not normally ask questions about the future using may/ might.

  • May and might have a similar meaning.

Future: will

Form

Affirmative and negative

I/ he/ she/ it

Will

Come

We/ you/ they

Will not

Questions

Will

He/ she/ it

Come?

You/ they

We do not ask questions about the future using will + I/ we.

Contractions

Will

I'll

Will not

Won't

Uses

  • To make predictions about the future.

I think Spain will win the European Cup.

Don't worry - I think it'll be fine.

  • To talk about things that are certain to happen.

I'll be 17 next January.

Sarah won't be at the party - she's very ill.

Will/ shall for offers

Form

Affirmative

I/ we

´ll

Help

Questions

Shall

I/ we

Help?

We do not form negative offers with will/ shall.

Uses

  • We use will for making offers in the affirmative.

We'll help you with your homework.

  • We use shall for offers that are questions.

Shall I buy you a newspaper?

(Not Will I buy you a newspaper?)

Past perfect simple

Form

Affirmative

I/ he/she/ it

Had

Gone

We/ you/ they

Negative

I/ he/ she/ it

Had

Not gone

We/ you/ they

Questions

Had

I/ he/ she/ it

Gone?

We/ you/ they

Contractions

Had

´d

Had not

Hadn't

Uses

  • We use the past perfect simple to talk about an action that happened before another action in the past.

When I arrived at the party, William had left. (= First, William left; then I arrived.)

Pete didn't come to the restaurant with us because he'd already eaten. (= First, Pete ate; then we went to the restaurant without Pete.)

  • We use the past perfect simple with for and since to say how long an action continued up to a point in the past.

Mick and Karen had been married for three months when they moved to Oxford. (= They were married for three months; then they moved to Oxford.)

I met James last week. I hadn't spoken to him since Christmas. (= First, I spoke to James at Christmas; them I met him again last week.)

Reported speech

Direct speech

Reported speech

“I like chocolate”

He said that he liked chocolate

“I'm going out”

She said that she was going out

“I slept until 11.00”

He said that he had slept until 11.00

  • If the reporting verb is in the past (said, answered, etc.), we move the verb in the reported statement back a tense into the past.

Present simple

Past simple

Present continuous

Past continuous

Past simple

Past perfect simple

Present perfect simple

Past perfect simple

Will/ won't

Would/ wouldn't

Can/ can't

Could/ couldn't

  • Pronouns (I, me, you, him, etc.) and possessive adjectives (my, your, his, etc.) also change.

Ben said, “I don't like milk.”

Ben said that he

didn't like milk.

  • We can use other reporting verbs instead of say. They include:

agree, answer complain, explain, promise, reply, tell

Reported speech: say and tell

  • With say, we do not mention who we are speaking to.

He said that he was hungry.

  • With tell, it is necessary to mention who we are speaking to.

He told his mum that he was hungry.

  • It is not necessary to use that after say and tell, it is optional.

Paul said (that) he was thirsty.

Kate told me (that) she was ill.

First conditional

Form

If + present simple, will + infinitive

If you drop it, it'll break.

OR

Will + infinitive + if + present simple

It'll break if you drop it.

  • the if clause can come before or after the main clause; the meaning is the same.

If it rains, we won't play. OR We won't play if it rains.

  • we do not use a future tense in the if clause.

(NOT If you will drop it, it'll break.)

Uses

We use the first conditional to talk about the result of something that may happen.

You'll get wet if it rains.

David will be happy if he wins the race.

Second conditional

Form

If + past simple, would + infinitive

If I had $100, I'd buy a new jacket.

OR

Would + infinitive + if + past simple

I'd buy a new jacket if I had $100.

  • the if clause can come before or after the would clause; the meaning is the same.

  • After if, we sometimes use were (instead of was) with I and he/ she/ it.

If I were you, I'd phone her.

If he were here, he'd dance.

Uses

We use the second conditional to talk about situations that:

  • are unreal.

If I were you, I'd go to the doctor. (This is an unreal situation; I am not you.)

  • are improbable.

If Paul won the lottery, he'd go on an expensive holiday. (This is improbable; Paul probably won't win the lottery.)

  • are hypothetical.

If I were on holiday, I'd play tennis. (This is hypothetical; I sometimes play tennis when I am on holiday, but I am not on holiday now.)

Third conditional

Form

If + past perfect, would have + past participle

If he had stayed at school, he wouldn't have become a millionaire.

OR

Would have + past participle + if + past perfect

He wouldn't have become a millionaire if he had stayed at school.

The if clause can come before or after the main clause; the meaning is the same.

Contractions

We contract both had and would to `d.

If I'd had enough money, I'd have bought a Porsche. (= If I had had enough money, I would have bought a Porsche.)

Uses

We use the third conditional to describe:

  • something that did not happen in the past.

If I'd gone to university, I would have bought a computer. (= This didn't happen. The speaker didn't go to university and didn't buy a computer.)

  • the possible result of an unreal situation.

If I'd had enough money, I'd have lent some to you. (= This is an unreal situation. The speaker didn't have enough money and so couldn't lend any.)

Infinitive with to

Form

Verb + infinitive with to

  • we use the infinitive with to after certain verbs, including:

afford, be able, decide, forget, help, learn, manage, promise, refuse, want

I promise to pay you back.

I want to come with you.

  • note the negative form of the infinitive:

He decided not to go. (NOT He decided to not go.)

The -ing form

Form

Verb/ preposition + -ing

We use the -ing form:

  • after certain verbs, including: avoid, enjoy, fancy, finish, hate, keep, like, love, mind, suggest

He avoids eating beef.

  • after prepositions.

He left without paying.

Before answering, I want more information.

Infinitive with to and the -ing form

  • we use the infinitive with to after the following verbs:

agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, choose, demand, deserve, expect, hope, intend, need, offer, plan, pretend, seem, threaten, wish, would like, would love, would hate, would prefer

You deserve to be told the truth.

I'd like to go now.

  • we use the -ing form after the following verbs:

admit, be used to, can't help, can't stand, consider, deny, dislike, don't mind, imagine, look forward to, miss, practise, regret

She can't stand seeing him!

I don't mind helping you.

Prepositions + -ing

When a verb comes after a preposition, the verb ends in -ing.

She smiled before saying goodbye.

James was very tired after cycling up the hill.

Passive

Form

Present simple it is/ they are repaired

Past simple it was/ they were

repaired

Present perfect it has been/ they have

been repaired

Future simple it will be/ they will

be repaired

We form the passive with the correct tense of the verb be (am/ is/ are/ was/ were/ has been, etc.) + past participle.

Uses

  • we use the passive when it is not known, or when it is not important, who/ what does the action.

The bridge has been destroyed.

A lot of people were killed.

  • we sometimes use by to identify who does the action.

They were rescued by fire-fighters.

Expressions of quantity

  • we normally use some in affirmative sentences and any in negative sentences and questions.

They're having some problems.

“Have they got any money?” - “No, they haven't got any.”

  • we only use many and a few with countable nouns.

“How many floods are there every year in the north of the country?” - “There are only a few every year.”

  • we only use much and a little with uncountable nouns.

“How much rain fell last night?” - “Only a little.”

  • we use a lot of with both countable and uncountable nouns.

A lot of houses were burnt down.

There's been a lot of rain.

  • we normally use much and any in questions and negative sentences.

“How much smoke was there?” - “Oh, there wasn't much.”

“How many people lost their homes?” - “Not many.”

  • we do not normally use much and any in affirmative sentences.

The flood did o lot of damage. (NOT The flood did much damage.)

Passive: present perfect simple

Form

Has been/ have been + past participle

The environment has been seriously damaged.

Most of the animals have been killed.

Uses

We often use the passive in the present perfect simple to report news.

Survivors of the earthquake have been taken to hospital.

Adverbs of frequency

Never

Hardly ever

Sometimes

Often

Usually

Always

  • we use adverbs of frequency with the present simple to say how often we do something.

  • We use adverbs of frequency after the verb be and after auxiliary verbs (e.g. have, will), but before all other verbs.

I'm always at home on Sunday afternoons.

Jim never cleans his shoes.

I've always lived here.

  • the adverbs never, hardly ever, and always do not normally come at the beginning of a sentence.

He always goes out on Saturday nights. (NOT Always he goes out on Saturday nights.)

For and since

We use for and since to talk about how long an action has continued up to the present.

  • we use for to talk about a period of time.

I've lived here for a week/ for two months/ for a long time, etc.

  • we use since to talk about a moment or a point in time.

I've known her since 1997/ since last month/ since Christmas/ since I last saw you, etc.

Non-defining relative clauses

  • we can join two short sentences form one longer sentence. We use relative pronouns (who, which, where, when, whose) to do this.

This is my sister, Fiona. Fiona is 28. >This is my sister, Fiona, who is 28.

  • a clause is part of sentence; a relative clause is the part of a sentence which tells us who or what is being talked about.

  • A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about the person or thing in the main clause (the rest of the sentence).

Last week I went to Oxford, which is 100 Km from London.

The non-defining relative clause, which is 100 KM from London, gives us extra information about Oxford.

  • a non- defining relative clause is always separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.

Tom, who lives next door to us, is my best friend.

We visited Stratford, where Shakespeare was born.

The relative pronoun which

  • the relative pronoun which often refers to a noun.

I picked up my keys, which were lying on the table. (Which refers to the Keys.)

  • the relative pronoun which can also refer to the whole of the main clause.

It rained every day in Malaga, which surprised us. (Which refers to it rained every day in Malaga.)

I lost my wallet, which meant I couldn't buy the CD. (Which refers to I lost my wallet.)

Comparatives and superlatives

Form

Comparatives

Superlatives

Short adjectives

kind

kinder

The kindest

big

bigger

The biggest

large

larger

The largest

Adjectives that and in -y

noisy

noisier

The noisiest

pretty

prettier

The prettiest

Long adjectives

interesting

More interesting

The most interesting

beautiful

More beautiful

The most beautiful

Irregular adjectives

good

better

The best

bad

worse

The worst

far

further

The furthest

  • with short adjectives that end in one vowel + one consonant, we double the final consonant to form the comparative and superlative adjectives.

Hot > hotter > the hottest

  • we use than after comparative adjectives.

Juan's heavier than María.

  • we use the before superlative adjectives.

Juan's the heaviest in the class.

Uses

  • we use comparative adjectives to compare two people, places or things.

London's bigger than Paris.

English is more interesting than Maths.

  • we use superlatives adjectives to compare three or more people, places or things.

Who's the most intelligent student in the class?

Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

(not) as … as

  • we use as + adjective + as to say that two things are the same in some way.

That tree is as tall as the house. (Both are 15 metres tall.)

  • we use not as + adjective + as to say that one thing is not the same in some way as another thing.

Cassettes aren't as good as CDs. (CDs are better than cassettes.)

Should

Form

Affirmative

Subject + should + infinitive without to

You should listen to your parents. (NOT You should to listen to your parents.)

We do not add -s in the third person singular.

He should come home early. (NOT He should come home early.)

Negative

Subject + should not + infinitive without to

You shouldn't eat so much.

Questions

Should + subject + infinitive without to

Should I stay should I go?

Contraction

Should not > shouldn't

Uses

We use should to:

  • give advice.

You should stop smoking.

  • say that something is a good or bad idea.

Children shouldn't play with guns.

Have to

Form

Affirmative

Subject + have/ has to + infinitive

I have to get up early. She has to go school.

Negative

Subject + do/ does not + have to + infinitive

We don't have to do any homework this weekend.

Questions

Do/ does + subject + have to + infinitive

Does he have to be home before 11.30?

Contractions

Do not have to > don't have to

Did not have to > didn't have to

Uses

We use have to to talk about:

  • obligation or duty.

Young men have to do military service.

Juan has to help his mum with the cooking.

  • past necessity.

We missed the us, so we had to walk home.

We didn't have to pay. (NOT We hadn't to pay.)

Like and as

We use like and as to say that two things are similar.

  • we use like before a noun or a pronoun (e.g. him, my, yours).

That tree looks like a person's hand.

  • we use as before a clause with a verb in it.

As you know, the exam is very difficult.

  • we often use like to give examples.

I always eat fruit, like melons, for breakfast.