Gramática inglesa

Tiempos verbales. Condicionales. Voz pasiva. Estilo indirecto. Adjetivos. Adverbios # Conditional. Verbs tenses. Passive voice. Modal verbs

  • Enviado por: Ethiev
  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
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PRESENT SIMPLE

El presente simple tiene la misma forma que el infinitivo. Todas las personas son iguales, menos la tercera persona de singular, que añade una -s. Algunos verbos añaden -es: son los que acaban en s, ss, sh, ch, x,o.

Las formas negativas e interrogativas, utilizan el verbo auxiliar “To Do”, que no se traduce, pero debe ir siempre y además es el verbo que baria en la tercera persona del singular. En las oraciones negativas i en las oraciones interrogativas, el verbo principal no varia, solo varia en el verbo auxiliar.

Uso del present simple: Se usa para indicar una acción que se realiza de forma habitual, es decir, cada dia, de vez en cuando, a menudo, etc…

También sirve para construir preguntas y sirve para construir formas continuas:

Preguntas = Particula interrogativa + To Be + Sujeto + Etc?

Have

Can

What is your favorite food?

ø Can you speak English?

ø Have you got any money?

Uso de presente simple: Verbo “To speak”

Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa

I speak

You

I don't speak

You

Do I speak…?

you

He

She speaks

It

He

She doesn't speak

It

he

Does she speak…?

It

We

You speak

They

We

You don't speak

They

We

Do you speak…?

They

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

El presente continuo se refiere a las acciones que están sucediendo ahora, en el momento en que se haga.

Forma: El presente continuo se forma con el presente del verbo “To Be” + la terminación -ing.

Construcción de preguntas:

Partícula interrogativa + To Be + Sujeto + Verbo + -ing + Etc?

Uso del presente continuo: Verbo “To Be”.

Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa

I `m talking

You `re talking

I `m not talking

You aren't talking

Am I talking…?

Are you talking…?

He

She `s talking

It

He

She isn't talking

They

He

Is she talking…?

They

We

You `re talking

They

We

You aren't talking

They

We

Are you talking…?

They

PRESENT PERFECT

El present perfect se usa cuando una actividad empieza en el pasado y continúa en el presente, y cuando empieza en pasado y acaba en presente.

Forma: El present perfect se forma con has/have + 3ª columna.

Preguntas: has/ have + sujeto + 3ª columna + etc?

Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa

I `ve arrived

You

I haven't arrived

You

Have I arrived…?

You

He

She `s arrived

It

He

She hasn't arrived

It

He

Has She arrived…?

It

We

You `ve arrived

They

We

She haven't arrived

They

We

Have You arrived…?

They

Present perfect with yet and already:

Se utiliza yet al final de una pregunta y en las frases negativas.

Ejemplo: Has he phoned yet?

He hasn't phoned yet.

Se utiliza already cuando pasa algo que no nos esperamos.

Ejemplo: It's 8 o'clock and they've already arrived at school.

Present perfect with for and since:

Se usa for para los periodos de tiempo, cuando se habla sobre la duración de una acción.

Usamos since en los puntos de tiempo, cuando hablamos de cuando empezó la acción.

For

Since

A minute

1986

A few hours

June

Months and months

Yesterday

A hundred years

Monday

PAST SIMPLE

El past simple se usa para describir acciones finalizadas en el pasado.

O también se puede usar para afirmaciones del pasado.

Forma: El past simple se forma con el sujeto + 2ª columna

Preguntas: Did + sujeto + 2ª columna + etc?

Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa

I

You

He

She saw

It

We

You

They

I

You

He

She didn't see

It

We

You

They

I

You

He

Did She see…?

It

We

You

They

PAST CONTINUOUS

El past continuous se usa para describir el avance de una acción en el pasado.

Forma: Se forma con was/were + verbo en -ing

Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa

I was sleeping

You were sleeping

I wasn't sleeping

You weren't sleeping

Was I sleeping…?

Were You sleeping…?

He

She was sleeping

It

He

She wasn't sleeping

It

He

Was She sleeping…?

It

We

You were sleeping

They

We

You weren't sleeping

They

We

Were You sleeping…?

It

PAST PERFECT

El past perfect se utiliza para hablar sobre experiencias de tu vida.

Forma: Se forma con have/has + 3ª columna o verbo terminado en -ed

Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa

I

You `ve arrived

I

You haven't arrived

I

Have You arrived…?

He

She `s arrived

It

He

She hasn't arrived

They

He

Has She arrived…?

It

We

You `ve arrived

They

We

You haven't arrived

They

We

Have You arrived…?

They

FUTURE TENSES

Simple future: Acciones que se van a hacer en el futuro, sin concretar cuándo (proyectos a largo plazo).

Forma: Will/Won't + Infinitivo

Ejemplo: I will go on holiday

Immediate future: Acciones que nos disponemos a hacer ahora o en un futuro muy próximo.

Forma: Pr. Sujeto + TO BE GOING TO + v. Infinitivo

Ejemplo: John and Sarah are going to have a Maths lessons

CONDITIONAL

First conditional: If v.present v. future simple

WILL + Infinitivo

`LL + Infinitivo

Second conditional: If v. past simple Would + Infinitivo

2ª col. -ed `d + Infinitivo

Third conditional: If past perfect Would have + 3ª columna

Had + 3ª col. `d

MODAL VERBS

Present

Past

+

-

+

-

Possibility

Can

May

Must

Can't

May not

Can't

Could

Might have+3ªcol

Couldn't

Might not have + 3ª col.

Ability

Can

Can't

Could

Couldn't

Obligation

Must

Have to

Need to

Ought to

Mustn't

Didn't have to

Don't have to

Don't need to

Had to

Didn't have to

Ejemplos: You must be very careful

They can't be my trainers

She may be his sister

It might be 323

My grandfather didn't have to work in a factory

PHRASAL VERBS

VERB + PREPOSITION

For (buscar)

At (mirar)

Look

After (cuidar)

Out (atender)

SINGULAR AND PLURALS

Singular: This = este, esta, esto.

That = eso, esa, ese, aquella.

Plural: These = estos, estas.

Those = esos, esas, aquellos, aquellas.

Special plural: Cuando el verbo termina en consonante + y, se cambia la y por i, y se pone -ies.

Otro tipo de plurales especiales:

Singular

One

Plural

Many

Man

Men

Foot

Feet

Fish

Fish

Sheep

Sheep

Touth

Teeth

Person

People

Woman

Women

Uso de a / an:

A: se utiliza delante de consonante. Ex: A book.

An: se utiliza delante de vocal. Ex: An orange.

ADJECTIVES

Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

One syllable

ending in a vowel: + r/st

Large

Nice

Larger

Nicer

The largest

The nicest

One syllable ending in a consonant:

+ er/est

Bright

Cheap

Brighter

Cheaper

The brightest

The cheapest

Two syllables ending in y:

y + ier/iest

Friendly

Heavy

Friendlier

Heavier

The friendliest

The heaviest

Two or more syllables: more/the most

Beautiful

Expensive

More beautiful

More expensive

The most beautiful

The most expensive

Irregular

Bad

Good

Worse

Better

The worst

The best

ADVERBS

Adverbios (posiciones): Son las palabras que modifican al verbo.

Pueden ir:

- A la izquierda de cualquier verbo.

- A la derecha del V.To Be.

- En verbos de una palabra, en medio.

Ejemplos de adverbios de modo:

- Quiet: Quietly = tranquilamente.

- Loud: Loudly = fuertemente.

- Bad: Badly = malamente.

Adverbs of frequency (posición en la frase):

- Delante de cualquier verbo

- Detrás de verbo TO BE

Frequency adverbs: - Always: Siempre

- Often: A menudo

- Usually: Normalmente

- Sometimes: A veces, de vez en cuando

- Occasionally: Ocasionalmente

- Really: Raras veces

- Never: Nunca

Useful concept:

- Phrase (acción): Grupo de palabras para pasado o frases.

- Clause (sintagma): Componente para frases complejas, con sujeto y predicado. Se trabaja con nombres, adjetivos, o adverbios.

- Sentence (o.compuesta): En uniones gramaticales extensas, los componentes se usan para expresar declaraciones, preguntas, etc…

PASSIVE VOICE

La voz passiva se usa para frases pasivas y frases impersonales con “se”.

La forma és sujeto + To Be (en el tiempo que tiene la activa y la forma de la persona, sujeto presente) + Past participle (Verbo activo - Etc...)

Tiempos pasivos

Estructura

Ejemplos

- Simple present

Am/are/is + Past participle

English his spoken have

- Present continous

Am/are/is being + Past participle

The house is being painted

- Simple past

Was/were + Past participle

I wasn't invited, but I went

- Past continous

Was/were being + Past participle

I felt I was being watched

- Present perfect

Have/has been + Past participle

Has Mary been told?

- Past perfect

Had been + Past participle

I knew I had been forgotten

- Future simple

Will be + past participle

You' ll be told soon

- Immediate future

Am/are/is going To be + PP

Who's going to be wanted?

Will / can / must / have to

Active

Passive

Somebody will clean the office tomorrow.

The office will be cleaned tomorrow.

Somebody must clean the office.

The office must be cleaned.

They can't repair my watch.

My watch can't be repaired.

Somebody has to wash these clothes.

These clothes have to be washed.

REPORTED SPEECH

Correlación temporal:

Direct

Reported

Present simple

Past simple

Present continuous

Past continuous

Present perfect

Past perfect

Past simple

Past perfect

Past continuous

Past perfect continuous

WILL

WOULD

CAN

COULD

Time expressions:

Direct

Reported

Now

Then

Today

That day

Tomorrow

The next day

At (expresión de tiempo)

At (queda igual)

Place verbs:

Direct

Reported

Here

There

In this place

In that place

Reporting verbs: boast, complain, explain, insist, joke, predict, promise, reply

Ejemplo:

Marcos: Tomorrow I'm going to have my art exam.

Sandra: What style of art is the exam about?

Reported speeach: Marcos told the next day he was going to have his art exam. Sandra asked what was the style of exam about.