Gramática Inglesa

Tiempos Verbales. Simple Present. Present Progressive. Present Perfect. Present Perfect Continuous. Past Simple. Past Continuous. Used to. Be used to. Get used to. Past perfect. Past perfect continuous. Future Simple. Be going to. Future perfect

  • Enviado por: Luzdearcoiris
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: Argentina Argentina
  • 18 páginas
publicidad

Simple present :

Form:

I/ you work

He/she/it works

Uses:

- Repeated actions, permanents states, daily routines.
- World truths
- sport comentaries, reviews and narrations
- In jokes and story telling
- timetables

Present Progressive

Form:

I/ you am/are working

He/she/it is working

- Uses:

-Actions taking place at the moment of speaking (now), actions taking place around now (but not at the moment of speaking)

-Arrangements for the near future

-Actions taking place only for a limited period of time

-Development, changing situations

- To express irritation (with always)

Present Perfect:

Form:

I/ you have left

He/she/it has left

Uses:

-Actions which started in the past and are still continuing (with have, like, know, be, etc) we often use for and since.

-Actions which happened at some unknown time in the past

-Acion wich has recently finished and whose result is visible in the present.

-Action which has happened within a specific period, which is not over at the moment of speaking. (this morning, today..)

Present Perfect continuous:

Form:

I/ you have been reading

He/she/it has been reading

Uses:

- Emphasis on the duration of an action which started in the past and continues up to the present

- Action which started and finished in the past and lasted for sometime (the result is visible)

- to express anger, annoyance or irritation.

Past simple:

Form:

I/ you left

He/she/it left

Uses:

-Action which happened at a definite time in the past (implied or known)

-Action happened immediately one after the other

-Past habits or states which are now finished.

Past continuous:

Form:

I/ He/she/it was watching

You/we/they were watching

Uses:

-Action which was in progressat a stated time in the past (start-finish not mention)

-Action which was in progress when another action interrupted (past continuous=longer action) (past simple shorter action)

-For two or more simultaneous past actions.

Used to/ be used to/ get used to:

Form:

-used to + infinitive

Uses:

- to refer to past habits or states.

*with definite time we use past simple.

'Gramtica Inglesa'

Past perfect:

Form:

-she had gone

-he hadn´t gone

Uses:

-Action which happened before another past action or before a stated time in the past.

-Action which finished in the past and whose result was visible in the past.

-Used with the following time expressions: before, after, already, for, since, just, till/until, when, by, by the time, never, ect.

Past perfect continuous:

Form:

-she had been crying

-he hadn´t been crying

Uses:

-To put enphasis on the duration of an action which started and finished in the past befora another past action or stated time in the past, usually whit since or for.

-Action which lasted for some time in the past and whose result was visible in the past.

-Used with the following time expressions: for, since, how long, before, until, etc.

Past simple- past continuous-past perfect:

  • the past simple is used for action which happened inmediately one after the other in the past.

  • The past continuous is used for a past action which was in progress when another action interrupted it.

  • The past perfect is used for an action which happened before another past action.

Future simple:

Form:

-she /they will call

-he won´t call

Uses:

-In prediction about the future usually whit the verbs think, belive, expect, etc.

-On the spot decitions and offers

-For actions/events/situations which will definitely happen in the fure and which we cannot control.

-For promises(promise, swear, guarantee,etc), for threats, for warnings, for request, for hopes.

.

Be going to:

Form:

-she is going to stay

-he isnt, arent, etc.

Uses:

-Plans, intentions or ambitions we have for the future.

-Predictions when there is evidence that something will happen in the near future.

Present simple:

-with a future meaning when we refer to programes or timetables.

Future continuous:

-Actions which will be in progress at stated future time

-actions which will definitely happen in the future, as a result of a routine or arrangement.

- when we ask politely aboul somone´s plans for the near furture, in order to see if our wishes fit in the plans

Future perfect:

-For actions whih will be finished before a stated future time.

Future perfect continuous:

-To emphasise the duration of an action up to certain time un the future.

Infinitive- too/enough- the- ing form- participles

The infinitive:

-To esprese pourpose

-After verbs: advise, agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, manage, offer, promise, refuse, seem, want, afford, pretend, etc.

-After verbs such as: know, ask, decide, learn, remember, want to know, when are fallowed by question words(who, what, where, how,etc)

-After adjetives such as nice, sorry, glad, happy, willing, afraid, ashamed, etc.

-After too and enough

-After it + be + adjetive (of + noun/pronoun)

-Afert would like/love/prefer.

-After only to express an unsatisfactory result.

The bare infinitive:

-After modal verbs

-After the verb let, make, see, hear and feel.

-After had better and would rather.

Tenses of the infinitive:

Active:

- Present infinitive: refers to the present or future

-Present continuous infinitive: to be + ing: describes an action happening now.

-Perfect infinitive: (to) have + past participle: it refers to the past and shows that the action of the infinitive heppened bedore the action of the verb. Use with verbs such as seem, appear, belive, know, clam, expect and the modal verbs.

-Perfect continuous infinitive: (to) have + been + -ing: it refers to the past and emphasises the duration of the action of the infinitive, which happened befora the action of the verb.

Pasive:

-Present infinitive: (to) be + past participle:

-Perfect infinitive: (to) have been + past participle.

*the subject of the infinitive.

Too/ enough:

-Too comes before adjetives ans adverbs, it shows that something is more than enough, necessary or wanted, and has a negative meaning. Too + adjetive/adverb + to -infinitive

Too.. for somebody/something

Too.. for somebody/something + to-infinitive

-Enough comes after adjetives and adverbs, but before nouns. It shows that there is as much of something as is wanted or needed and it has a positive meaning.

Adjetive/adverb + enough + to-infinitive

Enough + noun + to-infinitive

(not) + adjetive + enough + to-infinitive

The -ing form:

The -ing form is used:

-As a noun

-After prepocitions

-After love, like, enjoy, dislike, hate and preferto express general preference.

-After certain verbs consider, avoid, deny, look, forward to, confess to, fancy, involve, mention, risk, spend, minf reget, admit, suggest, imagine, etc.

-After fo for activities.

-After it´s no use, it´s (not) worth, it´s no good, be busy, what´s the use of...?, there´s no point in, can´t help, can´t stand, be/get used to, have dificulty (in).

-After the verbs see, hear, feel, watch, listen to and notice to describe a complete action. Something that somebody saw, heard, ect. Only a part of the action.

* verbs taking the to-infinitive or the -ing form without a change of meaning.

* verbs taking the to-infinitive or the -ing form with a change of meaning.

Participles:

The participles are:

  • present participles (playing, running, etc).

  • B)past participles (played, written, etc.).

  • Perfect participles (having written, etc.):

  • -Present and past participles can be used as adjetives.

    The present participle (ing) describes what somebody or sometihg is (answer the question what kind?)

    The past participle (ed) describes how somebody feels (how do you feel?)

    Participle scan also be used:

    -To express time.

    -To express reason.

    -Instead of a relative pronoun and full verb.

    -Instead of the past simple in narratives when we describe actions happening inmmediately one after the other.

    -To avoid reapiting the past continuous in the same sentence.

    Modal verbs:

    Must:

    -Obligation-necessity-duty

    -Prohibition.

    -strong advice.

    -Logical assumptions (positive) for negative logical assumptios: can´t.

    -Must can only be used to talk about the present or near future. We use have to when we need to used other tenses.

    Must-have to- have got to:

    -Must it is necessary to do sth: when the speaker decides that something is necessary.

    -Have to it is necessary to do sth: when somebody else other than the speaker has made the decision.

    *must and have to have dfifferent meanings in questions.

    *have got has the same meaning as have to.

    Mustn´t-needn´t-don´t have to

    -mustn´t it is forbidden to do sth/you are not allowed to do smth.

    -needn´t it is necessary to do sth: we used needn´t to express lack of necessity. We can also use don´t need to or don´t have to.

    Didn´t need to-needn´t have done

    Lack of necessity

    -Didn´t need to + infinitive it was not nessesary to do sth: shows that an action did not happen in the past bacause we knew it was not necessary.

    -Needn´t have + past participle it was not necessary to do something, but it was done: it shows that an action happened in the past, even it was not necessary.

    Can-could

    -Ability in the present. Can = I am able to...

    -Ability the past. Could = used to be able to (past repeted action)

    -Asking permission. Can/could/may/migth i...?.

    -Giving/refusing permission

    a) can/may = you are allowed to do sth

    b) cant/mustn´t/may not = you are not allowes to do sth.

    -Offers. Can/could/ shall i..? = we use these structures when we offer to do sth.

    -Suggestions. we can/could.. shall we...? let´s.../ how about...? what about...?/why don´t we...?

    -Request. Can/could/will/would you...?: we use these structures when we ask somebody to do sth for us.

    -Negative logical assumptions. Can´t = I´m sure/certain taht sth isn´t true/real, etc.

    -Possibility

    a)colud/may/might + present infinitive = it is possible/ it is likely/perhaps

    b) could + perfect infinitive = it was possible, but it didn´t happen.

    -Can is used in the present. Could is the past tense of can. We used be able to to form all the ather tenses.

    Present simple: can, is able to.

    Past simple: could, was able to.

    Present perfect: have/has been able to.

    Past parfect:had been able to

    Future simple: will be able to

    Future perfect: will have been able to.

    Could-was able to:

    -Ability in the past. We use was/were able to to show that someone has the ability to do sth in a partuiclar situation in the past (past single action)

    -We use could to show that someone had the ability to do sth repeatedly in the past.

    -We use could rather than was/were able to whit the verbs see, hear, feel, semll, taste,understand, remember, and guess.

    -We use the negative form couldn´t for both cases.

    Must-can´t:

    We use must to make a positive logical assumption.

    We use can´t tomake negative logical assumptions.

    May/migth:

    -Possibility (present future). May/might/could + present infinitive

    -Possibility (past) May/might/could + perfect infinitive.

    -We also use them to refer to things which were possible but did not happen. May is not use in this case.

    -Asking permission may/migth i...?. we use these structures to ask permission when we do not know the other person very well.

    -Giving/refusing permission:

    a)we use may and can, but not might or colud, to give permission. may is very formal and in not used in everyday speech.

    b)can´t/may not = you are not allowed to do sth.

    -Request. May/might/can/could i...?. we use these structures to ask for something politely. Might i...? is more formal than may i...? and is not often used.

    Shall:

    -Offers: shall/can/could/ i..? = would you like me to...? we use these structure when we offer to do sth.

    -Suggestion. Shall/can/could we...? = why donlt we...?/how about..? let´s.. make suggestiosns.

    - asking for suggestions or instructions. We use shall when we ask for suggestions or instructions.

    Will/would:

    -Request. Will/would/can/could you..?. when we ask somebody to do sth for us.

    Should/ought to:

    -Advise. Should/ought to = advise you to/you had to do sth

    -Criticism. Ought to/should + present infinitive = it would have been better if you had.... use to show that somebody did wrong thing in the past.

    Nouns-articles

    Countable/uncountable nouns

    -Countables nuons are nouns which we can count. They have singular and plural forms.

    -can take singular or plural verbs

    -Always go with a/an/the/my etc. In the singular.

    -Can be used alone or with some/any/many/few in the plural.

    -Uncountables nouns are nouns which we cannot count.they do not have diferent plural forms.

    -Always take singular verbs.

    -Do not go with an/a/one,two,etc.

    -Can be used alone or with some/any/much/little/the/my,etc.

    *some nouns can be used as conuntable or uncountable, with a difference in meaning.

    Compound nouns:

    Compund nouns are nouns that are made of two or more parts and are formed as follows:

    -Noun + noun. The plural = S

    -Ing form + adjetive + noun. Plural adding s/es to the noun

    -Noun + in-law. The plural is formed by adding -s to the noun.

    -Noun + adverb. Plural = -s

    -Verb + adverb paticle. Plural adding -s.

    Singular/plural verb forms:

    We use sinular forms with:

    -Nouns which end in ics.

    -Nouns which describe illnesses

    -Plural nouns when we talk about an amount of money, a time period, distance, weight,etc.

    -Group nouns such as family, team, group, crow, class, company and goverment. When we mean the group as a unit. But we use plural verbs when we mean the individuals that make uo the group.

    We use the plural with:

    -Nouns people, police, clothes and stairs.

    -Nouns which refer to objects taht consist of two parts, such as: trourses, shorts, shoes, gloves, pyjamas, thights, glasses, earrings, socks, siccsors, etc.

    *we do not use a/an or a number whit these word. We use the phrase: pair of..

    The indifinite article `A´ / `An´:

    A/an is used with

    -Singular countable nouns after the verb to be to say what someone/something is.

    -The verb have (got)

    -In certain espressions when we want to show how often we do something is.

    A/an in not used:

    -With uncountable nouns or plural countable nouns.

    -Before an adjetive if it not followed by a noun (*)

    One/ones:

    -One/ones we used one in the singular and ones in the plural to avoid reapiting the noun when it´s clear what we mean.

    A(a)/one:

    -We use a/an to refer to an unspecified thing. It mean any one.

    -We use one when we are counting, to put emphasis on number.

    -We use a/an + adjetive + one.

    -We use one whit the words night/morning/day/time, etc.

    -We use one or one of... when we mean one person/thing out of many. It usually contrast with other.

    -We use a/an or one with no difference in meaning when counting or messuring time, distance, weigth, etc.

    Adjetives-adverbs-comparison

    Adjetives:

    -Adjetives describe nouns. They have same form in the plural and singular.

    -Adjetives go: a)before nouns.

    b)after the verbs: be, look, seem, smell, sound, feel, taste, appear,

    become, get, stay, etc.

    -There are opinion adjetives and fact adjetives, opinion adjetives such as smart, bad, etc. Show what a person thinks of someone or sth. Fact adjetives such as short, big, old, etc. Give us a factual information about age, size, colour, origin, material, etc.

    *(order).

    Adverbs:

    -Adverbs describe verbs, adjetivesor other adverbs.

    -An adverb can be one word (slowly) or a phrase.

    -Adverbs can describe manner,(how), place(where), time(when), frequency (how often), degree (what to extent).

    -Adverbs usually go after verbs. They can also go before verbs (adverbs of frequency).

    -Adverbs go before adjetives, other adverbs and past participles.

    Formation of adverbs:

    -We usally form an adverb by adding -ly to the adjetive.

    -Adjetives ending in -le drop the -e and take -y.

    -Adjetives ending in consonant + y drop the -y and take -ily.

    -Adjetives ending in l take -ly

    -Adjetives ending in -ic usually take -ally.

    -Some adverbs have either a totally different form or the same form as the adjetive.

    Order of adverbs:

    -Adverbs of frequency go after auxiliary verbs and the verb to be, but before main verbs.

    -Adverbs of manner go before the main verb, after the auxiliary or at the endo of the sentence.

    -Adverbs of degree go before an adjetive, an adverb or main verb, but after an auxiliary verb in a sentence.

    -Adverbs of place and time usually go at the end of the sentence. Adverbs such as soon, now, and then, go before the main verb, but after the auxiliary verb or the verb to be.

    -We can put an adverb at the beginning of a sentence if we want to emphasise it.

    -When there are two or more adverbs in the same sentence, they usually come in the following order:manner-place-time.

    -If is a verb of movement such as go, come, leave in the sentence, then the adverbs come in the following order: place-manner-time.

    Quite-rather:

    Quite and rather are adbervs of degree.Quite go before a/an

    -We usuaally use quite in favourable comments meaning `less than very´.

    -We use quite before adjetives such as horrible, dreadful, ridiculos, brilliant, perfect, amazing, extraordinary, useless, imposible, right, true, sure, exhausted, certain, false, wrong, alone, differen, etc. Meaning `completely/totally´.

    Rather goes before or after a/an.

    -We usually use rather in unfavourable comments.

    -We can also use rather in favourable comments when it means `to an unusual degree´.

    -Rather can be used with comparative forms.

    Comparisons:

    -For comparisons, adjetives have got two forms: the comparative and the superlative.

    -We use the comparative form + than to compare two people or things.

    -We use the + superlative form + of/in to compare one person or thing in the same group. We use in when we talk about places.

    Comparative and superlative forms of adjetives:

    -The comparisons of one-syllable and two-syllable is formed by adding -er, and the superlative by adding -est.

    -The comparative of adjetives of three or more syllables is formed with more and the superlative with most.

    -the comparative and the superlative of some two-syllabe adjetives, such as clever, stupid, narrow, gentle, friendly, etc. Are formed either with -er/est or with more/most.

    *Spelling rules.

    Camparative and superlative forms of adverbs:

    -The comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are formed in the same way as those of adverbs.

    -Adverbs which have the same form as the adjetives usually take -er in the superlative.

    -Adverbs formed by adding -ly to the adjetive take mre in the comparative and most in the superlative form.

    Types of comparisons:

    -We use as + adjetive + as to show that two people or things are similar in some way. In negative sentences, we use not as/so... as.

    -We use less + adjetive + than for two people or thing. It is the opposite of more...than.

    -We use the least + adjetive + of/in fr more than two people or things. It is the opposite of the most...of/in.

    -We use comparative + and + comparative to show that sometingh increases or decreases.

    -We use the + comparative... the + comparative to show that two people or things change together or that one thing depends on another thing.

    Pronouns-possesives-demonstratives-quantifiers:

    Personal pronouns: are divided into pronouns, which go before verbs as subjects and pronouns which go after verbs or prepositions as objects.

    Subject pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they.

    Object pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them.

    -We do not use a noun and a personal pronoun together.

    -We use there + be + to mention something for the first time or to say that something or someone exists. We use it + be to give more details about something or someone already been mentioned.

    -We can use it as the subject to talk about something that has already been made clear which thing in particular we are talking about.

    Possesive adjetive/pronouns:

    -Both possesive adjetives and possesive pronouns can be use to talk about ownership or the relationship between people. Possesive adjetives are followed by nouns, whereas possesive pronouns are not.

    -Its = possesive adjetives - it´s = it is or it has

    -We use the instead of a possesive adjetive with prepositional phrases and verbs such as hit, punch, slap, bite, touch, pat, sting, etc. When we refer to parts of the body.

    -We use the word own in the following structures to emphasise the fact that something belongs to someone.

    Possesive case:

    -The possesive case can be used to talk about ownership or the relationship between people. It is formed in two ways:

    1) with `s/´ for people or animals

    -Sngular nouns + `s

    -Plural nouns ending in -s + ´

    -Plural nouns not ending in -s + ´s

    -Compound nouns + ´s

    -We use ´s after the last of two o more names to show comun possession.

    -We use ´s after each name to show individual possession.

    2)With of for inanimate things:

    -Of + inanimate thing or abstract noun.

    -A/the/this/that + noun + of + possessive. Note: when we refer to a certain places or time, the possessive case is formed as follows:

    * phrase of plase (shop/home/business) + ´s.

    * phrase showing length of time/specific moment or event + ´s/ ´.

    * we can use either ´s or of when we talk about places or organitations.

    Reflexive pronouns:

    We use reflexive pronouns:

    -With verbs such as behave, burn, cut, enjoy, hurt, introduce, kill, look at, teach, etc, or with prepositions when the subjet and the object of the verb are the same person.

    -With a preposition by when we mean alone/without comapany or without help (on one´s own)

    -In thje following expressions: enjoy your self (have a good time), behave you self (be good), help your self (you are welcome to take something if you want).

    -To emphasise the subject of the object of a sentence.

    Note:

    1-we do not normally use reflexive pronouns with verbs : concentrate, feel, meet, and relax.

    2-The verbs dress, wash, and shave are not normally fallowed by a reflexive pronoun. However, we can use a reflexive pronouns with these vebs when we want to show that someone did something with a lot of effort.

    -Each other means one other.

    Demonstratives:

    We use this and these:

    -For people or things which are near us.

    -For present or future situations.

    -To refer to an idea we are about to mention.

    -To introduce people, or to introduce oneself on the phone.

    -When the speaker is in or near the place, he/she is referring to.

    That and those are used:

    -For people or things which are not near us.

    -For past situations.

    -To refer back to something mentioned before.

    -When speaking on the phone to ask how the other person is.

    These, this, that and those are not always fallowed by a noun.

    Some-any-no:

    -Some- any and no are used with uncountables nouns (coffee, sugar, etc) and plural countable nouns (cars, flowers, etc).

    -Some and its compounds ( someone/somebody, something, somewhere) are normally used in negative sentences.

    -Any and its compuonds are also used in interrogative sentences. Not any is used in negative sentences.

    Any and its compuonds are also used with negatives words such as without, never, seldom, rarely, hardly, etc.

    -No and its compuonds are used instead of not any in negative sentences.

    -We used a singular verb with compound of some, any and no.

    -Some and its compuonds are also in interrogative sentenes when we make an offer or a request.

    -When any and its compound are used in affirmative sentences, there is a differences in meaning.

    -Every is used with singular sountablenouns.

    -The pronouns everyone/everybody, everything, and the adverb everywhere are used in affirmative, interrogative and negative sentences and are followed by singular verb.

    Evrey-Each:

    -Every is used with singular countable nouns. It refers to a group of people or things and means all, everyone, everything, etc.

    -Each is used with singular countable nouns. It refer to the members of a group separately.

    -Everyone and each (one) can be fallowed by of. We normally used each when we talk about two people or things. We use every when we talk about three or more people or things.

    A lot of- much- many:

    -A lot of/lots of are used whit both plural countable and uncountable nouns. The are normally used in affirmative sentences, of is omitted when a lot/lots are not followed by a noun.

    -Much and many are normally used in interrogative and negative sentences. Much is used with uncountable nouns and many is used with countables nouns.

    -How much and how many are used in questions and negations.

    -To many is used with plurals countable nouns. It has a negative meaning and shows that there is more of something than is wanted or needed.

    -To much is used with uncountable nouns. It has the same negative meaning as to many.

    A few/few-a little/little:

    -A few/few are used with plural contable nouns. A few means not many, but enough. Few means hardly any, almost none and can be used with very for emphasis.

    -A little/little are used with uncountable nouns. A little means not much, but enough. Little means hardly any, almost none and can be used with very for emphasis.

    Both/neither- all/none- either:

    -Both refers to two people things or groups. It has a positive meaning and is followed by a plural verb.

    -Neither refers to two people, things or groups. It has a negative meaning. Neither of + plural noun phrase can be followed by either a singular or plural verb in the affirmative.

    -All refers to more than two people, things or groups. Its has a positive meaning and is followed by a plural verb.

    -None refers to more than to people, things or groups. It has a negative meaning and is followed by either a singular or plural verb in the affrimative.

    -Both/all can go: a) after the verb to be, b) after de auxiliary verb, but before the main verb.

    -Either refers to two things or groups and is followed by a singular countable noun. Either of + plural noun phrase can be followed by either a singular or plural verb. We can use not... either (of) intead of neither (of). Either can also be used at the end of a negative sentence.

    -Both... and is followed a plural verb.

    -Neither... nor/ either... or take either a singular or plural verb, depending on the subject wich followed nor or or.