Gramática inglesa

Inglés. Verbos. Alfabetos. Conjugaciones. Construcción de oraciones # Modal verbs. Past time. Participle clauses. Gerunds. Infinitives. Passive voice. Verb tenses. Conditional sentences. Articles

  • Enviado por: Poqui
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: Argentina Argentina
  • 10 páginas

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  • MODAL VERBS OF OBBLIGATION:

  • MUST:

  • MUST + INFINITIVE.

  • STRONG OBLIGATIONS WHICH EXPRESS OF THE PERSON.

  • FOR FORMAL RULES OR LAWS (Passengers must fasten their seat belts now,)

  • SUGGESTIONS, ADVICE, RECOMMENDATIONS THAT THE PERSON FEELS STRONGLY. (You must come to my party, everyone's is going to be there)

  • MUSTN´T:

  • MUSNT´T + INFINITIVE

  • EXPRESS PROHIBITION

  • NEGATIVE RULES OR LAWS. (Drivers mustn't exceed the speed limit.)

  • STRONG ADVICE. ( You mustn't blame yourself. )

  • HAVE TO:

  • HAVE TO + INFINTIVE

  • STRONG OBLIGATIONS WHICH EXPRESS THE AUTORITY OF A THIRD PERSON.

  • TO THE SPEAKER TO SHOW THEY ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR IMPOSING THE OBLIGATION, OR DO NOT AGREE WITH IT. (I have to work late. My boss said so)

  • WHEN YOU REMIND SB A RULE OR LAW (You have to wear a set belt in the back of the cars)

  • HAVE GOT TO:

  • HAVE GOT TO…

  • MORE INFORMAL THAN HAVE TO + INF.

  • DIRECT COMANDS (You have got to stop wasting your money)

  • FOR EMPHASIS (I have got to pass the exam today)

  • DO NOT HAVE TO / HAVE NOT GOT TO

  • DON'T HAVE TO / HAVEN'T HAVE TO…

  • LACK OR OBLIGATION OR NECESSITY ( You don't have to wear uniform, but you can if you like)

  • NEED TO:

  • NEED TO …

  • NEEDS OR NECESSITIES, NO OBLIGATIONS. ( I need to now all about that person)

  • DON'T NEED TO / NEEDN'T:

  • DON'T NEED TO / NEEDN'T + INFINITIVE.

  • LACK OF OBLIGATION OR NECESITY, VERY SIMILAR TO DON'T HAVE TO. ( There are no lessons tomorrow, so I don't need to get up early / You needn't tell me your phone number if you don't want you.)

  • DIDN'T NEED TO:

  • DIDN'T NEED TO + INFINITIVE

  • IT WAS NOT NECESSARY SO WE DIDN'T DO IT. ( It was to early so we didn't need to hurry to go to the beach)

  • NEEDN'T HAVE:

  • NEEDN'T HAVE+ 3º RD.

  • IT WAS NOT NECESARRY BUT WE ALSO DID IT. ( He needn't have driven so fast; now he has to pay a fine)

  • PAST TIME:

  • PAST SIMPLE:

  • REGULAR OR IRREGULAR VERB ONLY.

  • ACTION OR EVENT THAT IS FINISHED.

  • SPECIFIC PLACE AND TIME IN THE PAST ( Judy went to EE UU last week)

  • ESPECIFIC PERIOD IN THE PAST (She lived in Argentina between 1990 and 1999)

  • WAS HABITUAL DURING AN ESPECIFIC PERIOD (When she lived in Argentina, she ate up at 10 o'clock)

  • PAST CONTINUOS:

  • VERB IN SIMPLE PAST + -ING.

  • CONTINUOS EVENT IN THE PAST, PUEDE O NO ESTAR TERMINADO ( She was working hard)

  • TEMPORARY EVENT IN THE PAST WHICH WAS BEFORE ANOTHER ACTION. ( I was cooking when I heard the telephone rang)

  • AN EVENT THAT START BEFORE ANOTHER EVENT IN THE PAST AND CONTINUED. (When I come in, all the other people were eating the desert)

  • SIMULTANEOS ACTIONS IN THE PAST. ( While I was trying to sleep my sister was looking tv)

  • REPEATED ACTIONS OCCURING OVER A PERIOD IN THE PAST. (Before I got on my own flat, I was always arguing with my parents)

  • PAST PERFECT:

  • HAD + 3º COLUMN:

  • A PAST EVENT WHICH OCCUR BEFORE ANOTHER PAST EVENT ( Mike had already left.)

  • PAST PERFECT CONTINUOS:

  • HAD BEEN+ -ING.

  • WHEN WE WANT TO EMPHASISE THE CONTINUITY AND DURATION OF AN EVENT. ( I have been doing it for ages)

  • PRESENT PERFECT:

  • HAVE/HAS+ 3º COLUMN

  • EVENT THAT START IN THE PAST, CONTINUE IN THE PRESENT, AND MAY BE CONTINUE IN THE FUTURE.

  • RECENT EVENT IN THE PAST WHICH IS IMPORTANT IN THE PRESENT. (A man has appeared in court charged with the murder of the missing person)

  • AN EVENT THAT HAPPENED IN THE PAST BUT WE DON'T NOW THE ESPECIFIC TIME -NOT IMPORTANT THE TIME- ( Have you seen Jill ?)

  • HAPPENED IN THE PAST BUT IN UNFISHED TIME - THIS MONTH, THIS DAYS, ( I didn't see Tim last week but I have been out with him twice already this week)

  • PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOS:

  • HAVE/ HAS BEEN + -ING.

  • TO EMPHASISES THE CONTINUITY AND DURATION OF THE EVENT. ( They have been living in the same house ever since they got married)

  • A CONTINUOS ACTIVITY IN THE PAST IS RESPONSIBLE OF SITUATIONS IN THE PRESENT. ( I am not crying, I have been peeling onions)

  • PARTICIPLE CLAUSES: siempre las 2 partes de la oracion tienen que tener el mismo sujeto.

  • PRESENT PARTICIPLE CLAUSES:

  • VERB + ING.

  • TIME: After he come home, he drank some coffee - - > After coming home, …

  • REASON: Because he lost the bus, he arrived late - - > Losing the bus, … ( if it is negative you put NOT at the beginning of the sentence)

  • RELATIVE CLAUSE: The boy who was talking fell off the horse - - > The boy talking, fell off the horse.

  • PAST PARTICIPLE CLAUSES:

  • 3º COLUMN.

  • RELATIVE CLAUSES: The plane which was delayed crash - - > The plane delayed crash.

  • REASON: Because it was made of light steel, the plane arrived earlier - - > Made of light steel the plane…

  • PERFECT PARTICIPLE CLAUSES:

  • HAVING+ 3º COLUMN.

  • ONE ACTION BEFORE ANOTHER ACTION: He opened the door. He found his wife on the floor - - > Having opening the door, he found . . .

  • GERUNDS: VERB + ING.

  • SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE:

  • EATING OUT CAN BE EXPENSIVE

  • OBJECT OF A SENTENCE:

  • ONE OF MY INTERESTS IS COLLECTING ANTIQUES

  • AFTER VERBS EXPRESING LIKE AND DISLIKES:

  • LIKE

  • PREFER

  • HATE

  • LOVE

  • AFTER OTHER VERBS SUCH AS:

  • CAN´T HELP: NO PODER EVITAR

  • CONSIDER

  • DELAY: LLEGAR TARDE, TO BE LATE

  • DENY: NEGAR

  • FINISH

  • FORGIVE

  • GIVE UP: ¿?

  • IMAGINE

  • INVOLVE

  • KEEP

  • MIND: PONER EN PELIGRO

  • MISS

  • POSTPONE

  • PUT OFF: ¿?

  • PREVENT

  • REPORT

  • RESIST

  • RISK: ¿?

  • SUGGEST

  • AFTER PREPOSITIONS:

  • AFTER ALL PREPOSITIONS

  • IT IS FOR OPENING BOTTLES

  • AFTER ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS:

  • NERVOUS/WORRIED + ABOUT

  • BAD/ GOOD/ CLEVER/ SKILLED + AT

  • SORRY / RESPONSIBLE + FOR

  • INTERESTED + IN

  • CAPABLE / AFRAID/ FRIGHTENED / TERRIFIED + OF

  • BORED + WITH

  • PREVENTED (SB) + FROM

  • HAD NO INTENTION + OF

  • AFTER VERB + PREPOSITION COMBINATION:

  • APOLOGIZE SB FOR

  • ARREST SOMEONE FOR

  • BE/ GET USED TO

  • CONGRATULE SOMEONE ON

  • INSIST ON

  • LOOK FORWARD TO

  • OBJECT TO

  • SUCCEED IN

  • WARN SOMEONE ABOUT

  • THE INFINITE :

  • AFTER SOME VERBS:

  • AFFORD: BE ABLE TO PAY

  • AGREE

  • ARRANGE

  • ASK

  • APPEAR

  • ATTEMPT: INTENTAR

  • CHOOSE

  • DECIDE

  • EXPECT

  • HELP

  • HOPE

  • INTEND

  • LEARN

  • MANAGE: BE ABLE TO

  • OFFER

  • PRETEND

  • PROMISE

  • REFUSE

  • SEEM

  • AFTER SOME ADJECTIVES:

  • AMAZED

  • CERTAIN

  • DIFFICULT

  • DISAPPOINTED

  • EASY

  • FREE

  • GLAD: HAPPY

  • HAPPY

  • LIKELY: POSIBLE

  • PLEASED

  • POSSIBLE

  • SIMPLE

  • SURE

  • SURPRISED

  • THE GERUND OR THE INFINITIVE :

  • NO CHANGE OF MEANING:

  • START, BEGIN, CONTINUE

  • CUANDO EL VERB ESTA EN CONTINUOS, SE USA INFINITIVE

  • GENERALMENTE ESOS 3 VERBOS NO SE PONEN CON SU -ING. INCLUIDO

  • EX: Jeff CONTINUE to smoke / smoking despite the doctor´s advice.

  • LITTLE CHANGE OF MEANING:

  • LIKE, PREFER, HATE, LOVE

  • + GERUND:

  • EL ENFASIS ESTA EN LO Q TE GUSTA O NO TE GUSTA LA ACCION, O EL HECHO

  • YOU DO IT USUALLY

  • EX: Mery prefers eating out to eating at home.

  • ¡! ¡! : LIKE + INFINITIVE: MEANING OF A PREFERED ALTERNATIVE

  • + INFINITIVE:

  • ACCIONES O HECHOS ESPECIFICOS, EN LOS CUALES SE QUIERE DAR INFORMCION EXTRA.

  • UNUSUAL ACTIVITIES

  • EX: Jane prefers to eat out because there´s no washing-up to do.

  • CHANGE OF MEANING:

  • Verbs try, see, regret, go on, forget/remember and mean; pueden ser seguidos por gerund o infinitve y cambia el significado.

  • TRY:

  • + GERUND:

  • EXPERIMENTAR POR PRIMERA VEZ PARA CUMPLIR UN OBJETIVO

  • EX: Try going to bed earlier and see if that helps.

  • + INFINITIVE:

  • INTENTAR UAN ACCION DIFICIL, HACER UN ESFUERZO

  • EX: Jill´s been trying to get a job since she left school, but with no success.

  • STOP :

  • + GERUND:

  • FINISH AN ACTIVITY, STOP AN ACTIVITY

  • EX: Stop talking and get on with your work!

  • + INFINITIVE:

  • INTERRUMPIR UNA ACCION PARA EMPEZAR OTRA

  • EX: Roger stopped to have a cup of tea.

  • REGRET: ARREPENTIRSE

  • + GERUND:

  • HACES LA ACCION Y DESPUES TE ARREPENTIS

  • EX: Many people regret marrying young.

  • + INFINITIVE:

  • TE ARRPENTIS, O TE DA “PENA” PERO LO HACES IGUAL, COMMUNICATION

  • EX: Dr. Taylor regret to say that she is unable to see patients without an appointment.

  • FORGOT / REMEMBER:

  • + GERUND:

  • HACES LA ACCION Y DESPUES TE ACORDAS

  • EX: I distincly remember asking them to come alter lunch.

  • + INFINITIVE:

  • TE ACORDAS, Y DESPUES HACES LA ACCION

  • EX: Ann remember to lock all the doors when she went on holiday, but she forgot to close the bathroom window.

  • ¡! ¡! : I FORGOT TO… : YOU DIDN´T DO IT.

  • GO ON:

  • + GERUND:

  • CONTINUE AN ACTION

  • EX: I will go on applying for jobs until I´m successful

  • + INFINITIVE:

  • TERMINAR UNA ACCION Y EMPEZAR OTRA.

  • EX: After 7 years of study, Andy went on to become a doctor.

  • MEAN:

  • + GERUND:

  • ABARCA

  • EX: Diets usually means giving up sweet things.

  • + INFINITIVE:

  • INTENTAR

  • EX: I meant to send you a postcard but I couldn´t remember your address.

  • ¡! ¡! : MEAN SOLO PUEDE IR EN INFINITIVE SI ESTA EN PERFECT Y EN PAST TENSES.

  • The verbs or perception See (watch, notice, etc), feel, hear, smell; diferente significado si estan seguidos por the infinitive (sin el to adelante) or a participle.

  • + PARTICIPLE:

  • PART OF AN EVENT

  • EX: I noticed a man acting in a strange way. ¿? ¿?

  • + INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO:

  • WHOLE EVENT, TODO EL EVENTO

  • EX: I heard my sister come in at 1 a.m.

  • SI EN UNA ORACION TENGO . . . IN THE LAS 2 YEARS: SIEMPRE SE PASA CON PRESENT PERFECT

  • GRAMMAR:

  • PASSIVE VOICE:

  • THE VERB BE IN THE SAME TENSE AS IN THE FIRST SENTENCE + THE PAST PARTICIPLE OF THE MAIN VERB.

  • PRESENT SIMPLE - - - > ARE/IS

  • PRESENT CONTINUOS - - - > IS/ARE BEING

  • PAST SIMPLE - - - > WAS/WERE

  • PAST CONTINUOS - - - > WAS/WERE BEING

  • PRESENT PERFECT - - - > HAS BEEN

  • PAST PERFECT - - - > HAD BEEN

  • FUTURE - - - > WILL BE

  • MODAL VERBS - - - > MUST BE/CAN BE

  • ACTIVE SENTENCE:

  • SUBJECT - - - > PERSON OR THING THAT DO THE ACTION

  • PASSIVE SENTENCE:

  • SUBJECT - - - > PERSON OR THING AFFECTED BY THE ACTION (este lo usas cuando queres q se enfoque todo mas a la persona o a la cosa q le esta afectando la accion)

  • NOT TO PUT THE AGENT:

  • WHEN IS NOT IMPORTANT, OSEA NO LO DECIMOS

  • CUANDO NO SABEMOS QUIEN ES, ENTONCES NO PODEMOS SB Ó A “PERSON”

  • CUANDO ES ALGUIEN OVIO. Ex: The thief was sentenced BY THE JUDGE.

  • CUANDO YA FUE MENCIONADO ANTERIORMENTE

  • CUANDO UNA ORACION TIENE 2 OBJECT (uno directo y otro indirecto), LOS 2 PUEDEN SER USADOS COMO SUJETO. SI HY 2 Y UNO ES UNA PERSONA, ES MAS COMUN Q SE USE A LA PERSONA Q AL OBJETO.

  • CUANDO QUEREMOS TRANSMITIR UNA INFO, PERO NO SABEMOS SI ES TRUE OR FALSE, O NO SABEMOS LA FUENTE DE INFO:

  • INFO ABOUT A PRESENT SITUATION:

  • THE PASSIVE + INFINITIVE (Ex: Mr Smith is belived to be staying with friends)

  • INFO ABOUT STH IN THE PAST:

  • TO HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE (Ex: The ship is reported to have sunk. Many people are thought to have drowned.)

  • IMPERSONAL PASSIVE VOICE:

  • People (Subject) think (main verb) Einstein(Subject of the D.O.) IS (Verb of the D.O.) a great scientific.: (Direct Object)

  • IT + MAIN VERB IN PASSIVE + THAT + D.O.

  • IT + IS THOUGHT + THAT + ENINSTEIN IS A GREAT SCIENTIST…

  • SUBJECT OF D.O. + MAIN VERB IN PASSIVE + TO + VERB OF THE D.O.

  • EINSTEIN + IS THOUGHT + TO + BE A GREAT SCIENTIST

  • VERB OF THE DIRECT OBJECT:

  • PRESENT - - - > TO + INFINITIVE

  • FUTURE - - - > TO + INFINITIVE

  • PAST SIMPLE - - - > TO HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

  • PRESENT PERFECT - - - > TO HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

  • PAST PERFECT - - - > TO HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

  • PRESENT CONTINUOS - - - > TO BE + ING.

  • PAST CONTINUOS - - - > TO HAVE BEEN + ING.

  • HAVE / GET STH DONE: (HAVE IS MORE FORMAL THAN GET, GET IS MORE USED IN THE IMPERATIVE FORM)

  • ACTIONS THAT ARE FOR THE SUBJECT, NOT DONE IT BY THE SUBJECT.

  • HAVE STH DONE:

  • I DON´T NOW HOW TO REPAIR CARS, SO I´M HAVING MINE REPAIRED AT THE GARAGE ROUND THE CORNER

  • GET STH DONE:

  • I REALLY MUST GET MY EYES TESTED. I´M SURE I NEED GLASSES.

  • ACTIONS THAT HAPPENED TO SB, BUT WERE OUTSIDE THEIR CONTROL.

  • I STOOD SO CLOSE TO THE FIRE THAT I GOT MY LEGS BURNT.

  • REPORTED SPEECH:

  • WE CAN REPORTD IN 2 WAYS:

  • THEIR ACTUAL WORDS: “I´ll be late home tomorrow,” Bob said.

  • THE IDEA THEY EXPRESSED:

  • CHANGES IN VERB TENSES:

  • PRESENT SIMPLE - - - > PAST SIMPLE

  • PRESENT CONTINUOS - - - > PAST CONTINUOS

  • PAST SIMPLE - - - > PAST PERFECT

  • PRESENT PERFECT - - - > PAST PERFECT

  • PAST CONTINUOS - - - > PAST PERFECT CONTINUOS

  • WILL - - - > WOULD

  • CAN - - - > COULD

  • MAY - - - > MIGHT

  • MUST - - - > HAD TO

  • CONDITIONAL 1 - - - > CONDITIONAL 2

  • CONDITIONAL 2 - - - > CONDITIONAL 3

  • CONDITIONAL 3 - - - > CONDITIONAL 3

  • NO CHANGES IN VERB TENSES:

  • WHEN THE REPORTING VERB IS IN THE PRESENT: HE SAYS.., WE DO NOT CHANGE THE ORIGINAL VERB:

  • WHEN SOMEONE HAS SAID IN A NEWSPAPER OR A LETTER:

  • Ex: Darren says he has been too busy to write before.

  • WHEN YOU ARE PASSING A MESSAGE:

  • Ex: Lucy says she will be late.

  • CHANGES IN THE TIME AND PLACE REFERENCE:

  • TODAY - - - > TOMORROW

  • TOMORROW - - - > THE DAY AFTER, THE FOLLOWING DAY, THE NEXT DAY

  • YESTERDAY - - - > THE PREVIOUS DAY, THE DAY BEFORE

  • 2 DAYS AGO - - - > 2 DAYS BEFORE, 2 DAYS EARLIER

  • NOW - - - > THEN

  • HERE - - - > THERE

  • COME - - - > GO

  • BRING - - - > TAKE

  • TAKE - - - > BRING

  • OTHER CHANGES:

  • PRONOUNS WILL CHANGE:

  • Ex: I will give you a kiss/ Jack said he would give me a kiss

  • THE DETERMINERS: THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE - - - > THE

  • THE PRONOUNS: THIS, THAT - - - > IT

  • TOLD:

  • TOLD SB + THAT … ) SENTENCE

  • TOLD SB + TO DO STH ) ORDERS

+ NOT TO DO STH )

  • Ex: Leave me alone! (+ INF) - - - > She told me to leave her alone.

  • ASKED:

  • ASKED SB + WH + WORD + SUBJECT + VERB ) QUESTION

  • ASKES SB + TO DO STH ) REQUEST(pregunta q no es pregunta)

+ NOT TO DO STH )

  • Ex: Leave my keey, PLEASE - - - > She asked my to leave his keys.

  • MARKERS OF REQUEST:

  • PLEASE

  • CAN YOU?

  • COULD YOU?

  • WOULD YOU?

  • WILL YOU?

  • WOULD YOU MIND + ING.

  • WARNED:

  • WARN SB + TO DO STH

+ NOT TO DO STH

+ AGAINST DOING STH

+ ABOUT STH

  • ADVISED:

  • ADVICE SB + TO DO STH

+ NOT TO DO STH

  • SE PASA CUANDO:

  • YOU MUSNT´T …

  • YOU SHOULD …

  • YOU OUGHT TO…

  • IF I WERE YOU, I HAD…

  • YOU HAD BETTER + INFINITIVE (sin to)

+ NOT + INFINITIVE (sin to)

  • IF EN NEGATIVE - - - > ADVISE SB AGAINST + ING

  • - - > ADVISE SB NO TO + INFINITIVE

  • SUGGESTED:

  • SUGGEST + ING (cuando el q habla se esta incluyendo)

  • SE PASA CUANDO:

  • LET´S + INFINITIVE

  • HOW ABOUT + ING

  • WHAT ABOUT + ING

  • WHY DON´T WE + ING

  • SUGGEST + TO SB + THAT + SHOULD + INF. (sin to)

(el q habla no esta incluido) + INFINITIVE (sin to)

+ PAST SIMPLE

  • SUGGEST(ED)(TO SB)(THAT) + SHOULD + BARE INFINITIVE

+ BARE INFINITIVE

+ PAST SIMPLE

+ SHOULD ENRROL

+ ENRROL

+ ENRROLED

  • SE PASA CUANDO:

  • WHY DON´T YOU…?

  • I THINK YOU COULD…

  • I THINK YOU SHOULD…

  • OFFER:

  • OFFERED SB + TO DO STH

+ NOT TO DO STH

SO :

SO + ADJETIVE

ADVERBS

Example: He works SO HARD … (works se relaciona con el adverb hard)

Exceptions: SO /MANY / FEW + NOUN > QUANTITY

/ MUCH / LITTLE + NOUN >

  • Example: I´ve never seen SO FEW people in town.

SUCH :

SUCH (A/AN/ADJETIVE) + NOUN

He is SUCH A HARD worker

Exceptions: Si el noun es: UNCOUNTABLE >

PLURAL >

Exceptions: They were SUCH naughty BOYS.

  • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES:

  • CONDITIONAL 0 :

  • (IF + PRESENT) + (PRESENT OR IMPERATIVE)

  • SCIENTIFIC FACTS

    • Ex.: If you put paper on fire, it burns quickly.

    2. GIVE INSTRUCTIONS

    • Ex.: If the phone rings, answer it.

    3. ADVICE

    • Ex.: If Mary eats well, she is a beautiful girl.

    4. ALWAYS TRUE (RUTINA, HABITOS, ETC.)

    • Ex.: If Mike reads on the bus, he feels sick.

    • WHEN OR WHENEVER CEN BE USED INSTEAD OF IF.

    • CONDITIONAL 1:

    • (IF + SIMPLE PRESENT) + (WILL FUTURE)

    • (IF + PRESENT PERFECT) + (WILL FUTURE) To emphasis that de 1º action is completed to do the 2º action.

  • PREDICT LIKELY OR PROBABLY RESULTS IN THE FUTURE.

    • Ex.: If we don't leave now, we will miss the bus.

    • PERSUASION, PROMISES, WARNINGS AND THREATS.

      • Ex.: Once you have landed, you will see your family.

      • MODAL VERBS CAN BE USED INSTEAD OF WILL:

      • MAY - - - > MORE IMPROBABLE

      • Ex.: If we leave now, we may catch the train.

      • MUST - - - > INVITATION

      • Ex.: If you come to London again, you must call and see us.

      • CONDITIONAL 2 :

      • (IF + PAST SIMPLE) + ( WOULD/COULD/MIGHT)

      • (IF + PAST CONTINUOS) + (WOULD BE + ING.)

    • IMAGINARY OR IMPROBABLE SITUATIONS

      • Ex.: You had feel healthier, if you did more exercise.

      • UNREAL SITUATIONS

        • Ex.: If I were taller, I would play basketball.

      • EXPRESS ADVICE

        • Ex.: If I were you, I wouldn't drive so fast.

        • WHEN YOU USE MIGHT AND COULD: TO SHOW UNCERTANTY.

        • Ex.: If you did more exercise, you might feel healthier.

        • CONDITIONAL 3 :

        • (IF + PAST PERFECT) + (WOULD/MIGHT/COULD + PAST PARTICIPLE)

        • (IF + PAST PERFECT CONTINUOS) + (WOULD/MIGHT/COULD + PAST PARTICIPLE)

      • IS IN THE PAST, AND SPECULATES ABOUT POSIBILITIES WHICH DIDN´T HAPPEN.

        • Ex.: If I had had your address, I would have sent you a postcard.

        • Ex.: You might not have crashed into the bus If you had been driving more slowly.

          • WHEN THE IF VA AL PRINCIPIO DE LA ORACION SE PONE COMA. SI VA!

          • WHEN THE IF VA AL FINAL DE LA ORACION NO VA COMA. NO VA!

          • MIXED CONDITIONAL:

          • (IF + SIMPLE PAST) + (WOULD/ MIGHT/ COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE)

          • (IF + PAST PERFECT) + (WOULD/COULD/MIGHT)

        • PAST ACTION WITH A PRESENT RESULT

            • Ex.: If I hadn't broken my leg, I would go on holiday with you.

            • PRESENT SITUATION WITH A RESULT IN THE PAST

                • Ex.: If my sister weren't so distracted, she wouldn't have forgotten her shoes at home.

              • OTHER WAYS OF INTRODUCING CONDITIONS:

              • UNLESS:

            • EN LUGARDE IF NOT:

              • Ex.: Unless we leave now, we will miss the train.

              • NO PUEDE SEGUIRSE DE WILL O WILL NOT

              • NO PUEDE SEGUIRSE DE NADA NEGATIVO.

              • AS LONG AS:

            • TO EMPHASIS A CONDITION (remplaza a if)

              • Ex.: I will lend you the Money you need as long as you promise not to waste it.

              • PROVIDED THAT /PROVIDING THAT:

            • SIGNIFICA: ON CONDITION THAT

              • Ex.: You can come home on holiday with us provided that you do sth of the cooking.

              MAS FORMAL QUE IF.

              • PROBABILITY: WE ARE CERTAIN THAT STH IS THE CASE

              • MUST/ CAN´T

            • PRESENT SITUATION:

              • MUST/CAN´T + INFINITIVE SIN TO

              • Ex.: My doctor must be married. He wears a wedding ring.

              • MUST /CAN´T + ING

              • Ex.: Virginia must be wondering where I am. I said I'd de there at 3 p.m. and it's now 5 p.m.

              2. PAST SITUATION:

              • MUST/ CAN´T + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

              • Ex.: Sandra must have passed her driving test because I saw her driving a car on her own.

              • MUST/CAN´T + HAVE BEEN + ING

              • Ex.: I'm sorry I'm late. You must have been waiting for ages.

              • POSSIBILITY: WE ARE NOT CERTAIN THAT STH IN THE CASE BUT WE THINK IT IS POSSIBLE

            • PRESENT SITUATION:

              • COULD/MAY/MIGHT + INFINITIVE SIN TO

              • Ex.: Paula could be on holiday

              • COULD/MAY/MIGHT + ING

              • Ex.: Julie might be visiting her mother.

            • PAST SITUATION:

              • COULD/MAY/MIGHT + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

              • Ex.: Freda might have overslept

              • COULD/MAY/MIGHT + HAVE BEEN + ING

              • Ex.: The missing girl may be have been wearing a blue shirt.

              • NO DIFERENCE BETWEEN MAY, COULD AND MIGHT.

              • MAY AND MIGHT EN NEGATIVE: MAY NOT Y MIGHT NOT

              • COULD EN NEGATIVE: COULDN´T

              • ARTICLES:

              • THE:

            • STH THAT HAS BEEN MENTIONED BEFORE

              • Ex.: I have a dog

              What's the dog name?

            • STH THERE IS ONLY ONE OF IT IN A PARTICULAR CONTEXT

              • Ex.: The queen spent 3 days in Argentina

            • STH THE SPEAKER AND LISTENER BOTH KNOE ABOUT.

              • Ex.: The film was really good.

            • SUPERLATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS

              • Ex.: She is the fastest runner in Europe

            • WITH ADJ USED AS NOUNS REFERRING TO GROUPS OF PEOPLE

              • Ex.: There is one law for the rich and another for the poor.

            • WITH THE NAMES OF THE OCEANS, SEAS, RIVERS, MOUNTAIN, RANGES.

              • Ex.: The Atlantic.

            • WITH THE NAMES OF SOME COUNTRIES AND GROUP OF ISLANDS

              • Ex.: The United States.

              • ZERO ARTICLES:

              • NO ARTICLE IS USED:

            • WITH PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUNS

              • Ex.: X International footballers are paid too much money.

            • WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

              • Ex.: He used to drink X beer, but now he drinks only X water.

            • WITH THE NAMES OF TOWNS, CITIES, STATES AND MOST COUNTRIES

              • Ex.: X New York

            • WITH NOUNS FOR CERTAIN PLACES OR SITUATIONS

              • Ex.: Suzy went into X hospital yesterday.

              • INVERSION:

              • NEG ADV + AUX + SUBJECT + VERB … + BUT + AS WELL /ALSO

              • NEGATIVE ADVERBS:

              • NOT ONLY

              • NEVER

              • LITTLE

              • SELDOM VS. OFTEN

              • RARELY VS. OFTEN

              • UNDER NO CIRCUNSTANCIES

              • SO + ADJ.

              + ADV

              • Ex.: He never comes back early - - - > Never does he come early.

              • Ex.: He feel down the stairs. He sprained his ankle. - - - > Not only did he fall down the stairs but he also sprained his ankle as well.

              PRESENT + SO THAT + WILL /CAN

              PAST + SO THAT + WOULD /COULD

              • HARDLY + HAD + SUBJECT + 3º C + WHEN + SENTENCE

              • NO SOONER + HAD + SUBJECT + 3º C + THAN + SENTENCE

              • Ex.: He came back home. It started raining. - - - > Hardly had he come back home when it started.

              • (ONLY + BY/WHEN/ETC.), (AUX + SUBJECT + VERB)

              • (NOT UNTIL + SENTENCE), (AUX + SUBJECT + VERB)

              • MORE FORMAL

              • WITH EMPHASIS

              Ex.: They were allowed to enter only by paying in cash. - - - > Only by paying in cash, were they allowed to enter