Form: to be + gerund. Eg: “Is studying”
Uses: 1.- It is used to express actions which are taking place at the moment of speaking. Eg: What are you doing? I am writing a letter.
2.- It is used to express future actions if ARRANGEMENTS have been made. Eg: Where is he going tomorrow? He is visiting his girlfriend. Pepito is having his birthday party on Saturday:
Forma: verbo “ser/estar” + gerundio
Usos: 1.- Se utiliza para hablar de acciones que están ocurriendo en el momento de hablar. Ej: ¿Qué estás haciendo? Estoy escribiendo una carta.
2.- Se utiliza para expresar acciones en el futuro si hemos hecho PREPARATIVOS. Ej: ¿A dónde va mañana? Va a visitar a su novia. Pepito dará su fiesta de cumpleaños el sábado.
Form: add “-d”, “-ed”, and “-ied” to the infinitives of regular verb. Eg: move-moved, play-played, marry-married.
Uses: 1.- It is used for an action which have completely finished at a given point of time in the past STAYING WHEN it happened. Eg: They went on an excursion yesterday.
2.- It is used for an action which has completely finished at a given point of time in the past INSINUATING WHEN it happened. Eg: She bought that dress when she travelled to Paris.
3.- It is used for an action which has completely finishes at a given point of time in the past being IMPLICIT when it happened. Eg: It rained in the morning. Where were you then? I was at school.
4.- It is used with “ago” to indicate past actions. Eg: They took cocido three days ago.
Forma: Añade “-d”, “-ed” y “-ied” a los infinitivos de los verbos regulares.
Usos: 1.- Se utiliza para una acción que haya terminado completamente en un momento dado en el pasado DICIENDO CUÁNDO ocurrió.
2.- Se utiliza para una acción que haya terminado completamente en un momento dado en el pasado INSINUANDO CUÁNDO ocurrió.
3.- Se utiliza para una acción que haya terminado completamente en un momento dado en el pasado SIENDO IMPLÍCITO cuándo ocurrió.
4.- Se utiliza con “ago” (hace) para indicar acciones pasadas.
Form: The past tense of “to be” + gerund. Eg: “Were walking”
Uses: 1.- It is used to express an action which was taking place before another action interrupted it. The action in progress is in the past continuous tense and the other one is in the simple past. Eg: What was he doing when is started to rain? He was listening to music.
2.- It is used to talk about an action which was ocurrying at a precise time in the past. Eg: They were having lunch at 3 p.m. yesterday. She wasn't riding a bike at 5 p.m. last Saturday.
Forma: El pasado simple del verbo “ser/estar” + el gerundio.
Usos: 1.- Se utiliza para expresar una acción que estaba ocurriendo antes de ser interrumpida por otra acción. La acción que estaba ocurriendo está en el pasado contínuo mientras la otra acción está en el pasado simple. Ej: ¿Qué estaba ocurriendo cuando empezó a llover?
2.- Se utiliza para hablar de una acción que estaba ocurriendo en una hora precisa en el pasado.
“Going to” as future.
Form: To be + going to + main verb (infinitive) WITHOUT “to”.
Uses: 1.- It is used to talk about what is about to happen. Eg: It is going to rain. When are you going to go home? He isn't going to laugh.
2.- It is used when we have the INTENTION of doing something in the immediate future. Eg: They are going to study English after class. Why is she going to work? I am not going to go to the park.
“Going to” como futuro.
Forma: To be + going to + verbo principal (infinitive) SIN “to”Fo
Usos: 1.- Se utiliza para hablar sobre lo que está a punto de ocurrir.
2.- Se utiliza cuando tenemos la INTENCIÓN de hacer algo en el futuro inmediato.
Form: Subject + have + past participle + direct object + indirect object. Eg: The have gone to shcool.
Uses: 1.- It is used for actions which started in the past and continue into the present. Eg: Cristina has lived in La Poveda for 13 years.
2.- It is used for actions which have completely finished in the past WITHOUT SAYING WHEN they occurred. Eg: Have you ever been to Paris?
3.- It is used for actions which have completely finished in the past WITHOUT INSINUATING WHEN they happened. Eg: Why hasn't she telephoned yet?
4.- It is used for actions which have completely finished in the past WITHOUT being IMPLICIT WHEN they took place. Eg: He hasn't done his homework.
5.- It is used for recently finished actions. Eg: Where's Estefanía? She's just gone to walk the dog.
Forma: Sujeto + (have) haber + participio + objeto directo + objeto indirecto.
Usos: 1.- Se utiliza para las acciones que empezaron en el pasado y siguen hasta el presente.
2.- Se utiliza para las acciones que han terminado completamente en el pasado SIN DECIR CUÁNDO ocurrieron.
3.- Se utiliza para acciones que han terminado completamente en el pasado SIN INSINUAR CUÁNDO ocurrieron.
4.- Se utiliza para acciones que han terminado completamente en el pasado SIN que fuera IMPLÍCITO CUÁNDO ocurrieron.
5.- Se utiliza para acciones que han terminado recientemente.
Key words (palabras clave) : yet, since, for, just, ever.
Present perfect with “Never” and “ever”
Never is used for negative expressions. Eg: They have never been to the theatre. I have eaten snails.
Ever is used for asking questions. Eg: Have you ever seen that theme park? Has she ever played rugby?
Will (simple future)
Characteristics: 1.- It is the same for all persons. Eg: I will, he will, they will…
2.- It is used WITHOUT “to” before the infinitive. Eg: She will go home after class
Uses: 1.- It is used for predictions. Eg: Will it rain tomorrow?
2.- It is used for decisions. Eg: I will watch “The Lord of rings”
Will (futuro simple)
Características: 1.-Es lo mismo para todas las personas.
2.- Se utiliza sin “to” antes del infinitivo.
Usos: 1.- Se utiliza para hacer predicciones.
2.- Se utiliza para decisiones.
Characteristics: The same as those of WILL.
Form: The same as those of WILL with should instead.
Use: It is used to express a strong recommendation or an advice. Eg: Should he drive carefully? You should study harder. You shouldn't drink and drive.
Características: Lo mismo que las de WILL.
Forma: Lo mismo que las de WILL con “SHOULD” en su lugar.
Uso: Se utiliza para expresar una recomendación fuerte o un consejo.
Characteristics: 1.- It is obligatory to write “to” befote the infinitivo.
2.- Even thoug it is an auxiliary verb, we use “do” for asking questions, and making negative sentences.
3.- We have to conjugate it.
Form: have + to + infinitive. Eg: They have to speak English in the class.
Use: It is used to express an imposed obligation. Eg: Ahsley has to make his bed everyday.
Have to (tener que)
Características: 1.- Es obligatorio escribir “to” antes del infinitivo.
2.- Aunque sea un verbo auxiliar, utilizamos “do” para hacer preguntas y frases negativas.
3.- Tenemos que conjugarlo.
Forma: have + to+ infinitivo
Uso: Se utiliza para expresar una obligación impuesta.
Form: Subject + should + main verb + direct object + indirect object. Eg: Mr Gómez shouldn't talk in the class.
Uses: 1.- It is used for giving STRONG RECOMMENDATIONS. Eg: Lady Jessica should try as much as possible to be patient.
2.- It is used for future in the past in the reported speech. Eg: “Shall I accompany her to the hospital.” Miriam asked. -- Miriam asked if she should accompany her to the hospital.
Forma: sujeto + should + verbo principal + objeto directo + objeto indirecto.
Usos: 1.- Se utiliza para dar recomendaciones fuertes.
2.- Se utiliza en el estilo indirecto como futuro en el pasado.
Ought to (deber moral)
Form: subject + ought to + main verb + direct object + indirect object. Eg: Mr Rubén ought to visit his grandparents more often.
Use: It is used to express moral obligations. Eg: Maria ought to obery (obedecer) her parents. Oughtn't Javier to respect his friends? Ought Arián to take care of his junior sister?
Ought to (traducción)
Forma: Sujeto + ought to + verbo principal + objeto directo + objeto indirecto
Uso: Se utiliza para expresar obligaciones morales.
Must (deber según pensamiento del hablador)
Form: subject + must + main verb + direct object + indirect object.
Characteristics: 1.- It is the same for all persons.
2.- The main verb doesn't take “to”.
3.- The past tense is “had to”.
Use: It is used to express obligations according to the speakers feeling.
Forma: Sujeto + must + verbo principal + objeto directo + objeto indirecto.
Características: 1.- Es lo mismo para todas las personas.
2.- No lleva “to” antes del infinitivo.
3.- El pasado es “had to”.
Uso: Se utiliza para expresar las obligaciones según el sentimiento del hablante.
Present perfect continuous
Form: Subject + have been + main verb in gerund + direct object + indirect object. Eg: Jessica has been talking for a long time.
Use: It is used for actions which started in the past and continue UNINTERRUPTEDLY into the present. Eg: How long has it been raining? It has been raining since lunchtime.
Presente perfecto continuo
Forma: sujeto + have+ verbo principal en gerundio + objeto directo + objeto indirecto.
Uso: Se utiliza para acciones que empezaron en el pasado y siguen ININTERRUMPIDAMENTE hasta el presente.
The first conditional
Characteristics: 1.- It consists of two parts: the “if clause” and the “conditional clause”.
2.- We can start the sentence with either the if clause or the conditional clause.
Use: It is used to express FUTURE PROBABLE actions with VERY PROBABLE consequences. Eg: I will be happier if all my students pass English. Where will she visit if she goes to Paris? They won't miss Real Madrid versus Manchester United match if it is shown on T.V.
3.- Since the auxiliary verb is found in the conditional clause, all the questions and negative sentences are started there.
Form: The “if clause” is in the present tense and the conditional clause is in the simple future.
La primera condicional
Características: 1.- Está dividida en dos partes: la oración del “if” y la oración condicional.
2.- Podemos empezar la frase con la oración de “if” o con la oración condicional.
Uso: Se utiliza para expresar acciones PROBABLES EN EL FUTURO con consecuencias MUY PROBABLES.
3.- Como el verbo auxiliar se encuentra en la oración condicional, se empieza todas las preguntas y frases negativas aquí.
Forma: La oración de “if” está en presente simple y la oración condicional está en futuro simple.
The zero conditional
Form: Both the “if” clause and the “Conditional clause” are in the present tense. Eg: Tell Cesar to come here if you see him.
Forma: Tanto la oración de “if” como la oración condicional están en presente simple.
The pasive voice
Characteristics: 1.- The tense of the active voice is the tense of the passive voice and vive-versa.
2.- The tense of the passive voice is the tense of the verb “to be”.
3.- The agent is omitted if it's unnecessary.
4.- The agent ends the passive voice, except if there's a time clause.
Form: Direct object of the active voice + to be + past participle + by + agent + time clause. Eg: My window was broken by some children yesterday.
Uses: 1.- It is used when the action is more important than the agent. Eg: The jewel shop was robbed last week.
2.- It is used when the agent is unknown. Eg: Where was the first dinosaur buried?
3.- It is used when the agent is obvious. Eg: Spanish is spoken in Chile.
La voz pasiva
Características: 1.- El tiempo de la voz active es el tiempo de la voz pasiva y viceversa.
2.- El tiempo de la voz pasiva es el tiempo del verbo “to be”.
3.- El agente se omite si es innecesario.
4.- El agente termina la voz pasiva, excepto si hay un complemento de tiempo.
Forma: Objeto directo de la voz activa + to be + participio pasado + by + agente + complemento de tempo.
Usos: 1.- Se utiliza cuando la acción es más importante que el agente.
2.- Se utiliza cuando el agente es desconocido.
3.- Se utiliza cuando el agente es obvio.
The second conditional
Characteristics: They are the same as tose of the first conditional.
Form: The if clause is in the simple past while the conditional clause is in the conditional. Eg: If I went to Australia, I would visit the Bondi Beach.
Uses: 1.- It is used for actions whose probability of taking place in the future is remote. Eg: She should buy a Rolls Royce if she won the lottery.
2.- It is used for hypothetical actions. Eg: Would you work if you were your father? If I were you, I would study English everyday.
La segunda condicional
Características: Son iguales a las de la primera condicional.
Forma: La parte de “if” está en el pasado simple mientras que la parte de condicional está en condicional.
Usos: 1.- Se utiliza para las acciones cuya probabilidad de ocurrir en el futuro es lejana. Ej: Ella compraría un Rolls Royce si ganara la lotería.
2.- Se utiliza para acciones hipotéticas. Ej: ¿Trabajarías si fueras tu padre? Si yo fuera tú, yo estudiaría inglés todos los días.
The past perfect tense
Form: had + past participle. Eg: My father had repaired our TV when I returned.
Use: Two actions took place in the past. The first one is in the past perfect while the later one is in the simple past. Eg: Where had you had lunch before tea was served? The played had insulted the referee before he was sent out.
El pretérito pluscuamperfecto
Forma: had + participio. Ej: Mi padre había reparado nuestra TV cuando yo llegué.
Uso: Dos acciones ocurrieron en el pasado (una antes que la otra). La primera acción está en pretérito pluscuamperfecto, mientras la otra más reciente está en el pasado simple. Ej: ¿Dónde habías almorzado antes de que te sirvieran el té? El jugador había insultado al árbitro antes de ser expulsado
The reported speech
CHANGES: DIRECT SPEECH
Simple present ---------------------Past simple, conditional
Present continuous ----------------Past continuous
Simple past -------------------------Past perfect
Past continuous --------------------Past perfect continuous
Past perfect -------------------------Past perfect
Past perfect continuous------------Past perfect continuous
Present perfect ---------------------Past perfect
Present perfect continuous--------Past perfect continuous
Direct Indirect Direct Indirect
I He, she Mine His, hers
You I Yours Mine
He/She/It He, she, it His, hers His, hers
We They, you Ours Theirs, yours
You They, we Yours Theirs, ours
They They Theirs Theirs
Me Him, her This That
You Me These Those
Him/Her Him/Her Those Those
Us Them, you
You Them, us Here There
Them Them There There
My His, her Today That day
Your My Tomorrow The next day
His, her His, her Yesterday The previous day
Our Their, your Last week The previous week
Your Their, our Now Then
“I am rich” John said. ---- John said that he was rich
“You'll pass the exam” she told me. ---- She told me that I would pass the exam
“We are decorating our new flat now” Jenny told us. ---- Jenny told us that they were decorating their new flat then.
“Maria has been to Ibiza” Miriam said. ---- Miriam said that Maria had been to Ibiza.
“It has been raining since yesterday” he said. ---- He said that it had been raining since the previous day.
“They had an accident on the M-30 last week” the newscaster announced. ---- The newscaster announced that they had had an accident on the M-30 the previous week.
“You weren't listening when I explained it” Tony said. ---- Tony said that I hadn't been listening when he explained it.
“They must see the doctor” she insisted. ---- She insisted that they had to see the doctor.
“You should be honest with your girlfriend” my friend recommended. ---- My friend recommended that I should be honest with my girlfriend.
a) “Yes or No” questions:
“Do you study here?” he asked me ---- He asked me if I studied there.
“Has she ever been to Tokyo?” they asked. ---- They asked whether she had ever been to Tokyo.
“Will it rain tomorrow?” she asked him. ---- She asked him if it would rain the following day.
“Had we left when you telephoned?” she asked. ---- She asked whether they had left when I phoned.
b) Word questions:
“Where does he have lunch?” she asked. ---- She asked where he had lunch.
“What have you had for tea?” he asked me. ---- He asked me what I had had for tea.
“Why is this tree being cut?” they asked him. ---- They asked him why that tree was being cut.
“Why can't you speak English?” I asked him. ---- I asked him why he couldn't speak English.
“When is their house going to be repainted?” she asked me. ---- She asked me when their house was going to be repainted.
“What is your name?” he asked. ---- He asked what my name was.
“Keep quiet” he told me. ---- He told me to keep quiet.
“Leave you sleeping bags outside” she told us. ---- She told us to leave our sleeping bags outside.
“Come with us and watch the match” he told me. ---- He told me to go with them and watch the match.
“Come home soon” my mother told me. ---- My mother told me to come home soon.
“Don't bully your junior brother” he told me. ---- He told me not to bully my junior brother.
“Don't tell anyone until next week” she told us. ---- She told us not to tell anyone until the next week.
“Don't be late” my teacher told him. ---- My teacher told him not to be late.