Estilo indirecto

Gramática inglesa. Transformaciones del estilo directo al indirecto. Tiempos verbales. Verbos modades. # Reported Speech

  • Enviado por: Estrella
  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
  • 4 páginas

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REPORTED SPEECH

Utilizamos el estilo indirecto cuando queremos comunicar a alguien lo que otra persona ha dicho, sin usar las palabras exactas que ésta utilizó.

  • Reported statements (oraciones declarativas)

    • Cambios de los tiempos verbales:

    ESTILO DIRECTO

    ESTILO INDIRECTO

    Presente simple

    I train every day

    Pasado simple

    He said (that) he trained every day

    Presente continuo

    I'm having a shower

    Pasado continuo

    He said (that) he was having a shower

    Pretérito Perfecto

    We haven't seen it yet

    Pretérito pluscuamperfecto

    They said they hadn't met her

    Pasado simple

    I met her at 3

    Pretérito pluscuamperfecto

    He said he had met her at 3

    Imperativo

    Be quiet

    Infinitivo

    He told us to be quiet

    • Cambios de los verbos modales:

    ESTILO DIRECTO

    ESTILO INDIRECTO

    Can

    I can't swim

    Could

    He said (that) he couldn't swim.

    Will

    I'll send you a postcard

    Would

    He said (that) he would send us a postcard.

    Must / have (got)

    You must study more

    Had to

    He said (that) we had study more

    May

    It may be true

    Might

    He said (that) it might be true

    Los otros verbos modales no cambian.

    • El verbo introductor en los estilos directo e indirecto suele ser say . En el estilo directo, cuando el verbo va sseguido de un objeto de persona, podemos emplear say to, o bien tell.
      Ejemplo:
      `I'm hungry', he said to me
      `I'm working tonight', he told me.

    Sin embargo en el estilo indirecto , sólo se utilizaría told.

    • Los pronombres y adjetivos posesivos de primera persona cambian a tercera persona.
      Ej: He said `I can't find my keys'.
      He said (that) he couldn't find his keys

    • El pronombre you cambia a I.
      Ej: He said `You look tired'
      He said I looked tired.
      Nota: He said, `You look tired, Jane'. - He told Jane she looked tired

    • Otras expresiones que cambian:

    ESTILO DIRECTO

    ESTILO INDIRECTO

    THIS

    THAT

    HERE

    THERE

    TODAY

    THAT DAY

    YESTERDAY

    THE DAY BEFORE

    TOMORROW

    THE NEXT DAY/THE FOLLOWING DAY

    TONIGHT

    THAT NIGHT

    TOMORROW MORNING

    THE FOLLOWING MORNING

    YESTERDAY AFTERNOON

    THE PREVIOUS AFTERNOON

    NEXT WEEK/MONTH/YEAR

    THE FOLLOWING WEEK/MONTH/YEAR

    LAST WEEK/MONTH/YEAR

    THE PREVIOUS WEEK/MONTH/YEAR

    A WEEK/MONTH/YEAR AGO

    A WEEK/MONTH/YEAR BEFORE

    b)Reported questions (Oraciones interrogativas)

    ASK KNOW (NOT) KNOW WANT WONDER

    Los cambios de los tiempos verbales son los mismos que los de las oraciones declarativas indirectas

    Nota: El orden de las palabras de la pregunta original cambia al orden de una oración declarativa. El sujeto va inmediatamente detrás del pronombre interrogativo, y el verbo, detrás del sujeto.

    Ejemplo:

    He

    said

    `What is her name?'

    He

    Asked

    Wondered

    Wanted to know

    Didn't know

    What her name was.

    Las Yes/no questions van introducidas por las conjunciones if o whether.

    Ejemplo:

    He said, `Can I use your pen?'

    He asked me if / whether he could use my pen.

    b)Reporting verbs (Verbos introductores del estilo indirecto)

    • Oración introducida por that:

    • Say - tell (+ objeto) - explain - suggest - insist - promise - warn - admit - agree - remind claim - complain - reply

      Ejemplos:

      He promised that he would paint the house the followin week.

      She suggested we should stay at home.

      She told me that she would arrive late

      • Verbo + objeto + to + infinitivo:

      • Ask - tell - order - advise - warn - invite

        Ejemplos:

        They asked us to stay longer.

        She warned me to be careful

        • Verbo acabado en -ing.

        • Apologise for - suggest - recommend - admit - insit on - accuse someone of

          Ejemplos:

          They acused him of robbing the bank.

          They admitted stealing the money.

          REPORTED SPEECH: COMMANDS.-

          Introductory verbs: the verb “say” may introduced commands in direct speech but it must be changed to a verb of command in reported speech, e.g.: beg, command, forbid, order, tell, know, ask... + personal object without preposition.

          Indirect commands are usually expressed by a verb of command + object without preposition + to infinitive.

          Negative commands are usually reported by not + to infinitive.

          When we turn a command into reported speech, it is necessary to change the pronouns and possessive adjectives and adverbs of time and place as in the statements.