Enseñanza de Lengua Extranjera

Educación en España. Enseñanza Española de Inglés. Primer Ciclo. Segundo Ciclo. Tercer Ciclo. Análisis Crítico. Metodología. Enseñanza Oficial. Enseñanza extraoficial

  • Enviado por: El remitente no desea revelar su nombre
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: España España
  • 18 páginas
publicidad

INDEX

  • Foreign language curriculum in Spain …………………………... 2

  • Objectives…………………… 3

  • First cycle …………………… 3

    • Contents

    • Evaluation criteria

  • Second cycle ………….……. 6

    • Contents

    • Evaluation criteria

  • Third cycle …………………… 8

    • Contents

    • Evaluation criteria

  • Methodological and evaluation guidelines ……… 11

  • Guidelines for Evaluation ……………………….… 12

  • Personal analysis of the language courses I had in Spain……… 14

  • Formal - official education - L.G.E. …………… 14

    • Aims

    • Syllabus

    • Teaching styles and strategies

    • Classroom management

    • Assessment

  • Extracurricular education ………………………… 16

    • Aims

    • Syllabus

    • Teaching styles and strategies

    • Classroom management

    • Assessment

  • Conclusions ………………………………………………………… 18

  • Foreign Language curriculum in Spain


    The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages is a special program developed by Council of Europe. It establishes guidelines for: learning, teaching, assessment, as well as assessing competence of a speaker's different languages. These guidelines have been a key reference in the curriculum subject.


    The Foreign Language curriculum is designed to train people so that they can understand, speak, talk, read and write in a foreign language. These goals are clearly established from the beginning and acts as a starting point for an inclusive learning curriculum.


    In Spain, foreign languages are not prevalent and are not used in daily life. The limited presence of foreign languages in the environment serves as a handicap, limiting the learning experience almost exclusively to the classroom. This makes it hard for students to apply what they have learned in school to everyday situations. This is why it is very important to include content that incorporates communication situations specific to various fields in addition to academics; especially social relations, the mass media and with logical adaptations for children, and literary works.


    The axis of the subject of foreign languages in the curriculum is constituted by the procedures to achieve an oral and written communicative competence, as well as acknowledging the social significance of the language.


    The Common European Framework, defines the various stages of development of communicative competence in a particular language. A communicative activity requires the use of specific oral and written language, use of resources and communication strategies, linguistic and non-language, relevant to the context in which it takes place. Also, learning a foreign language has to help develop positive attitudes and receptiveness towards other languages and cultures, while at the same time helping them to understand and appreciate their own language or languages.


    The contents have been grouped into blocks: oral language, written language, the constituent elements of the linguistic system, its operations and relations, and social and cultural dimension of foreign language.


    Block 1: Listening, talking and conversing.


    Block 2: Reading and writing.


    Block 3: Knowledge of language:


    - Linguistic knowledge
    - Reflection on learning.


    Block 4: intercultural awareness and socio-cultural aspects,

    Objectives


    1. Listen and understand varied verbal interactions.


    2. Express them-selves orally and interact in routine situations, using verbal and nonverbal procedures.


    3. Writing texts with different purposes on various topics previously treated in the classroom.


    4. Comprehensive reading of a variety of texts, related to their experiences and interests.

    5. Learning to use all available sources with progressive autonomy, including new technologies for information and to communicate messages in the foreign language.


    6. Assess the foreign language and languages in general as a means of communication and understanding between people of different cultures and as a learning tool for different contents.


    7. Express a receptive attitude and confidence when learning and using the target language.


    8. Use previous knowledge and experience with other languages for the quick, efficient and independent acquisition of the foreign language.


    9. Identify phonetic aspects, rhythm, accent and intonation.

    First cycle


    Contents


    Block 1: Listening, talking and conversing.


    Understanding and use of the expressions related to habits and routines.


    Listening and understanding simple messages from different e-media software.


    Production of oral texts based on materials covered in class i.e. active participation in classroom routines, plays, songs, recitations, and dramas.


    Oral interaction in real or simulated situations through verbal and nonverbal responses.


    Development of basic strategies to support comprehension and oral expression.


    Playing in groups simple oral texts, as a playful literary (poems, songs, stories ...).


    Appreciate the foreign language as a tool for communication.


    Attitude of cooperation and respect in situations of shared learning.


    Attitude of appreciation and respect for the rules governing oral interaction (turns of speech, voice volume and pace).


    Block 2: Reading and writing.


    Reading words, phrases and simple sentences.


    Initiation into the use of reading strategies.


    Writing words and sentences previously known from oral interactions, and reading afterwards.


    Oral production of different texts from simple models, using well-known phrases and sentences.


    Introduction to the use of educational software to read and write simple messages.


    Interest in the accuracy and correct presentation of written texts.


    Interest in writing as a means of expression and as a way to communicate experiences.


    Block 3: Knowledge of language:


    - Linguistic knowledge.

    Use of basic phonetic aspects of rhythm, accent and intonation.


    Using basic shapes and structures for oral interactions.


    Recognition and use of vocabulary and expressions used in personal and social relationships.


    Association for spelling, pronunciation and meaning.


    Getting to use the basic strategies of text production.


    Using the foreign language in various situations.


    - Reflection on learning.


    Use skills and procedures such as repetition, memorization, word association with visual aids, gestural elements and observation models for the acquisition of basic vocabulary and language structures.


    Progressive use of media graphics for consulting, and utilizing communication via information technologies.


    Build confidence in the ability to learn a foreign language.


    Block 4. Socio-cultural and intercultural awareness.


    Recognition and learning of basic forms of social relationship in a foreign language.


    Receptive attitude towards people who speak another language and have a different culture than ours.


    Evaluation Criteria


    1. To participate in oral interactions on very familiar topics in communicative situations easily predictable.


    2. To capture the overall picture and identify some specific elements in oral texts, using linguistic and non-linguistic elements from the context.


    3. To read and identify simple words and phrases previously presented on familiar topics and interest.


    4. To Write words, phrases and familiar expressions from models with a specific purpose.


    5. To recognize and reproduce sound aspects, rhythm, accentuation and intonation of expressions that appear in normal communicative contexts.


    6. To use basic strategies for learning to learn such as asking for help. Also, support communication with gestures, use of visual dictionaries and identify some personal issues to help themselves to learn efficiently.


    7. To use communications technologies and information for learning how to learn.


    8. To show interest and curiosity in learning a foreign language and to recognize linguistic diversity as an enriching experience.

    Second cycle


    Contents


    Block 1: Listening, talking and conversing.


    Listening and comprehension of spoken messages with various levels of complexity.


    Production of oral texts based on materials covered in class i.e. active participation in classroom routines, plays, songs, recitations, drama.


    Oral interaction in real or simulated situations giving verbal and nonverbal responses.


    Development of basic strategies to support comprehension and oral expression.


    Favourable attitude to overcome the difficulties that typically arise in the communication.


    Creation of simple oral texts, as a playful literary (poems, songs, stories ...).


    Appreciation of the foreign language as a tool to communicate.


    Development cooperation and respect strategies that facilitate oral interactions.


    Attitude of appreciation and respect for the rules governing oral interaction (turns of speech, voice volume and pace).


    Block 2. Reading and writing.


    Reading and comprehension of different texts on paper and digital.


    Using guided reading strategies, identifying the most important information, deducing the meaning of words and expressions when they are not known.


    Reading and writing own texts of everyday situations.


    Production of simple written texts, as a literary entertainment.


    Initiation into the use of basic strategies of text production.


    Use of e-media to read, write, compile and transmit information.


    Interest in the accuracy and presentation of written texts.


    Interest in writing as a mean of expression and communication of experiences, organization of living and as a tool for learning.


    Block 3. Knowledge of language.


    - Linguistic knowledge.

    Use and identification of phonetic aspects of rhythm, accent and intonation.


    Recognition and use of vocabulary, shapes and basic characteristic of the foreign language previously used.


    Knowledge of vocabulary, shapes and structures by establishing similarities and differences with equivalents in other languages present in the environment to improve comprehension and expression.


    Association of spelling, pronunciation and meaning from written and oral models with materials which were already covered in class.


    Introduction to knowledge and use of the basic strategies of text production from highly structured models.


    - Reflection on learning:


    Use skills and procedures such as repetition, memorization, word association, for the acquisition of new vocabulary, shapes, structures and uses of language.


    Reflection on own learning and acceptance of error as part of the process.


    Progressive use of media graphics for consulting and of the potential of communication and information technologies.


    Confidence in the ability to learn a foreign language.


    Block 4. Socio-cultural and intercultural awareness.


    Interest in knowing about foreign people, their culture, and of the country(s) where the language is spoken.


    Knowledge of the similarities and differences in customs between the countries that speak the foreign language and Spain. This includes the understanding of and daily use of basic forms of social relationship in the other country.


    Receptive attitude towards people who speak another language and have a different culture than our own.


    Using the foreign language as a mean of social relationship.


    Valuation of their own culture through knowledge and appreciation of other cultures.


    Evaluation Criteria


    1. To participate in oral interactions about familiar topics in predictable situations of communication.


    2. To catch the overall meaning, and identify specific information in oral texts on familiar an meaningful topics.


    3. To read and understand the overall meaning and specific information from simple texts.


    4. To write meaningful sentences and short texts in school and everyday situations.


    5. To use forms and structures of the foreign language including sound, rhythm, intonation and stress in different contexts of communication significantly.


    6. To use some strategies for learning how to learn, skills such as inquiry, communication with gestures, using visual and bilingual dictionaries, retrieve, search and gather information.


    7. To use communications and information technologies for learning how to learn.


    8. To appreciate the foreign language as a communication tool with other people and show curiosity and interest to people who speak the foreign language.


    9. To identify some aspects of everyday life in countries where people speak a foreign language and compare them with our own.

    Third cycle


    Contents


    Block 1: Listening, speaking and conversing.


    Listening and comprehension of spoken messages with various degrees of complexity.


    Production of oral texts with progressive autonomy, efficiency and complexity.


    Oral interaction in real or simulated situations with progressive autonomy, efficiency and complexity.


    Development of basic strategies to support comprehension and oral expression.


    Willingness to overcome difficulties that typically arise in the communication, using non-linguistic and linguistic resources.


    Creation of simple oral texts, as a playful literary (poems, proverbs, songs, stories ...), reusing formulas and expressions of these texts.


    Appreciation of the foreign language as a tool for communication.


    Develop cooperation and respect strategies that facilitate oral interactions in groups.

    Attitude of appreciation and respect for the rules governing oral interaction (turns of speech, voice volume and pace).


    Block 2. Reading and writing


    Reading and comprehending different texts on paper and digital format.


    Using progressively independent reading strategies: identifying the most important information, deducing the meaning of unknown words and expressions, rereading, consulting dictionaries or other media on paper or digital.


    Reading and writing texts of their own about everyday social situations.


    Composition of their own texts in different communicative situations,

    progressively more extensive and rich in vocabulary and structures.


    Production of simple written texts, as a playful literary (poems, proverbs, songs, stories ...), reusing formulas and expressions of these texts.


    Use of basic strategies of text production: the target audience, what it is meant and how to organize the text, preparing the draft revision of the text.


    Use of information and communication technology to produce texts and presentations.


    Interest in the accuracy and presentation of written texts.


    Interest in writing texts as a means of expression and communication of experiences and as a learning tool.


    Block 3. Knowledge of language.


    - Linguistic knowledge.


    Accurate pronunciation, rhythm, intonation and appropriate stress.


    Functional and progressively autonomous use of some basic characteristic of the foreign language previously used.


    Increase vocabulary, shapes and structures by establishing similarities and differences with equivalents in other languages in the environment.


    Association of spelling, pronunciation and meaning from written and oral models.


    Using the basic strategies of text production that complement the linguistic contents learned in the classroom work from models.


    Interest in using the foreign language correctly in various situations with progressive extensions according to the accuracy and the adequacy of the expressions.


    - Reflection on learning:


    Use skills and procedures for the acquisition of new vocabulary, structures and forms of language.


    Reflection on own learning, work organization, acceptance of error as part of the learning process, self-correction and self-assessment.


    Progressive use of media graphics for consulting and of the potential of communication and information technologies.


    Confidence in the ability to learn a foreign language and appreciation of cooperative work.


    Block 4. Socio-cultural and intercultural awareness.


    Appreciation of the foreign language or other languages as a means of communication. Encourage interaction with partners and colleagues from other countries.


    Knowledge of customs and daily use of forms of social relations characteristic of countries where people speak a foreign language


    Receptive and positive attitude towards people who speak another languages and have a different cultures than our own.


    Interest in establishing contacts and communicate with foreign language speakers through e-media technologies.


    Increase and extend the use of foreign language(s) as a mean of social relationship.


    Valuation of their own culture through knowledge and appreciation of other cultures.


    Evaluation Criteria


    1. To establish everyday conversations on familiar topics in predictable situations of communication.


    2. To catch the overall meaning and identify specific information in vary oral texts cast in different situations of communication.


    3. To read and locate explicit information and make direct inferences understanding texts on various topics of interest.


    4. To prepare written response taking into account the addressee, the text type and purpose, both in paper and digital.


    5. To use basic shapes and structures characteristic of the foreign language including aspects of rhythm, accent and intonation.


    6. To use some strategies for learning how to learn such as asking questions to obtain information, seek clarification, using bilingual dictionaries.


    7. To use communications and information technologies for learning how to learn and communicate.


    8. To appreciate the foreign language as a communication tool with other people, as a learning tool and show curiosity and interest to people who speak the foreign language.


    9. To identify some traits, customs and traditions of the countries where people speak the foreign language.

    Methodological and evaluation guidelines


    Any teaching approach in this subject must take into account at least three factors:


    1. First, social and personal characteristics of students in primary education and the development of their skills and interests through a stage in which children experience significant cognitive and lipid changes.

    2. Secondly, it should raise the teaching and learning process based on the language level of our students at the beginning of the stage, the presence of language in social and educational context and the possibilities of extending the learning process outside school, because of the presence or absence in the environment of the foreign language.

    3. Thirdly, we must consider the differential characteristics of the foreign language that is taught. Adjustments will be made by raising or lowering levels of specific activities as well as implementing various approaches to learning the language. Opportunities should be planned for students to transfer the knowledge that they have already attained, and apply it to the new language.

    The guidelines are as follow:

    - Real and continuous use of language in the classroom.

    - Recreation communication contexts.


    - Acquisition of linguistic through the use of oral and written.


    - Promote socio-cultural dimension of language.


    - Creating a motivational and emotional climate.



    Guidelines for Evaluation


    The teacher will evaluate the results of students work as well as their response and interest during the learning process. In addition to materials and activities. observation is the key instrument for assessing student development. This is to track on an ongoing basis, where each sample of speech or written work provides information on the progress of the students. This observation of the process will improve and adapt teaching approaches, the proposed activities and materials used.


    Also boys and girls, from the beginning of the stage, will be involved in the assessment. They must be aware from the very beginning of its goals, its progress and the process of continued education. In this sense, they can work on the European Language Portfolio (ELP), which includes activities of reflection on all these aspects.


    We will try to prepare them for what they are expected to be: citizens of the twenty-first century.

    ANNEX III SCHEDULE FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL STAGE

    Subjects

    First cycle

    Hours per week

    Second cycle

    Hours per week

    Third cycle

    Hours per week

    6 and 7 Y.O.

    8 and 9 Y.O.

    10 Y.O.

    11 Y.O.

    Natural, social and cultural Knowledge

    4

    4

    4

    4

    Art education

    3

    2,5

    2

    2

    Physical education

    3

    2,5

    2

    2

    Citizenship and Human Rights education

    2

    Spanish language

    5

    4

    4

    5

    Foreign language

    2

    3

    3

    3

    Math

    4

    5

    4

    5

    Religion *

    1,5

    1,5

    1,5

    1,5

    Break time

    2,5

    2,5

    2,5

    2,5

    Total

    25

    25

    25

    25

    * As set out in the second additional provision of this order, the students who do not attend class of Religion will receive due attention from the educational centres.

    ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN INFANT SCHOOL

    • 3 Y.O. 1 hour a week

    • 4 Y.O. 1 hour and a half a week (in 3 sessions of 30 min.)

    • 5 Y.O. 1 hour and a half a week (in 30 sessions of 30 min.)

    2. Personal analysis of the language courses I had in Spain

    I learned English language trough two different ways. The first one was trough the formal - official educational program (National educational system) and the second, but no less important, extracurricular optional courses.

    In the previous chapter we saw the structure of the educational law as it is nowadays called L.O.E (Ley Orgánica de Educación). This new educational law was released in 2006 and carries out significant changes.

    Since I was born in 1977 my studies were affected by another educational law called L.G.E. (Ley General de Educación), which included E.G.B. (Educación General Básica) for primary school, and B.U.P. (Bachillerato Unificado Polivalente) for secondary and bachelor school.

    Chronological releases for educational laws in Spain:

    • 1970 L.G.E. (Ley General de Educación)

    • 1990 L.O.G.S.E. (Ley Orgánica de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo)

    • 2006 L.O.E. (Ley Orgánica de Educación)

    Now let's analyze the regular and extracurricular ways of learning English language.

    2.1 Formal - official education - L.G.E.

    • Aims

    I ignore the aims of the L.G.E law because it's outdated and has been replaced by the L.O.E educational law. Because the L.G.E. is no longer in use, it's difficult to find information about it. But comparing them with the aims of the actual law I can figure out that those aims had to do much more with writing and reading rather than speaking and listening.

    • Syllabus

    First of all I must say that foreign language in those years didn't really mean “English language”; the French language was much more common than English in the beginning. Later on the English language became more popular. Only schools, and not the students, could decide what languages would be taught.

    I was lucky enough to apply at school where English was taught as the foreign language.

    One of the inconveniences was that English language began to be taught at a very late age when we were 11 - 12 years old.

    • Teaching styles and strategies

    Teaching styles and strategies were so old-fashion and too traditional. There was no motivation coming from teachers, no visual or audio support.

    Most of the time explanations were presented through a direct style; few indirect or guided discovering methods were used.

    Teachers had low qualifications, and their presentations were poorly executed. No additional support was provided for children with special needs.

    Teachers didn't adapt to the different learning levels into the class so children had to adapt to the unique level of the class. Those with educational needs, with a different learning rhythm or any other difficulties were not given another chance and were left behind. Due to this only those with no educational or social problems were successful under that educational system, so an unfair selection was implemented for every course. Only those who reached the aims would move to the next course, those who didn't reach the aims would repeat course with no curricular adaptations for the following year so they were practically condemned to fail again.

    • Classroom management

    Teachers would sit on their desk and present a speech about any given topic to be taught. Instead of engaging the students, they would give some explanations on the old creepy blackboard. They would require students to do some exercises following the deductive method and assign homework.

    Often times the system was too strict and rigid. Students would work on their desks, no pair or group work was carried out. I don't even remember singing or playing.

    Almost all of the interaction carried out was teacher - student(s), few student(s) - teacher or student(s) - student(s) interaction were presented.

    • Assessment

    Although a rigid system was in place for assessing student progress; the teaching assessment was almost non-existent.

    Regarding learning assessment I remember having only written exams, I had no reading, speaking or listening examinations during my primary stage although I was evaluated in writing, reading, speaking and listening during my secondary and bachelor stage. This was the main difference between primary and secondary school.

    I suppose that observation assessment was also used by teachers as another instrument for assessment. In my opinion it is so subjective, especially in little villages like the one I grew up in, because in most cases the marks given were depended on the “families affairs”.

    2.2 Extracurricular education.

    At the same time that I started to learn English language trough the formal education, I started to attend English language extracurricular courses.

    The courses were not offered at the school, they were offered by the regional council as summer camps where English language were taught 4 hours a day during one month long by English native teachers. This summer camps were held in different town in my region (Castilla la Mancha - Spain)

    After English classes plenty of playful activities were offered as well such as swimming pool, sports competitions, art-craft activities, night parties, excursions etc.

    • Aims

    For sure aims in these courses had much more to do with speaking, listening and communicative approach rather than those of the formal education (reading and writing).

    And as English language classes were held into a “summer camp”, aims regarding entertainment would also be included for the English lessons and not only for the leisure activities after class.

    • Syllabus

    In my opinion, the syllabus was much more organized in this program as opposed to the formal education.

    The first day we arrived at the camp we had to fulfil a written and oral exam for the teachers to check our English level and set us in level groups.

    Writing, reading, speaking, listening and communicative activities were planned for every day. Individual, pair and group work were also planned, and what is more important, all this activities were run in an amusing way trough games, songs, quizzes etc.

    • Teaching styles and strategies

    Inductive methodology was more used than deductive, so student's participation trying to find out the rule or the pattern was much more effective than in formal education.

    Teachers selection had a lot to do with this because during the five consecutive years that I attended this summer camps, all teachers I had were so “uncommon”, unique and singular (with the best connotation). These particular traits allowed them to provide us with motivating and amusing tasks that we really enjoyed, and because of that, I learnt (without studying) really good English.

    • Classroom management

    The number of students in class was so short (20 maximum), controlling and monitoring students was not difficult and I'd say almost unnecessary because we all really enjoyed every minute in class so we all collaborate to run a very pleasant atmosphere in class.

    A lot of visual and media support accompanied the explanations. A great selection of individual, pair and group work were chosen by teachers. Even outdoor activities such us gymkhanas took place during class time.

    Teachers checked our improvement though a discreet monitoring so we didn't realize that we were been assessed.

    • Assessment

    We had an initial exam to check our starting English level.

    Observation and discreet assessment during the whole course.

    A final exam with mark.

    This assessment included writing, reading, listening, speaking and conversational tests.

    I attended this summer camps during five consecutive years until I was eighteen that that was the maximum age to apply for this summer camps.

    At the age of eighteen I applied for other English language summer camps held by the same regional council but in this case for adults. This took place in an English town called Salisbury and it was also for one month.

    Aims, syllabus, teaching strategies, classroom management and assessment had practically the same structure as those for the summer camps in my region.

    3. Conclusions

    I learnt English language much more, much better and in an easier way through the extracurricular courses than trough the formal education.

    Luckily, nowadays the formal educational system has changed and teachers are much more prepared, instructed and experienced.

    Teachers are using new strategies and approaches to improve their teaching skills. English lessons are much more amusing and motivating, plenty of additional support is provided along with the teacher and students' handbook. Many formative courses are offered to English teachers every year.

    Also extracurricular education in English language is still running and being successful but now there is not such difference comparing it with the formal education that was 15 years ago.

    Despite these improvements in formal education, I think that we should implement English lessons with the support of an English native speaker at least once a week in order to gain accurate pronunciation skills.

    More grants for English language courses abroad for both teachers and students would also be necessary in my opinion.

    Our formal education has improved a lot in the last 5 to 10 years but it needs to improve much more if we are to reach the average in English competency level in Europe.

    We'll see the outcome in twenty years time.

    Roberto - Erasmus student

    Prof. Komorowska

    Page 1 de 18