English Grammar

Present Simple. Present Continuous. Past Simple. Present Perfect. Auxiliary Verbs. Irregular Verbs

  • Enviado por: Yo Soy Yo Y No Tú
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: España España
  • 7 páginas
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PresentSimple:

  • We use the present simple to describe an action that often happens or is habitual.
  • He plays basketball every day.
  • We use the present simple to describe permanent situations:
  • They live in London.
  • We use the present simple for general truths and natural laws:
  • Pilots fly planes. Dolphins eat fish.
  • We use the present simple with time expressions as:
  • Every day, twice. Once. Three times...
  • We use present simple with verbs such as:
  • Like, love, hate, prefer, enjoy…

¡Important! Do not forget to put “S” in 3 person of the plural.

Present continuous:

-We use present continuous to describe an action that is happening at the moment when we are speaking: She is reading.

- We use present continuous for something that is happening for a short time and not as usual. She usually wears trousers but today she is wearing jeans.

- We use present continuous with time expressions such as: now, at the moment, today…

Past simple:

El verbo to be corresponde al pretérito perfecto simple o pretérito imperfecto de indicativo de los verbos ser o estar.

I, he, she, it- was/ was not o wasn´t

You, we, they- were/ were not o weren´t

Frases con el verbo to be:

To be late: llegar tarde there is/ are: Hay

To be cold/hot: tener frio o calor there were/ was: Hubo, había.

To be hungry/ thirsty: tener hambre o sed

To be afraid of: tener miedo de

We make the past simple of regular verbs with the suffix ED:

Played, worked, opened

With verbs ending in e we only add –D in the past simple positive:

Danced

With verbs ending in a consonant, we And y the y goes and we ad –IED:

Studied

With single syllable verbs ending in a vowel a consonant we double the consonant and add ED:

Stopped.

Verbos auxiliaries:

En presente simple tenemos do, does, do not o does not.

En presente continuo tenemos el verbo to be.

En pasado simple tenemos el di o el did not.

La estructura en afirmativa sería:

Sujeto + Verbo + Complementos.

La estructura en negativa sería:

Sujeto + Verbo auxiliar en negativa + verbo en presente (salvo en Presente continuo, que sigue con ING) + Complementos.

La estructura en Interrogativa quedaría así:

Verbo auxiliar en interrogativa + sujeto + verbo en presente (salvo en PR. CONT.) + complementos.

Ejemplos:

Afirmativa: He plays football. He is playing football. He played football.

Negativa: He doesn´t play football. He isn´t playing football. He didn´t play football.

Interrogativa: Does he play football? Is he playing football? Did he play football.

Use of the past simple:

To talk about something that happened a specific time in the past:

She bought some cheese.

To talk about a series of actions, one after the other:

We listened to music.

With time expressions such as:

Yesterday, last month…

Adverbios de cantidad:

Some: En frases positivas con el plural de sustantivos contables y con nombres incontables.

Any: En negativa e interrogativa con el plural de los sustantivos y nombres incontables.

Los derivados de some y any son: Someone, somebody, somewhere, something, anyone, anybody, anywhere y anything.

No: Se pueden hacer frases con no o sus derivados (no-one, nobody, nowhere, nothing) poniendo el verbo en afirmativa y luego poniendo no milk, no wáter, no-one…

A lot of / a lot: Nombres en plural y sustantivos incontables

Many: En frases negativas, interrogativas y a veces en positivas. Va con nombres contables.

Much: Frases negativas, interrogativas. Con nombres incontables.

Little (Da sentido negativo a la frase) Va con Nombres Incontables. Significa poco.

Few: (Da sentido negativo a la frase) Va con Nombres Contables. Significa pocos

A Little: (Da sentido positivo a la frase) Va Con nombres Incontables. Significa un poco.

A few: (Da sentido positivo a la frase) Va con nombres Contables. Significa unos pocos

To be going to:

Sujeto + verbo to be +going to ( gonna) +verbo + complentos.

En interrogativa y en negativa no cambia su forma, solo el lugar en el que se sitúa el verbo to be y el sujeto. (En en negativa quedaría así: He is not going to play football.)

We use it to talk about something that we are going to do in a near future or for something that we have decided to do. When something happening indicates that something else is going to happen in the near future.

Examples:

He is going to play.

I am going to live in London.

Today it is not going to rain..

WILL:

Afirmativa: Sujeto + Will + verbo + complementos

Negativa: Sujeto + will not or won´t + verbo + complementos.

Interrogativa: Will + sujeto + verbo + complementos.

We use WILL:

Para hacer predicciones en un futuro lejano

Para hacer promesas.

Cuando acabas de decidir hacer algo.

Present Perfect:

El present perfect equivale al pretérito perfecto compuesto de indicativo (He sido, he cantado). Si en español el verbo auxiliar es el verbo “HABER”, en inglés el verbo auxiliar es el “HAVE”, con todas su formas, incluidos has y hasn´t.

La estructura sigue estos pasos:

Afirmativa: Sujeto + Have/Has + Verbo en past participle ( con –Ed .En los irregulares es la tercera columna.)+ Complementos.

Negativa: Sujeto + Haven´t o hasn´t + verbo en past participle + Complementos.

En interrogativa quedaría así: ( Partícula interrogativa)Verbo to have +sujeto + verbo en past participle + complementos.

En inglés tenemos unas partículas que se usan en distintos casos con el Present Perfect:

En afirmativa tenemos just (acabar de) y already (ya). Va después del Have/has

En negativa tenemos yet (aún o todavía). Va al final de la frase.

Y en interrogativa también está yet, solo que ahora significa ya. Va al final de la oración.

He aquí algunos ejemplos:

I have just arrived. Significa acabo de llegar

I have already done it. Significa lo he hecho

He hasn´t made his bed yet. It means “Aún no ha hecho su cama”

Has she said it yet? It means “¿Lo ha dicho ya?”

Aquí está la lista de verbos irregulares en inglés.

Infinitivo Past simple Past participle Significado.

  • (to) awake | awoke | awoken .......... despertarse
  • (to) be | was/were | been ................ser, estar
  • (to) bear | bore | born......................dar a luz, soportar
  • (to) beat | beat | beat ......................vencer, golpear
  • (to) become | became | become ..........convertirse en, llegar a ser
  • (to) begin | began | begun ................comenzar, empezar
  • (to) bend | bent | bent...............curvarse, doblar
  • (to) bet | bet | bet .........................apostar
  • (to) bid | bid/bade | bid/bidden..........pujar
  • (to) bind | bound | bound ...............atar, encuadernar
  • (to) bite | bit | bitten...................morder
  • (to) bleed | bled | bled .................sangrar
  • (to) blow | blew | blown...............soplar
  • (to) break | broke | broken..............romper
  • (to) breed | bred | bred .................alimentar, criar
  • (to) bring | brought | brought..........traer, llevar
  • (to) broadcast | broadcast | broadcast….......... emitir, difundir por televisión
  • (to) build | built | built..................edificar, construir
  • (to) burn | burned/burnet | burned/burnt …........quemar, arder
  • (to) burst | burst | burst ................reventar, estallar
  • (to) buy | bought | bought ..........comprar
  • (to) cast | cast | cast .....................tirar, arrojar
  • (to) catch | caught | caught..........coger
  • (to) choose | chose | chosen ..........escoger, elegir
  • (to) cling | clung | clung ............agarrarse, aferrarse
  • (to) come | came | come............venir
  • (to) cost | cost | cost ...............costar
  • (to) creep | crept | crept.............arrastrarse
  • (to) cut | cut | cut...................cortar
  • (to) deal | dealt | dealt ..............tratar
  • (to) dig | dug | dug .................cavar
  • (to) do | did | done...................hacer
  • (to) draw | drew | drawn............dibujar, pintar
  • (to) dream| dreamed/dreamt | dreamed/dreamt… ..........soñar
  • (to) drive | drove | driven ................conducir
  • (to) drink | drank | drunk ............beber
  • (to) eat | ate | eaten .............comer
  • (to) fall | fell | fallen.............caer/se
  • (to) feed | fed | fed............alimentar
  • (to) feel | felt | felt................sentir
  • (to) fight | fought | fought..............luchar
  • (to) find | found | found ..........encontrar
  • (to) flee | fled | fled......................huir
  • (to) fly | flew | flown ................volar
  • (to) forbid | forbade | forbidden...........prohibir
  • (to) forget | forgot | forgotten...........olvidar
  • (to) forgive | forgave | forgiven...........perdonar
  • (to) freeze | froze | frozen...............congelar, helar
  • (to) get | got | gotten..................conseguir, lograr, obtener
  • (to) give | gave | given..............dar
  • (to) go | went | gone..................ir
  • (to) grind | ground | ground...............moler
  • (to) grow | grew | grown..............crecer
  • (to) hang | hung | hung..........colgar
  • (to) hear | heard | heard..........oír
  • (to) hide | hid | hidden..........esconder, esconderse
  • (to) hit | hit | hit..........golpear
  • (to) hold | held | held..........agarrar, celebrar, coger, mantener
  • (to) hurt | hurt | hurt..........dañar, herir
  • (to) keep | kept | kept..........guardar, mantener
  • (to) kneel | knelt | knelt ..........arrodillarse
  • (to) knit | knit | knit..........hacer punto
  • (to) know | knew | known..........conocer, saber
  • (to) lay | laid | laid ..........poner
  • (to) lead | led | led..........conducir, dirigir
  • (to) leap | leaped/lept | leaped/lept..........apoyarse
  • (to) learn | learned/learnt | learned/learnt..........aprender
  • (to) leave | left | left..........dejar
  • (to) lend | lent | lent..........prestar
  • (to) let | let | let ..........dejar, permitir
  • (to) lie | lay | lain..........echarse
  • (to) light | lighted/lit | lighted ..........encender
  • (to) lose| lost | lost..........perder
  • (to) make | made | made..........hacer, fabricar
  • (to) mean | meant | meant..........significar
  • (to) meet | met | met..........conocerse por primera vez, encontrarse
  • (to) mistake | mistook | mistaken..........errar, equivocarse
  • (to) overcome | overcame | overcome..........vencer
  • (to) overdo | overdid | overdone..........rehacer
  • (to) pay | paid | paid..........pagar
  • (to) prove | proved | proved/proven..........probar
  • (to) put | put | put..........poner
  • (to) quit | quit | quit..........abandonar, dejar de
  • (to) read | read | read..........leer
  • (to) ride | rode | ridden..........conducir, montar
  • (to) ring | rang | rung..........llamar ( teléfono o timbre)
  • (to) rise | rose | risen..........elevarse, levantarse
  • (to) run | ran | run..........correr
  • (to) say | said | said..........decir
  • (to) see | saw | seen..........ver
  • (to) seek | sought | sought..........buscar
  • (to) sell | sold | sold..........vender
  • (to) send | sent | sent ..........enviar
  • (to) set | set | set..........poner(se)
  • (to) sew | sewed | sewed/sewn..........coser
  • (to) shake | shook | shaken..........sacudir
  • (to) shave | shaved | shaved/shaven ..........afeitar
  • (to) shear | shore | shorn..........esquilar
  • (to) shine | shone | shone..........brillar
  • (to) shoot | shot | shot..........disparar
  • (to) show | showed | showed/shown..........enseñar, mostrar
  • (to) shrink | shrank | shrunk ..........encoger/se
  • (to) shut | shut | shut ..........cerrar
  • (to) sing | sang | sung..........cantar
  • (to) sink | sank | sunk..........hundirse
  • (to) sit | sat | sat..........sentar/se
  • (to) sleep | slept | slept ..........dormir
  • (to) slide | slid | slid..........deslizarse, resbalar
  • (to) smell | smelt | smelt..........oler
  • (to) speak | spoke | spoken..........hablar
  • (to) speed | sped | sped..........acelerar
  • (to) spend | spent | spent ..........gastar
  • (to) spill | spilled/spilt | spilled/spilt..........derramar
  • (to) spin | spun | spun..........hilar
  • (to) spit | spit/spat | spit..........escupir
  • (to) split | split | split..........hender, partir, rajar
  • (to) spread | spread | spread..........extender
  • (to) spring | sprang/sprung | sprung..........saltar
  • (to) stand | stood | stood..........estar de pie
  • (to) steal | stole | stolen.......... robar
  • (to) stick | stuck | stuck..........engomar, pegar
  • (to) sting | stung | stung..........picar
  • (to) stink | stank | stunk..........apestar
  • (to) stride | strod | stridden..........dar zancadas
  • (to) strike | struck | struck..........golpear
  • (to) swear | swore | sworn..........jurar
  • (to) sweep | swept | swept..........barrer
  • (to) swell | swelled | swelled/swollen..........hincharse
  • (to) swim | swam | swum..........nadar
  • (to) swing | swung | swung..........columpiarse
  • (to) take | took | taken..........coger
  • (to) teach | taught | taught..........enseñar, educar
  • (to) tear | tore | torn..........rasgar
  • (to) tell | told | told..........contar, explicar
  • (to) think | thought | thought..........pensar
  • (to) throw | threw | thrown..........arrojar, tirar
  • (to) thrust | thrust | thrust..........introducir
  • (to) tread | trod | trodden..........pisar, hollar
  • (to) understand | understood | understood..........entender, comprender
  • (to) wake | woke | woken..........despertar/se
  • (to) wear | wore | worn..........llevar puesto, usar
  • (to) weave | weaved/wove | weaved/woven ..........tejer
  • (to) weep | wept | wept ..........sollozar
  • (to) wind | wound | wound ..........enrollar
  • (to) win | won | won ..........ganar
  • (to) withhold | withheld | withheld..........retener
  • (to) write | wrote | written ..........escribir