California

Geografía. Histórica. Cultura # Geographical situation. Cities. Tourism Economic activities. Comunications

  • Enviado por: Pili Vitoria
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: España España
  • 21 páginas

publicidad



  • Geographical Situation

    • Introduction

    • Physical Geography

    • Coastline and Islands

  • Inhabitants

    • Demography

  • Tourism

    • Natural Parks

    Death Valley

    Fort Point National Historic Site

    Lassen Volcanic National Park

    Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Park

    • Rivers and Lakes

    Lake Tahoe

  • Cities

    • San Diego

    • Huntington Beach

    • Long Beach

    Aquarium of the Pacific

    • San Francisco

    Golden Gate Bigde

    • Los Angeles

  • Economic Activities

  • Forestry

    Mining

    Manufacturing

    Communications

    Transportation

    Highways

    Railroads

    Airports

    Ports and Inland Waterways

    1 -GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION.

    Introduction:

    California, state in the western United States, bordering the Pacific Ocean. The third largest state in the Union, California covers an area of great physical diversity in which uplands dominate the landscape. The mountains, hills, ridges, and peaks of California flank the coastline, rise to nearly 4600m (15,000 ft) in the towering Sierra Nevada, encircle the great fertile basin of the Central Valley and separate the desert into innumerable basins. However, despite the physical dominance and economic value of the uplands, California´s urban areas and economic production are concentrated in the valleys and lowlands, such as in the huge metropolitan region centered on Los Angeles, the state´s largest and the nation´s second largest city. Manufacturing, agriculture, and related activities are the principal sources of income. They are based in large part on the state´s wealth of natural resources, its productive farmlands, its large and highly skilled labor force, and its ability to market its output both at home and abroad.

    California´s size, complexity, and economic productivity make it preeminently a state of superlatives. It has the lowest point in the country, in Death Valley, and the highest U.S. peak outside of Alaska, Mount Whitney. Among the 50 states it has the greatest number of national parks and national forests, and the only stands of redwoods and giant sequoias. Its annual farm output is greater in value than that of any other state, and it leads the rest of the nation in the production of many crops. It is the leading state in volume of annual construction and manufacturing. California has more people than any other state and more automobiles, more civil aircraft, and more students enrolled in universities and colleges.

    Between the late 1940s and late 1980s the rate of growth and actual growth of California´s population and economy were phenomenal compared with other states. However, this growth also gave rise to, or aggravated, several major problems that now face Californians. Much of the growth occurred in the dry south where water shortages must be offset by vast, expensive public projects delivering water from the wetter north. Urban centers extended outward into good farmland, forever removing it from food production. In addition, as population continues to increase, California is faced with the problem of providing its inhabitants with more schools, hospitals, water, highways, recreational facilities, and other services.

    The name California was first used to designate the region by the Spanish expedition led by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, as it sailed northward along the coast from Mexico in 1542. The name itself was probably derived from a popular Spanish novel published in 1510 in which a fictional island paradise named California was described. The state´s official nickname is the Golden State, referring to the gold rush, which played a central role in California´s entry into the Union on September 9, 1850, as the 31st state. The nickname also suggests the state´s golden fields and sunshine.

    Physical geography:

    California, the third largest in the union, has a total area of 411,471 sq km, including 6926 sq km of inland water and 575 sq km of coastal waters over which it has jurisdiction. The state is roughly rectangular in shape, although the southern two-thirds bends in a dogleg toward the east. It has a maximum distance north to south of 1052 km and an east-to-west extent of 945 km although even locations along the state´s eastern border are less than about 350 km from the ocean. California´s mean elevation is about 880m (about 2900 ft).

    Much of California lies in a geologically unstable area, crisscrossed by fault, or fracture, lines in the earth´s crust. The great San Andreas Fault extends for about 1000 km northwestward from the imperial Valley to point Arena and out to sea. This fault line has caused several notable earthquakes in the recorded history of California. The most widely publicized was that of April 18, 1906, which resulted in the destruction of central San Francisco. Although major earthquakes are rare, landslides, mudflows, minor tremors, and cracks in the ground occur regularly.

    *California, one of the pacific states, occupies most of the west coast of the united states. It borders on the pacific ocean to the west, Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican states of Baja California Norte and Sonora to the south. It ranks 1st in population and 3rd in area among the states.

    Coastline and island:

    California´s coastline is 1352 km long; when all the inlets and islands are taken into account, it is 5515 km long. The only large indentation along the coast is formed by San Francisco Bay and its tributary bays. The nearly landlocked bay is linked with the ocean through the narrow Golden Gate, and it is one of the finest harbors on the pacific coast of north America. Other indentations include San Diego Bay, San Pedro, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay.

    Other than the small, rocky Farallon islands, which lie some 50 km west of the Golden Gate and which comprise a National Wildlife Refuge, the state´s larger islands are offshore of southern California. They are in two groups: The Santa Barbara Channel islands, which geologically are a seaward continuation of the Transverse Ranges, and Santa Catalina, San Clemente and San Nicolas islands, which are associated geologically with the Peninsular Ranges. Although essentially uninhabited, the Channel Islans from a natinal park and are accessed by charter boat. By contrast, Santa Catalina, witrh its colorful port city of Avalon, has a permanent resident populatin, as do a few other islands. With exception of far-flung San Clemente and San Nicolas island, which serve as unoccupied United States military reservations, Santa Catalina and the Channel Island are situated about 50 km offshore, the former west of the densely populated Los Angeles Basin, and the latter due south of the city of Santa Barbara. None of the island are large.

    Climate:

    the climate of California is characterized by cool to mild winters and, except in the high mountains, warm to hot summers. The year is divided into a wet season and dry season. Precipitation falls mainly during the period from October to April. The mountain slopes facing westward are usually wetter than the slopes facing eastward because the moisture-bearing winds from Pacific are forced to condense and precipitate their moisture as they rise over the mountain. In general, northern California has lower temperatures and greater precipitation than southern California. However, climatic weather conditions in the state vary greatly from place to place and from year to year.

    The prevailing winds of all of California are the westerlies, so-named because they blow from the west toward the east. The westerlies not only bring winter storms and eagerly awaited precipitation to the state, but throughout the year they drive the nation´s largest wind-power facilities. Located at Altamont, east of San Francisco Bay, and in Tehachapi and San Gregorio passes, in southern California, the largest windfarms supply several hundred thousand resident with electricity when the winds are greater than 23 km/h. The dry Santa Ana wind, a reversal of the prevailing westerly pattern to an easterly or northeasterly wind, occurs predominantly in southern California and in the fall of the year when high pressure builds over the interior deserts and flows offshore to cells of low pressure.

    In the coastal areas north of Point Conception, July temperatures average about 16ºC. January temperatures are between 4º and 10ºC. Precipitation increases from about 380 mm near Point Conception to mare than 1800 mm at Crescent city, near the Oregon border. Fogs are frequent along the coast, especially in summer. South of Point Conception the coastal areas are drier and have a greater range of average temperatures. Rainfall average only about 360 mm at Los Angeles and about 250 mm at San Diego. Average January temperatures are between 10º and 16ºC. July averages are generally between 21º and 27ºC, but much higher temperatures, even in the upper 30ºs Coccur during summer.

    In the Central Valley, average temperatures are about 27ºC in July and about 7ºC in January. Precipitation varies from more than 760 mm a year in the valley´s northern part to less than 150 mm at its southern end.

    In the extensive mountainous areas of California, winters are severe. The western slopes of the Klamath Mountains, the wettest part of the state, receive more than 2500 mm of precipitation yearly. Many peaks in the Sierra Nevada support small glaciers and thus appear snowcapped throughout the year, and in some locations the snowfall exceeds 13,000 Redwoods in California grow in pure stands and also with Douglas fir, canoe cedar and Port Orford cedar. Douglas fir predominates on the slopes immediately above the redwood areas. Farther inland the Douglas fir forests give way to a more open forest of broadleaved trees, such as Tanoak madrone, Oregon maple, California bay tree, and several species of oak. In the Klamath Mountains and Coast Ranges above about 1500 m, ponderosa pine predominates.

    A close cousin of the redwood, the giant sequoia grows in groves at somewhat higher elevations along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada in what is known as the yellow pine belt. Some giant sequoias exceed 2000 years of age, while some bristlecone pines in eastern California´s White Mountains are more than 4500 years old. These conifers, along with some species of desert shrub such as creosote at more than twice that age, are among the oldest living things in the world. The yellow, or ponderosa, pine is the most valuable commercial conifer logged in the Sierra, and thrives at elevations between 900 and 2400 m. Above the pine forests are stands of red fir and Jeffrey pine. They give way above about 2700 m to lodgepole pine, other species of pine, Engelmann spruce, and firs.

    In the coast Ranges south of San Francisco and on the low mountain slopes around the Central Valley, grasslands, woodslands of mixed evergreen and broadleaved species and areas of shrub growth predominate. Grasslands, which once covered most of the Central Valley, are now limited to a discontinuous belt around the rim of the valley and in the foothills. The golden poppy, the state flower, grows abundantly in the Central Valley. Grasses and sedges also form meadows above about 3500 m, the timberline, in the Sierra Nevada. The mixed evergreen and broadleaved woodlands occupy the low western slopes of the Sierra Nevada and extensive areas in the Coast Ranges inland from the coast. These relatuvely open woodlands include oak, pine and juniper. Large areas of the uplands along the southern coast are covered with chaparral, a low, and in places almost impenetrable, shrub growth of manzanita, mountain mahogany, California scrub oak, chamise, buckbrush, and other evergreen species. The lower western slopes of the Sierra Nevada are covered partly with chaparral. Chaparral is prone to fire and poses a major threat to expanding urban development, especially in southern California.

    Shrub growth also characterizes the vegetation of the Californian desets. However, plant growth tends to be sparse throughout these areas. On well-drained slopes and in open spaces, creosote bush, burroweed, and many species of cacti predominate. Deeper-rooted shrub and small trees, such as mesquite, desert ironwood, and desert willow, occur along watercourses. The Joshua tree, juniper, piñon, and sagebrush are found at higher altitudes with slightly more rainfall.

    SEQUOIA & KINGS CANYON NATIONAL PARK

    Establishment:

    Sequoia is the second-oldest park in the United States. It was established on 25 Sep 1890 to protect the Big Trees in Giant Forest, including the General Sherman Tree, the world's largest living thing. Sequoia also contains the Mineral King Valley and Mt. Whitney, the highest mountain in the U.S. outside of Alaska.

    A small portion of what is now Kings Canyon was originally set aside in 1890 as General Grant National Park. In 1940, General Grant was absorbed into the new and larger Kings Canyon National Park, which eventually grew to include the South Fork of the Kings River and 456,552 acres of backcountry wilderness. Managed as one park, together Sequoia and Kings Canyon total over 863,700 acres.

    People first started coming to the sequoia forests in large numbers shortly after the end of the Civil War. The General Grant Tree was discovered in 1862 by Joseph Hardin Thomas and named in 1867 by Lucretia Baker. Five years later, on 01 March 1872, Ulysses Grant, now president of the United States, signed the bill designating Yellowstone as the world's first nation park. The area around the Grant Grove of giant sequoias was set aside in 1890 as General Grant National Park. (Yosemite National Park was created in the same piece of legislation.) In 1940, General Grant was included in the newly created Kings Canyon National Park.

    Earth's Largest Living Thing:

    In volume of total wood, the giant sequoia stands along as the largest living thing on Earth. Its nearly conical trunk, like a club, not a walking stick, shows why. At least one tree species lives longer, one has a greater diameter, three grow tall, but none is larger. In all the world, sequoias grow naturally only on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, most often between 5,000 and 7,000 feet. There are some 75 groves in all. The General Sherman tree is between 2,300 and 2,700 years old. Its largest branch is almost seven feet in diameter. Each year the General Sherman adds enough wood growth to make a 60-foot-tall tree of usual proportions,

    “Most of the Sierra trees die of disease, fungi, etc,” John Muir wrote, “but nothing hurts the Big Trees. Barring accidents, it seems to be immortal.” Muir was partially right. Chemicals in the wood and bark provide resistance to insects and fungi. Their wood is so impervious to decay that piles of sawdust remain in Grant Grove's Big Stump Basin where sequoias were cut for lumber over 100 years ago. This ability helps them to survive for centuries; the oldest known sequoia lived more than 3200 years. Since they continue to grow each year, they achieve impressive sizes. The General Grant Tree, third largest of sequoias, is over 267 ft tall, 40 ft across its base and over 107 ft around. Estimates of its age range from 1500 to 2000 years old. Once it was thought to be 4000 years old due to its extreme width, but scientific studies have shown that its size is due to rapid growth in an ideal location. The main cause of death for sequoias is toppling. Sequoias have a shallow root system with no tap root. Soil, moisture, root damage, and strong winds can also lead to toppling.

    Sequoias sprout from seeds so small and light, they look like an oat flakes. Mature trees may produce each year, 2,000 chicken's egg-size cones, collectively bearing 500,000 seeds, dispersed only as cones are opened. Cones hang on the tree green and closed for up to 20 years. Douglas squirrels or the larvae of a tiny cone-boring beetle may cause cones to open, but fire is the key agent in the dispersal of seeds. It causes the cone to dry, open, and drop its seeds. The fire also consumes logs and branches that have accumulated on the forest floor. Their ashes form fertile seedbeds and enhance sequoia seedling survival. The fire cycle ensures seed release and seedbed fertility.

    The General Grant is the world's third-largest sequoia, after the General Sherman and the Washington trees, both found in Giant Forest.

    It is difficult to comprehend the immense size, age and stature of the General Grant Tree, but it is easy to let your mind and spirit rise as its trunk carries your gaze toward the skies.

    This tree has inspired thousands of people including the late Charles E. Lee of Sanger, California. In 1924 he visited what was then General Grant National Park, and found himself standing by the Grand Tree with a little girl. As they admired the huge tree, the girl exclaimed, “what a wonderful Christmas tree it would be!”

    The idea stayed with Mr. Lee, and then secretary of the Sanger Chamber of Commerce, and Mr. R.J. Senior, president of the Chamber, conceived the idea of an annual ceremony. Mr. Lee wrote to President Calvin Coolidge, who designated the General Grant as the Nation's Christmas Tree on April 28, 1926.

    The General Grant Tree is a living memorial to the men and women of the United States who have given their lives in service to their country. It was proclaimed a National Shrine on March 29, 1956 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The official dedication was made that year on Veterans Day, November 11, by the president's personal representative, Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz. Each year during the Christmas ceremony, park rangers place a large wreath at the base of the Grant Tree, remembering those who gave their lives.

    Deep Canyons and High Peaks:

    Steep and barren, the park's canyon areas seem skeletal and cut to their geological quicks. King Canyon reaches a depth outside the park of some 8,200 feet from river level up to Spanish Mountain's peak. There, just downstream from the confluence of the Middle and South Forks of the Kings River, the canyon is Without peer in North America; deeper than the Snake River's Hells Canyon in Idaho, or the Grand Canyon in Arizona. Kern Canyon in southern Sequoia National Park is 6,000 feet deep, and several other canyons exceed 4,000 feet in depth. Sierran canyons show both stream-cut, V-shaped profiles and U-shaped profiles characteristics of glacier gouging. Both Generals Highway and King Canyon Highway thread through canyons. At Roads End on Kings Canyon Highway (closed from about Nov 1 to May 1), you can stand on a flat, glacial valley and stare up at canyon walls rising nearly a mile above the river's level.

    The Snowy, Sawtoothed Mountain Range is more than 400 miles long and 60 to 80 miles wide. The Sierra Nevada exceeds the whole Alps area; French, Swiss, and Italian. Palisade Crest in Kings Canyon National Park and the Mt. Whitney group in Sequoia each boast six peaks over 14,000 feet in elevation.

    Sierran Wildlife:

    Mule deer are the prey sought by elusive mountain lions. Pine marterns, fishers, and wolverines pursue squirrels and other smaller animals. Black bears may take fawns or eat carrion but subsists mostly on vegetation. Marmots and pikas inhabit the mountains. Coyotes, gray fox, bobcats, raccoons, and ringtails patrol the foothills. Decades of fish plantings introduced non-native to the Sierra's west slope streams, are being restored.

    Crystal Cave was discovered in 1918 by two park trail construction employees who were fishing along Cascade Creek on their day off. Walter Fry, a former Park Superintendent and caving enthusiast, led the first exploration party into the cave on April 30, 1918.

    SEQUORIA & KINGS CANYON NATIONAL PARK

    From atop Moro Rock, you can grasp the multipe superlatives that brought Sequoria, and eventually Kings Canyon, into the National Park System so early that Sequoia is now our second oldest national park. To the north lies the Giant Forest plateau where sequoias rise above their forest neighbors. In cathedral-like Giant Forest, stands the 275-foot-tall General Sherman giant sequoia tree, whose trunk weighs an estimated 1,385 tons and whose circumference at the ground is nearly 103 feet. To the west, in contrast to these gargantuan conifers, are the dry foorhills whith their oak trees and chaparral vegetation descending toward the San Joaquin Valley. To the south, and down, down more than 5,000 vertical feet, the Middle Fork of the Kaweah River threads through its rugged canyon. To the east, snowcapped peaks of the Great Western Divide and the Kaweah Peaks top out on Mt. Kaweah at 13,802 feet. Just out of sight, beyond the divide, the highest mountain in the contiguous 48 states, Mount Whitney, reaches 14,494 feet of elevation. Big trees, high peaks, and deep canyons in North America's lonest continuous mountain range; superlatives abound amidst glorious scenery. Pioneering conservationist John Muir explored and named the Giant Forest.

    Ash Mountain / Foothills Area

    Cedar Grove area, Grant Grove area, Lodgepole/Giant Forest area, and Mineral King area all areas with plenty to see.

    For visitors arriving from the south, Ash Mountain is the ateway to Sequoia National Park. And early in the spring, while the trails in the high country are still buried under snow, the Foothills area offers hiking opportunities and spectacular wildflowers.

    Entrance to Sequoia National Park:

    Less than 25 miles inside the entrance to Sequoia National Park stands a massive, hand-carved wooden sign, modeled after the face on the old Indian head nickel. This sign was created by a Civilian Conservation Corps enrollee from Arkansas in th 1930's. The giant trees that make this park famous may have been named after a Cherokee Indian, Se-quo-yah, who devised an alphabet for his people.

    Crystal Cave:

    Location

    Crystal Cave is located off the Generals Highway in Sequois National Park, between tha Ask Mountain entrance and Giant Forest. To reach the cave, drive down the scenie, winding, naved road to the cave parking lot. Hide down the half-mile trail along beautiful Cascade Creek, where you will be met by a guide at the cave entrance. The cave is not wheelchair accessible.

    Hospital Rock:

    This pleasant site on the Middle Fork of the Kaeah River was once home to nearly 500 Native Americans belonging to the Potwisha sub-group of the Monache, or Western Mono, Indians. Archeological evidence indicates that Indians settled in this area as early as 1350. Today, visitors to Hospital Rock can still view ancient rock paintings, or pictographs, and bedrock mortars used to grind acorns. The area got its present name in 1873, when James Everton stayed here to recover from a gunshot wound he had received while stumbling into a shotgun snare set to trap bear.

    Grant Grove Area:

    Located at the north end of the Generals Highway, between Giant Forest and Cedar Grove, Grant Grove is a convenient base for visitors looking to experience both Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. And the General Grant is their Nation's Christmas Tree, and the third largest tree in the world.

    General Grant Tree

    The General Grant is the third largest tree in the world and the Nation's Christmas Tree. It has been designated a National Shrine, the only living memorial to Americans who gave their lives for freedom. Signs describe many of the features along this .33 mile, paved trail, inclufing the historic Gamlin Cabin and the Fallen Monarch.

    Mineral King Area:

    A spectacular alpine valley and miles of trails await those who brave the 1870's mining road, a long, slow going road, and Mineral King's infamous radiator-hose eating marmots.

    Each spring and early summer, the marmots of Mineral King dine on rare delicacies in this alpine valley. Their face includes radiator hose and car wiring! Like bears, jays and ground squirrels, marmots have not only become accustomed to visitors, they have learned that people are a source of food.

    Atwell Mill

    In a clearing across from the Atwell Mill Ranger Residence stands a large steam engine, one of the last signs of the mill that was used for cutting timber from the surrounding forests. Kaweah colonists leased the site after their Giant Forest claims disallowed. Many young sequoias have grown up around the mill site in the 75-100 years since logging ceased.

    Mineral King Valley

    This unique, glacially sculpted valley exhibits a variety of rock types, including marble, shale, schist and granite. Vegetation includes sagebrush, pinemat manzanita, and a great variety of wildflowers that prosper in the open sun.

    CITIES

    San Diego:

    San Diego is the second largest city in California and is sometimes referred to as the birthplace of California. It was discovered by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, who landed at Point Loma and claimed what is now California for the Spanish crown in 1542. The first settlement was in 1769, when a military outpost was stablished at what is now Presidio Hill. At the same time, Franciscan friar Junipero Serra founded Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcala, the first of the chain of 21 California Spanish Missions.

    Development in San Diego was slow for most of the first century of California statehood, but the Second World War brought the U.S. Navy Pacific Fleet to San Diego and the city has been growing ever since.

    San Diego offers two world-class zoos, Sea World marine park, art and space museums in Balboa Park, a mission, Point Loma Lighthouse, Old Town and scenic Coronado Island for starters.

    Coronado Island is home to the famed Hotel del Coronado. Dignitaries and stars have vacationed at the resort as well as been featured in movies filmed there such as " Some Like it Hot " with Marilyn Monroe and Jack Lemmon.

    The Old Town was built on a hillside, and it features restored buildings and lies in the heart of a community steeped in Spanish influence. Restaurants make authentic tortillas over flames as dancers click their heels to live guitar music in open plaza entertaiment.

    Huntington Beach:

    The city of Huntington Beach is located on the Pacific Coast in Orange County, approximately 40 miles from Los Angeles. It's only a 15 minute drive from John Wayne and Long Beach Airports and 45 minutes from Los Angeles International Airport.

    Famous for its public beaches, parks and ecologycal preserve which provides a sanctuary for migrating birds, plan to spend time outdoors on your visit. The finest weather in the world makes Huntington the place visitors return to time after time.

    Often called Surf City, it offers activities such as surfing, sailing, swimming, horseback riding, skating, bird watching, shopping and golfing for starters. In 5 years, tourism-related revenue has gone from $1,200 to $2 million.

    Long Beach:

    Long Beach is between Redondo Beach and Garden Grove.

    A new aquarium, Russian submarine named Scorpion, the Queen Mary ship, Shoreline Village, Titanic exhibit and Grand Prix car racing, have turned the city into a tourist mecca once again.

    Shoreline Village is an outdoor shooping mall with gift stores, affordable restaurants and paddble boat rentals. A walkway from the Convention Plaza leads to the village.

    A recent shoreline addition is the Aquarium of the Pacific. It was designed by the architects of the famed Monterey Bay Aquarium. Interior walls curve and exhibits seem to flow from one area to another like waves. A visit to the Aquarium of the Pacific is well worth the trip. Sometimes there are long waits to enter the aquarium. The architecture and exhibits help to promote hands on learning so guests can soak in the experiences.

    San Francisco:

    San Francisco rests on 40 hills at the end of a peninsula, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the east by San Francisco Bay. The first permanent European settlement took place when a Spanish military post was stablished at the Presidio and Franciscan friars founded Mission San Francisco de Asis. About halfway betweenn the Presidio and the mission was a place known as Yerba Buena, where a town was founded in 1835, later to become San Francisco.

    The discovery of gold at the American River near Sacramento brought a population boom from 100 to 10,000 almost overnight. The wealth created by the Gol Rush made San Francisco the metropolis of the west at a time when Los Angeles was still a minor outpost.

    Today San Francisco retains many charming historic buildings along with high tech industry, transportation, education, tourism, and culture.

    Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District:

    The concept of bridging the vast Golden Gate Strait was proposed as early as 1872 by railroad entrepreneur Charles Crocker. It was not until 1916, however, that the idea of a bridge was revived by James Wilkins, newspaper editor of the San Francisco call Bulletin. The majority of engineers said a bridge could not be built. Some especulated it would cost over $100 million. However, Joseph Baermann Strauss, a designer of nearly 400 spans, said such a bridge was not only feasible, but could be built for only $25 to $30 million.

    The time was right to span the Gate. Population centers were gowing, and traffic congestion at the ferry docks was becoming intolerable. There was no federal or state funding to build the Golden Gate Bridge because the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, which was being promoted during the same time period, had already received the limited funds available.

    The idea of forming a special district to construct the Golden Gate Bridge was proposed in 1922 by O'Shaugnessy, Strauss and Edward Rainey, Secretary to the Mayor of San Francisco. They believed a district was necessary to oversee the financing, design and construction of the Bridge so that all counties affected would have a voice in the proceedings.

    The "Association of Bridging the Gate" was formed in 1923.

    In November 4, 1930, contracts totaling $23,843,905 were awarded for the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge which commenced on January 5, 1933. During construction, Joseph B. Strauss insisted on the use of the most rigorous safety precautions in the history of bridge building.

    The Bridge was completed and opened to pedestrian traffic on May 27, 1937. The following day it was opened to vehicular traffic. The last of the construction bonds were retired in 1971, with $35 million in principal and nearly $39 million in interest being financed entirely from Bridge tolls.

    Los Angeles:

    The "city" of Los Angeles is Actually an amalgam of communicaties that joined together to benefit from the water being piped from the Owens River. Those that did not join the city remained independent but in many cases are entirely surrounded by the city. The city is the largest city in California in terms of both area and population, and is the second largest in population in the United States, after New York.

    The Spanish made the first organized settlement in 1769. Los Angeles was at one time the capital of Mexico's Alta California. Developing first on the basis of agriculture and ranching, it added the movie industry in the early part of the twentieth century and is responsible for more moviemaking than any other part of the country. Its economy also benefits from a diversified base that includes petroleum, high technology, aerospace and tourism. The Los Angeles area includes Los Angeles County and Orange County.

    To be honored with a star in Hollywood's Walk of Fame, the world's most famous sidewalk, is a tribute as coveted and sought after as any of the entertainment industry's equally prestigious awards. And, because it recognizes a life-long contribution of both public and peer appreciation, it is an honor uniquely in a class by itself. The Walk of Fame s a permanent monument of the past, as well as the present.

    Administered by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, the Walk of Fame was designated, in 1978, as a Cultural/Historic Landmark by the City of Los Angeles. The Hollywood Historic Trust, a continuing, self-financing program, maintains the quality of the Walk of Fame and the historic lure that is Hollywood.

    The Walk of Fame lines both sides of Hollywood Boulevard from Gower to La Brea, and both sides of Vine Street, from Yucca to Sunset. Official groundbreaking ceremonies were conducted February 9, 1960. In sixteen months, when construction was completed, 1,558 luminaries were forever immortalized in the sidewalk. Since then, approximately one to two stars per month have been added. Stars dedicated in 1994 pushed the total over the 2000 mark. However, even at this rate, it will be many years before the stars in the famed Walk will be completely occupied, assuring the continued presence of Hollywood in the world's media, and remaining a highly visible and lasting tribute to a unique city.

    ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES:

    Since the earliest settlement of the region by the Spanish in the 18th century, agriculture has been vital to the California economy. The gold rush of the mid-19th century was followed by the intensive explotation of petroleum and other minerals. As the population grew, fishing and forestry became important, and by the late 19th century light manufacturing industries had developed. Industrial diversification proceeded swiftly in the early 20th century. The motion-picture, radio, and television industries added other dimensions to the economy. World War II accelerated industrial developement and spawned the state's large aerospace industry. Government and educational services expanded rapidly after the war, as did tourism and other service industries. The economy suffered in recession in the early 1990s, fueled by cutbacks in aerospace and other military-related industries, coupled with a slowdown in housing construction.

    About 16,228,000 people held jobs in California in the early 1990s. Of those the largest share, about 32 percent, worked in the diverse services sector, in value and volume than that of any other state. Among the most important commercial fish caught in Californian waters are species of tuna, salmon, halibut, mackerel, and anchovy. Shellfish taken in coastal waters include crabs, shrimp, and abalones.

    Forestry:

    California usually ranks third among the states, after Oregon and Washington, in output of timber and lumber. Lumbering is the chief economic activity in the Sierra Nevada and in northwestern California.

    Redwood and Douglas fir are the most important commercial species in the Sierra Nevada. About two-fifths of the forestland is classified as commercial forest; more than half of the commercial forest is managed by the United States Forest Service.

    Mining:

    California is the third-ranking state in annual mineral output by value, after Texas and Louisiana. Crude oil and natural gas account for almost two-thirds of the value of Californias's mineral production. California ranks third in the nation in the production of oil. The oil fields of Kern County and the Los Angeles area are the most important. Oil is also produced in offshore waters. Natural gas wells are found in the Sacramento Valley and in the oil-producting areas. Yet reserves of natural gas piped into California originates in the province of Alberta, Canada, and the states of New Mexico and Texas.

    California leads all other states in the production of sand and gravel, Portland cement, diatomite, asbestos, tungsten, and sodium sulfate. In addition, much of the world's supply of boron minerals comes from Searles Lake and other ares in California's Mojave Desert. The state is also the nation's second largest producer of gold, soda ash, and titanium concentrates, and the third largest producer of perlite and pumice.

    In spite of the great variety of minerals found in the state, large quantities must be imported to meet the needs of California, which is the nation's leading consumer of minerals.

    Manufacturing:

    California leads all states in income generated by industrial activity and in industrial employement. The value added by manufacturing in the state is nearly double that one of the nearest state, New York. Value added by manufacturing is the difference between the price of raw materials used in a product and the price it commands as a finished item. About 1.9 million people were engaged in manufacturing in the state in the nearly 1990s.

    California's leading industry, in terms of the value added by manufacturing, is electronic and electrical equipment manufacturing.

    Ranking second is the manufacture of industrial machinery, principally computers and related equipment but including the making of pumps, engines, turbines, and machines for the service industry.

    Food processing is the state's third-largest industry.

    The manufacture of instruments ranks fourth in California's industrial economy.

    The manufacture of transportation equipment has long been important to California's economy. By far the largest employers in the sector are aeronautics firms, making civilian and military aircraft, guided missiles, and vehicles used in space exploration.

    Manufacturing is concentrated in southern California and around San Francisco Bay area, and th Central Valley.

    COMUNICATIONS

    Transportation:

    Trucks, buses, and automobiles play a major role in the economic and social life of California. Automobiles are the most important means of passenger transportation. There are more automobiles in California than any other state (more than one car for every two people).

    Highways:

    Beginning in the late 1940s the state embarked on freeway construction, and complicated, multi-laned freeways are one of California's more indelible images. But dependence on the freeways has given the state's metropolitan areas some of the worst traffic congestion in the nation. By the mid-1990s there were 272,295 Km (169,201 mi) of highways in California, including 3899 Km (2423 mi) of the federal interstate highways.

    Railroads:

    Several major railroads link the major cities of California with urban centers in other states to the east. The state was served by 10,509 Km (6530 mi) of raiload track in the early 1990s. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) also serves the state, and more passengers ride trains in California than any other state except New York. Commuter rail systems also provide transportation for people in the San Francisco and Los Angeles metropolitan regions.

    Airports:

    There is widespread use of commercial and private airplanes troughout California. The state ranks first among the states in the number of registered civil aircraft and second, behind Texas, in the number of airports and airfields, having 942 in the mid-1990s.

    Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego are served by some of the busiest airports in the country.

    RIVERS AND LAKES

    Lake Tahoe

    California´s principal river systems era formed by the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and their tributaries, which drain the Great Central Valley.The Sacramento, the longest river within the state is for about 615 km. The Pit River is the longest tributary of the Sacramento, but shorter tributaries, carry larger volumes of water. The San Joaquin River rises in the Sierra Nevada near Yosemite National Park and is for about 560 km to join the Sacramento River. The Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers unite to form a large inland delta that drains to Suisun Bay, by the eastern arm of San Francisco Bay.

    The rivers of the Coast Ranges in California are relatively short, except for the 400-km long Klamath River, which rises in Oregon and flows through nothwestern California.

    The major river in southern California is the Colorado River, one of the chief rivers of the western United States. It follows the Arizona-California state line before flowing into the Gulf of California, in Mexico

    California has several thousand lakes, most of which are small. The largest is the Salton Sea, a salty lake in the south that llies about 72 km below sea level and covers 943 sq km. Lake Tahoe, high in the Sierra Nevada, is on the California-Nevada state line and is one of the deepest lakes in the United States. Numerous other lakes have been created by the dramming of rivers.

    Lake cruises

    One of the favorite pastimes in Lake Tahoe is enjoying the view of the laka from wherever you happen to be at the moment. The enjoying a marvelous 360 degree panoramic view of Lake Tahoeïs majestic peaks from the watercraft out on the lake. The views are amazingly amazing!

    There are many options of lake cruises which provide different experiences.

    The Lake Tahoe Basin has a number of interesting and unusual sightseeing attractions that are located on government park and forest property;

    Ehrman MansionThis is one of the most beautiful historic homes on Lake Tahoe. From the turn of the century until 1965, the lands of what is now Sugar Pine Point State Park were owned by financier Isaias W. Hellman, who began buying property in 1913 and acquired nearly 2,000 acres.

    In 1965 the house and 1,975 acres of the estate were acquired by the California State Park System. Today the house is maintained as a house museum and as an example of the opulent tradition in Tahoe summer homes. It provides an interesting view into the lifestyles of the wealthy.

    Ponderosa Ranch

    The Ponderosa Ranch is an entertaining attraction that lets visitors relive the legend of "Bonanza" and experience the days of the old West.

    In 1967, the Ponderosa Ranch became a reality at the exact spot shown on the famous "burning map" on each episode of "Bonanza". That year, the doors of Ben Cartwright´s famous ranch were opened to the public. It marked the realization of a dream for millions of avid viewers the world over. And now, over 300,000 people visit the ranch each year!

    On the ranchïs colourful Main Street youïllfind Indian and western shops, foods and beverages, an ice-cream parlor, a confectionary, a general store, a trading post, an old-time photo studio, a museum and the Silver Dollar Saloon. Youïll see horse-drawn carriages, vintage cars, Indian artifacts and hundreds of rare antiques.

    Children will enjoy Hossïs Mystery Mine, Lil´ Joe´s Giant Arcade of Fun, Moonshine Manor Shooting Gallery, panning for gold at the Bonanza Gold Mine and having their fortune told at the Gypsy camp. Children will also be able to visit the Petting Farm, see a blacksmith at work and ride a pony.

    During the summer months, enjoy a Haywagon Breakfast Ride to the Wagon camp to feast on flapjacks, eggs and saugage, complemented by a spectacular view of Lake Tahoe.

    Couples can get married at the authentic and charming 1870 country Church of the Ponderosa that overlooks the North Shore of beautiful Lake Tahoe.

    Taylor Creek Stream Profile Chamber

    The floor-to-ceiling glass by windows, waterfall, creek-bottom-like walking surface and sound effects allow visitors to experience the Taylor Creek environment without getting wet! Trout, crayfish, frogs, and other inhabitants of Taylor Creek might be seen displaying some of their natural survival habits.

    The viewing windows arstistically fade into a huge mural that wraps around the walls of the Chamber. Visitors can view scenes of the Taylor Creek ecosystem thoughout the four seasons, with a final scene looking down Taylor Creek where it empties into Lake Tahoe. The mural contains many plants and animals native to Taylor Creek. Children are also several animals hiding thoughout the Chamber that will require a few more observations skills to find.

    Vikingsholm Castle & Fannete IslandLocated at the west end of Emerald Bay, Vikingsholm Castle is considered the finest example of Scandinavian architecture in the Western Hemisphere. The methods and materials used in the construction, including the boulders of the foundations and walls, are those used in ancient Scandinavia. Turrets, towers, intricate carvings, even hand-hewn timbers were used to recreate the fortress. The sod roof with its living grass is like those sometimes used in Scandinavia to feed livestock during the winter.

    Eagle Falls. A short trail leads from Vikingsholm Castle to beautiful Eagle Falls.

    Fannette Island

    The only island in Lake Tahoe, Fannette Island is a sparsely wooded, brush-covered upthrust of granite that rises 150 feet above the water. The stone structure on top of the island that looks like a miniature castle is the "Tea House" built in 1929 by Mrs. Knight, who built Vikingsholm Castle. Today, only the stone shell remains.

    VIEWS OF INTEREST

    Angora Lookout

    Continue two miles and turn left on Tahoe Mountain Road. After one-half mile turn right on a dirt road labaled 1214 and follow it two miles to old Angora Fire lookout. From here youïll have a spectacular view of the Tahoe Basin.

    Emerald Bay

    Inspiration Point offers great views of Emerald Bay, one of the most photographed spots in the world!

    D.L. Bliss State Park

    Enjoy the lovely beach and take the nature trail that leads to Balancing Rock

    Sugar Point Pine State Park

    Take a walk through a sugar pine grove and along a beautiful lake front

    Eagle Rock

    After Homewood, look for an enormous rock formation standing high on the left side of the road. Eagle Rock is the neck of an eroded volcanic plug.

    Fanny Bridge

    This bridge spans the Truckee River, the only outlet from Lake Tahoe. Large trout are often seen below the bridge and this attracts visitors who lean over the bridge and thus the name.

    Squaw Valley Aerial Tram

    Enjoy the fabulous views on the way and the top of the tram.

    North Stateline LookoutA wonderful scenic overlook.

    Sand Harbor

    This Nevada State Park Beach is one of the most beautiful and easily accessible of the east shore beaches. The sand is soft and the waters are crystal clear.

    Logan Shoals

    Logan Shoals offers a pretty view across the laka where you can see the broad u-shaped valleys carved out of glaciers, such as Emerald Bay.

    Cave Rock

    HWY50 goes right though Cave Rock, a huge rock formation that is the neck of an old volcano. The name comes from the small caves on the west side, cut by waves when the lake was 140 feet higher during the ice age. Cave Rock is also a spiritual site for the regions earliest residents, the Washoe Indian Tribe.

    Heavenly Aerial Tram

    Ride the south Shore tram for more breathtaking views of the lake and mountains. At the top of the tram, take time to lunch at the monument Peak Restaurant and enjoy lake views. Then hike up and along an Alpine ridge for more great vistas!

    MISSING WORDS

    Y A C O M E T W I U L N D Y I E

    L E S N U F F O R T P O I N T S

    L A L U Y H Y W A E I F O T S M

    G O L L D E T I L O Y H R E A L

    S T M A A E T O L W F O R I N E

    Q U A I U V R R N A E T P S F U

    A N G H Y X H S R E V I S O R G

    L Q O M L S H T Q U O E A S A A

    F R L S A Q S A A O L M U R N I

    E E D R R U I N S E C O A M C O

    L A E S S V O L G A D O R E I U

    I L N N E M U N G I A P U O S Q

    J W G A N L A M B U G E N T C E

    E G A I E S A N D I E G O Q O S

    N I T T O G R A N U J O S A M Q

    T U E L T A J A D A F I N D S U

    Q T A J U A R E O H A T G O T O

    S M R N E S S A L H I G Q I U A