Apuntes de inglés ESO y Bachiller

Grámatica. Tiempos verbales. Adejtivo. Verbos

  • Enviado por: Xero Soldier
  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
  • 123 páginas
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TEMAS

1.-

Adjetivos seguidos de INFINITIVO con TO

38

2.-

ALL + Clause (Oración Subordinada)

50

3.-

Any + Comparativo

45

4.-

Artículo: Usos y Omisiones

7 - 11

5.-

Características de los Verbos Defectivos

30

6.-

Colocación de Both/All

25 - 27

7.-

Comparación del Adjetivo y del Adverbio

28 - 29

8.-

Compuestos de Some/Any/No

4

9.-

Conjunciones “ALTHOUGH/THOUGH”

46

10.-

Conjunciones IN CASE/UNLESS

48

11.-

Construcción ACUSATIVA o INFINITIVA inglesa

47

12.-

Cuadro de Pronombres

4

13.-

Diferencias entre BEEN TO/GONE TO

33

14.-

Diferencias entre Say/Tell/Speak/Talk

32

15.-

Diferencias entre Seem/Look

32 - 33

16.-

ESTILO INDIRECTO (Reported Speech)

55 - 63

17.-

Estructuras:

  • It´s (about) time + Simple Past

33

  • It´s no good + Gerundio (-ING)

34

18.-

Exclamaciones

47

19.-

Expresar DESEOS y LAMENTOS (Wish and If Only)

33

20.-

False Friends (Palabras que pueden confundir)

71 - 73

21.-

Formas de expresar la EDAD de una persona

71

22.-

FORMULAS PARA COMPOSICIONES (Frases hechas)

105 - 119

23.-

Género en personas, animales y cosas en inglés

81 - 84

24.-

GERUNDIO

34 - 35

25.-

GLOSARIO DE C.O.U.

70

26.-

GRAMÁTICA ESPAÑOLA

97

  • Artículo determinado e indeterminado español

97

  • Adjetivo español y sus clases

97

  • Comparación del Adjetivo español

99

  • Pronombres españoles y clases de Pronombre

100 - 102

  • Conjugación española (Resumida)

103

  • Correspondencias de tiempos españoles e ingleses

104

27.-

Tabla de tiempos ingleses (Todos los tiempos activos y pasivos)

104

28.-

Hacer Comparaciones

48 - 49

29.-

Impersonal “YOU”

6

30.-

INFINITIVO de Propósito o Finalidad

41

31.-

Locuciones Verbales: Would rather/sooner//Had better

19 - 20

32.-

Nombres Compuestos (Lista y significado)

90 - 91

33.-

Nombres Contables e Incontables

1- 2

34.-

Oraciones CONDICIONALES (Conjunciones: if, unless, etc.)

51 - 53

35.-

Oraciones de RELATIVO

64 - 66

36.-

Oraciones FINALES

67

37.-

Oraciones TEMPORALES

66 - 67

38.-

Pares de palabras (pareados)

96

39.-

Participio de Pasado

35

40.-

Participio de Presente

35

41.-

Participio Falso o “False Participle”

36

42.-

Participios en vez de Oraciones Subordinadas

35 - 36

43.-

Partícula “AS”

45

44.-

Partícula “EVER”

6

45.-

Partículas “QUITE/RATHER/SUCH a/an + Nombre Contable Singular

45

46.-

Partículas “SO/SUCH … THAT”

46

47..-

Partículas “TOO/ENOUGH”

46

48.-

Phrasal Verbs (lista y significados)

79 - 80

49.-

Plural de los Nombres Ingleses

11 - 12

50.-

Posición de Adverbios y Frases Adverbiales

43 - 44

51.-

Posición de los Adverbios

68

52.-

Preposiciones (básicas)

75

53.-

Preposiciones Finales o “End-prepositions”

45

54.-

Prepositional and Phrasal Verbs

41 - 42

55.-

Pronombres Reflexivos

48

56.-

Pronombres, Adjetivos y Adverbios Interrogativos con “-EVER”

47 - 48

57.-

Proverbs (Refranes)

76 - 78

58.-

Puntuación en Inglés

42

59.-

Quehaceres Domésticos

6

60.-

Significados de la palabra “LEFT”

33

61.-

Significados del verbo “To FEEL”

22

62.-

Significados según la Pronunciación

74 - 75

63.-

Sinónimos

74

64.-

Sufijos y Prefijos

69

65.-

Tail Questions o Questions-tags

50 - 51

66.-

Tiempos Verbales

12

  • Presente Simple/Presente Contínuo

  • Pasado Simple/Presente Perfecto

  • Presente Perfecto Contínuo

  • Pasado Perfecto Contínuo

67.-

Top Forty Fatal Mistakes

94 - 95

68.-

Uso de auxiliaries en afirmativa

20

69.-

Usos de Both/All/Neither/None

6

70.-

Usos de Can/Could

16 - 17

71.-

Usos de Either…or/Neither… nor

27

72.-

Usos de Going to/Will

17 - 18

73.-

Usos de May/Might

17

74.-

Usos de Much/Many/Little/Few

24 - 25

75.-

Usos de Must/Have to

15 - 16

76.-

Usos de Ought to

19

77.-

Usos de Shall/Will

14 - 15

78.-

Usos de Should/Would

18 - 19

79.-

Usos de Some/Any/No

2 - 3

80.-

Usos de Verbo “To HAVE”

5 - 6

81.-

Usos del verbo “To DO y To MAKE”

91

82.-

Usos del Verbo “To Get”

21

83.-

Verbo “NEED + -ING”

32

84.-

Verbo “To Be + INFINITIVO con TO”

41

85.-

Verbo “To Dare”

23

86.-

Verbo “To Feel like”

21 - 22

87.-

Verbo “To GET”

20 - 21

88.-

Verbo “To Happen”

21

89.-

Verbo “To Help”

22

90.-

Verbo “To Look”

23

91.-

Verbo “To Mind”

24

92.-

Verbo “To Need”

23

93.-

Verbo “To Seem”

24

94.-

Verbo “TO SUGGEST”

53

95.-

Verbo GET SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING

49

96.-

Verbo MAKE SOMEONE DO SOMETHING

49

97.-

Verbos Irregulares Ingleses (Lista y significado)

92 - 93

98.-

Verbos Principales AUXILIARES-MODALES

30

  • Must/Need/Can/May

30 - 31

99.-

Verbos que no se pueden utilizar en tiempos continuos

36 - 37

100.-

Verbos seguidos de INFINITIVO o GERUNDIO con Cambio de significado

39 - 40

101.-

Verbos seguidos de INFINITIVO o GERUNDIO sin Cambio de significado

38

102.-

Verbos seguidos de INFINITIVO sin TO

37

103.-

Verbos seguidos de INFINITIVOS de Perfecto

40

104.-

Verbos seguidos de INFINITIVOS PASIVOS

40

105.-

Verbos seguidos de OBJETO + INFINITIVO con TO

38

106.-

Verbos seguidos de OBJETO + INFINITIVO sin TO o Participio de Presente

40

107.-

Verbos seguidos por HOW TO + INFINITIVO

38

108.-

Verbos Think/Suppose/Hope

33

109.-

Verbos y palabras que rigen una preposición/es determinadas

85 - 89

110.-

VOZ PASIVA

53 - 55

111.-

Wh-words + INFINITIVO con TO

45 - 46

NOMBRES CONTABLES E INCONTABLES:

Las categorias de singular y plural se aplican a todo aquello que se puede contar; son estos los que llamamos nombres contables, materiales como: girls, houses, flowers, o abstractos como: days, hours, mistakes, ideas.

Pero hay otra serie de nombres que no se pueden encuadrar dentro de unos límites numéricos - los llamamos incontables, ya sea a su vez materiales, como: silver, butter, cheese, o abstractos como: music, traffic, success. Asi como los nombres contables se pueden contar tomados en la medida de uno, dos tres etc., los incontables se pueden cuantificar con las expresiones: much, little, some, a great deal of, plenty of ... etc.

Podemos utilizar “a lot of” delante de nombres contables e incontables, pero la expresión “a large number of” sólo se utiliza ante contables.

Television companies receive a large number of letters every day.

A great deal of” sólo se utiliza con incontables:

The psycologist had spent a great deal of time studying the problem.

Para la afirmativa se prefieren estas expresiones a “much” o “many”, dejándoles a éstos el uso exclusivo de las interrogativas y negativas, o también si son “sujeto” o “parte del sujeto” nunca “complemento”.

Television companies don't receive many letters.

The psycologist hadn't spent much time on the problem

Además de la expresiones ya vistas hay otras formas de referirnos a in contables como son:

  • A piece of: news, advice, furniture ...

  • A bit of: information

  • A stroke of: luck (golpe de suerte)

  • A matter of: common sense (un poco de sentido común).

Asi mirada la distinción entre nombres contables e incontables no ofrece dificultad; hay que tener en cuenta, sin embargo, que hay un gran número de palabras que pueden tomarse, en distintos contextos, como contables o también como incontables:

contable Incontable

Ice: helado ; hielo

Iron: plancha ; acero

Paper: periódico ; papel

Glass vaso ; cristal

Wood: bosque ; madera

Otra distinción a tener en cuenta es la que se refiere al animal como contable, y a su carne como incontable:

Ox (buey), carne: beef

Calf (ternera) carne: veal

Sheep (oveja) carne: mutton

Pig or swine (cerdo)  carne: pork

Desde el punto de vista meramente lógico, podríamos deducir que, puesto que los nombres incontables denotan lo que no podemos contar, las categorías de singular y plural no les son aplicables; sin embargo hay muchos nombres incontables que son plurales por su forma:

sweets (caramelos) rickets (el raquitismo)

weeds (malas hierbas) hysterics (la histeria)

goods (mercancias) measles (el sarampión)

ashes (cenizas)

Otro grupo de nombres son los terminados en -ics, que denotan materias:

mathematics - matemáticas

politics - política

statistics - estadística

Tanto este grupo de nombres como el anterior pueden ir seguidos de un verbo en singular o en plural:

Measles is/are very infectious

Politics don´t/doesn't interest me.

USOS DE SOME, ANY y NO

Some y any son adjetivos o pronombres indefinidos que se emplean con sustantivos incontables en singular y con sustantivos plurales contables, o sustituyendo a estos mismos sustantivos.

Some: Con nombres incontables en singular equivale al partitivo francés y tiene el significado de un poco (de), algo (de), o puede prescindirse de su traducción en español. Con los nombres contables en plural significa algunos/as:

There is some water in the jug.

I have some English books at home.

Como pronombre sustituye a nombres incontables en singular y a contables en plural a los que se ha mencionado previamente. Significa: un poco, algo, algunos/as:

I like some milk. I feel like drinking some now.

You need many pins for that. I can lend you some if you want.

Por regla general el uso de some se limita a oraciones afirmativas. En las oraciones interrogativas y negativas, detrás de if, hardly, barely, scarcely se emplea any con los mismos significados de some:

Is there any water in the glass?

Are there any books on the table?

I haven't any money left.

There is hardly any sugar.

There are scarcely any papers on the floor.

If you want any help, let me know.

Sólo si la pregunta implica una invitación u ofrecimiento, o si se espera una respuesta afirmativa, se puede emplear some en las oraciones interrogativas:

Would you like some more tea? 

Did he buy some new books?

Se emplea:

  • En ocasiones con los nombres contables tiene el valor de plural del artículo indeterminado a:

  • Come with me and I'll show you some English books I bought.

    I have bought some too.

    There is some milk in that glass; I'll have some.

  • Cuando ofrecemos algo, para dar a este ofreciemiento más fuerza:

  • Would you like some tea?

  • En las preguntas cuando esperamos que la respuesta sea afirmativa:

  • He has some tea already, hasn't he?

  • Para expresar indiferencia al referirnos a una persona, o para indicar irritación:

  • Some man came and told me the most stupid story.

    Some stupid boy must have broken this lamp.

    Any: Acompaña o sustituye también a nombres incontables en singular y a contables en plural:

    Se emplea:

  • Sustituyendo a some en las oraciones interrogativas:

  • Is there any wine in the bottle?

    Have you got nay books here?

  • En las oraciones negativas y en las que tienen valor negativo a causa de las expresiones: hardly, barely, scarcely, estas expresiones tienen matiz negativo:

  • There isn't any bread at home.

    He has hardly any money.

    You haven't any paper.

  • En las oraciones condicionales detrás de if especialmente si creemos que la condición no se va a cumplir:

  • If I see any of your friends I'll tell them to meet you at the cinema.

  • En oraciones que expresan duda:

  • I doubt whether they will have any gin at home.

  • En oraciones afirmativas con valor distinto de some. Significa cualquiera no importa cuál:

  • Don't worry; any book will do.

    NO: Se emplea en oraciones afirmativas para expresar negación. Su valor es similar al de any, como adjetivo, con el verbo en forma negativa:

    I haven't any money = I have no maney.

    There aren't any stamps = There are no stamps.

    COMPUESTOS DE SOME, ANY, NO

    FORM

    ASSERTIVE

    NON-ASSERTIVE

    NEGATIVE

    VERB

    Affirmative

    Negative

    Affirmative

    Personas

    someone

    somebody

    Anyone

    Anybody

    no-one

    nobody

    Cosas

    something

    Anything

    nothing

    Lugar

    somewhere

    Anywhere

    nowhere

    sometimes

    Ever

    never

    somehow

    in any way

    in no way

    already

    Any more/any longer

    no more/no longer

    still

    Yet

    No form

    There is somebody with you.

    Don't give him anything before lunch.

    It must be somewhere in the class.

    There aren't any tourists here this summer.

    There was nobody at home.

    EVERY solo tiene la forma ASSERTIVE

    FORM

    ASSERTIVE

    VERB

    Affirmative

    Everybody

    Everyone

    Everything

    Everywhere

    PRONOMBRES PERSONALES, POSESIVOS Y REFLEXIVOS

    PERSONALES

    POSESIVOS

    REFLEXIVOS

    Sujeto

    Complemento

    Adjetivos

    Pronombres

    Pronombres

    I

    me

    my

    mine

    myself

    you

    you

    your

    yours

    yourself

    he

    him

    his

    his

    himself

    she

    her

    her

    hers

    herself

    it

    it

    its

    its?

    itself

    we

    us

    our

    ours

    ourselves

    you

    you

    your

    yours

    yourselves

    they

    them

    their

    theirs

    themselves

    PRONOMBRES RECÍPROCOS

    • Each other: (uno a atro) se (entre dos personas o cosas)

    • One another: (unos a otros) se (entre más de dos)

    USOS DEL VERBO TO HAVE

    Además del uso más frecuente de “have” que es la de auxiliar en la formación de los tiempos compuestos de cualquier verbo, tiene otros usos:

    1.- Significado de TENER, POSEER

    She has a black cat.

    Lo encontramos también significando lo mismo en la forma “have got”

    Have you got a cigarette?

    Con este significado no usamos normalmente el auxiliar “do” para la forma negativa e interrogativa, sobre todo si la posesión a la que nos referimos es en el momento en que hablamos:

    You have a lot of maney to buy that.

    You haven't much money to buy that.

    Si la posesión no es en este momento, sino de vez en cuando se pone los auxiliares do/does/did para formar la ineterrogativa y negativa:

    He doesn't usually have more than one pound in his pocket.

    Por supuesto si la forma que empleamos es “have got” nunca se puede utilizar “do”:En afirmativa suele emplearse en inglés británico la estructura HAVE GOT, así  “have” hace la interrogativa y negativa mientras que “got” actua como comodín:

    I have got a car

    2.- Obligación TENER QUE

    El verbo “to have” seguido de infinitivo con “to” indica Obligación y significa “tener que” y este es el verbo que suple las deficiencias de “must”. Necesita de auxiliares para formar la interrogativa y negativa. Si se utiliza el comodín “got to” el que hace la interrogativa y negativa es “have”:

    I have to leave. I have got to leave I must leave

    Have you got to leave? Do you have to leave?

    La negativa e interrogativa de “have to” puede hacerse de dos formas: con o sin “do”; es más frecuente la forma con “do” sobre todo en presente:

    Have you to leave? Do you have to leave? (mejor)

    3.- Uso Causativo

    Este uso se utiliza cuando se quiere expresar que alguien ha hecho algo por uno. La estructura es “To HAVE/GET + Objeto + past participle. Usamos esta construcción cuando queremos dar la idea de que no es el sujeto el que realiza la acción, sino que más bien recae sobre sí mismo; por tanto tiene significado pasivo.Para hacer la negativa e interrogativa necesita también de auxiliares:

    I had my car washed yesterday I had my hair cut yesterday.

    I didn´t have my car washed yesterday.

    He had his windows cleaned last Saturday.

    4.- Con el sigificado de tomar, recibir, experimentar, comer etc.

    En este uso la palabra que acompaña al verbo “have” es su complemento directo, por tanto actua como un verbo léxico u ordinario. También necesita de auxiliares ara formar la interrogativa y negativa:

    I had a cup of coffee at six o'clock (tomé).

    I had a present from Charle (recibí).

    I had a lovely time with him (experimenté).

    To have a bath; to have a shower; to have breakfast.

    5.- Acabar de + infinitivo: To have just + past participle

    Indica que una acción acaba de desarrollarse hace un instante:

    He has just arrived home.

    QUEHACERES DOMÉSTICOS (Chores)

    TO DO + artículo determinado + -ING, excepto = To make the beds

    Ej: Mrs Wildes cooks the meals every day.

    Mrs Wildes does the cooking every day.

    To do the washing = lavar la ropa, hacer la colada

    To do the washing-up = lavar los platos

    To do the cleaning = limpiar la casa.

    To do the spring cleaning = limpiar la casa a fondo.

    To do the gardening = trabajar en el jardín

    etc.

    BOTH / ALL / NEITHER / NONE

    Both - ambos, los dos

    All - más de dos

    Neither - ninguno (de dos)

    None - ninguno (más de dos)

    both ... and - tanto ... como

    neither ... nor - ni ... ni

    Both, All, None - rigen el verbo en plural.

    IMPERSONAL: YOU

    You equivale al impersonal español uno

    Ej: Uno sale de casa y luego no vuelve.

    PARTÍCULA: “EVER”

    Significa: alguna vez

    Hardly ever - casi nunca; puesto que en inglés no se pueden poner dos partículas negativas juntas; la partícula hardly tiene matiz negativo por tanto no se puede poner never.

    EVER se emplea en preguntas con el significado de alguna vez; y con el superlativo relativo significa jamás.

    Preguntas: Have you ever been to London?

    Yes, several times.

    No, never

    Superlativos: He is the most intelligent man I have (I've) ever seen.

    EL ARTÍCULO

    El artículo determinado en inglés se pone cuando se habla de un sustantivo en concreto, determinado, no en sentido general.

    The boy next door to us is full of mischief

    The book that you gave me is very interesting

    En ambos ejemplos hay algo que define a la persona o cosa a que nos referimos. En el primer caso es next door to us y en el segundo es that you gave me. Esta definición del obejto o la persona de quién hablamos nos la puede dar la pregunta: WHAT? o la pregunta WHICH?, y ésto ocurre en singular y plural:

    The animals I saw were beautiful. What animals? Those I saw (not all animals).

    The dogs in your farm don't like meat. Which dogs? The ones you have in your farm.

    La determinación se puede expresar por medio de una oración de ralativo (The book that you gave me) o por un complemento con preposición (The dogs in your farm)

    The carpet of the dining-room; The house near the church.

    Si hablamos de algo en sentido general utilizamos el artículo indeterminado si la persona o cosa de que hablamos es singular y nada si es plural:

    A play by Shakespeare is something interesting to be seen.

    Films are good entertainment.

    Usos del Artículo Determinado:

  • - Cuando nos referimos a algo de lo que sólo existe un ejemplar:

  • The sky, the earth, the moon.

  • - Cuando empleamos el superlativo relativo, pero no el absoluto:

  • This is the most interesting poem I have read.

    pero es: It is most interesting.

  • - Con los nombres de mares, rios y oceanos:

  • the Thames, the Atlantic, the Pacific, the Mediterranean etc.

  • - Con los nombres de cordilleras y archipiélagos, pero no con los nombres de mantañas y de una sóla isla:

  • The Canary Islands, the Alps, the Grampians

    pero es: Mont Balnc, Sicily.

  • -Con los números ordinales en títulos honoríficos:

  • Elisabeth the Second (Elisabeth II), Charles V (Charles the Fifth).

  • - Con los nombres de trenes, barcos y aviones famosos:

  • The Queen Mary, The Arrow, the Concorde

  • - Con nombres de paises que o son plurales o están formados por más de una entidad territorial:

  • The United States, The United Kingdom, The Netherlands;

    pero no Spain, France, Germany, Italy.

  • - Con las palabras theatre, cinema, movies, pictures, opera, ballet ... cuando se utilizan como lugar de esparcimiento:

  • I went to the cinema last week, We should go to the ballet.

  • - Cuando se hace referencia a una cosa que ya se ha citado:

  • We bought a house and an apartment. The house is not far from the sea.

  • - Con los adjetivos cuando se quieren sustantivar, se convierten por medio del artículo en nombres plurales:

  • The poor are happier than the rich.

    En singular: the poor man.

  • - Se emplea el artículo determinado en con el comparativo para decir que algo aumneta o disminuye:

  • The more you giove him the more he wants.

    El artículo indeterminado se emplea delante de los nombres discontinuos (contables) que van en singular. El artículo indeterminado no tiene plural . Cuando en singular tiene el valor de 1 haciéndo énfasis en la cantidad, su plural puede ser some, a few etc.

    Usos del artículo indeterminado:

  • - Con el significado de “uno cualquiera”:

  • I would like to have a fur coat.

  • - Con valor distributivo en expresiones de tiempo y con medidas:

  • Peter comes twice a year. Cheese costs 90p a kilo

  • - Delante de cantidades: hundred, thousand, million, dozen:

  • He knows a hundred English words.

  • - Con apellidos de personas no identificadas, equivalente al español: un tal:

  • A Mr White came to see you

  • - Con nombres de profesiones y religiones:

  • She is a student. I am a teacher.

    He became a Protestant.

  • - Con sustantivos cuando queremos rferirnos a ellos en general:

  • A car is a useful thing.

  • - Con las expresiones: What a .. !; Such a ... !; Quite a ... !; Rather a ... ! + nombres contables en singular: What a pity; it´s quite a good book.

  • It was such a nuisance. I read quite an interesting story !

    Omisión de los dos artículos:

  • - Con las palabras: school, church, prison, jail, bed, hospital ... cuando se utilizan para el fin para el que se hiceron:

  • We go to school everyday. I feel tired; I'm going to bed

    Peter stole a car and he is in prison now

    We go to school at 8.30 every morning.

  • - Con nombres abstractos o nombres concretos no determinados ni limitados:

  • Happiness, Freedom

    Happiness is what I long for.

  • - Con los nombres de idiomas, deportes, calles, comidas:

  • I speak Italian, Spanish.

    I play football, tennis, basketball.

    I have breakfast, dinner, supper.

  • - Con los días de la semana, que en su lugar llevan “on”:

  • On Monday, On Friday.

  • - No se usa con los nombres propios aunque formen parte de un genitivo sajón, al igual que con Mr, Mrs, Miss:

  • Mary´s teacher lives far from here.

    Mary's scarf; Arthur´s car;

    Mr Smithers; Mr Harrison.

  • - Con las palabras: next y last, ciando nos referimos al período inmediatamente posterior o anterior al que estamos:

  • Mary left home last week.

    I see you next Friday

    pero I met your brother the last week I spent in London (no tiene por qué ser la semana pasada).

    USES OF “A” / “AN”

  • With a subject complement

  • He is a doctor

    Mr Smith became an engineer

    I was made a director

    She remained spinster

    She found herself a widow

  • In distributive phrases (a = each)

  • The cloth costs five pounds a yard

    I take this medicine twice a day

    These flowers cost a pound a dozen

    Coal costs ten pounds a ton

    Coffee is sixpence a cup

  • With complements introduced by “AS” and “FOR”

  • You must fulfil your duties as a son

    I wish we had you for a teacher

  • In expressions of drgree, measurement, number

  • He is not as rich a man as you

    He lives in too expensive a manner

    The waiter has quite a hard time

    This is rather a long street

    I studied for half an hour

    He serves a hundred people

    He won a hundred pounds

  • In exclamations with “WHAT”, and “SUCH”

  • What a pity!

    What a nice day!

    It is such a pity!

    It is such a nice day!

    He has such a different life!

  • After “WITH” and “WITHOUT”

  • He wrote with a pen

    There is no rose without a thorn

  • In emphatic negatives

  • I haven´t a penny!

    I can´t see a thing!

    I don´t understand a word!

  • In adverbial phrases

  • In On As

    to be in a hurry on a large scale as a rule

    to speak in a low voice on an average

  • In some idioms

  • to have a right to make a noise to make a fortune

  • “A certain”

  • a certain man

  • “A”, “ONE”

  • Give me a book = any book

    Give me one book = one, not two

    Monday is a weekday = one of several

    He entered a restaurant one day = one certain day

    Just a moment, sir = unemphatic

    Just one moment, sir = emphatic

    USE and OMISSION of “THE”

  • Generic and determined nouns

  • Generic Determined nouns

    I admired courage I admired the courage of poor people

    Good books are rare The good books I bought are rare

    We pray for peace We pray for the peace of the world

    Happiness does not depend on money The happiness of most people does not

    depend on the money they have

    He spends his money on pleasure He spends his money on the pleasures

    of food

    They suffered from cold and hunger The cold and hunger they suffered was

    intense

    He was sent to prison He was sent to the new prison

    They go to school They go to the school in that street

  • Omitted before titles, honorifics, and some proper names

  • Persons Places

    Mr Brown Cairo

    Captain Brawn Mecca

    Queen Elisabeth Peru

    King George Canada

    Pope Pius Lake Superior

  • Omitted before the names of languages, games, days, meals, streets

  • English football Monday breakfast Oxford Street

    French tennis Tuesday lunch Piccadilly Circus

    German cricket Wednesday tea Trafalgar Square

    Russian rugby Thursday dinner Mount Avenue

    Italian hockey Friday supper Edgware Road

  • Next, last, the next, the last

  • next, last the next, the last

    I will meet you next week He fell ill and died the next week

    I returned from my holiday last week This is the last week of the year

    EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES

    La Regla General: El plural de los nombres se forma añadiendo “S” al singular.

    Excepciones:

  • - Los sustantivos terminados en -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x añaden la terminación -es para formar el plural y adquieren así una sílaba más:

  • Glass - glasses, Church - churches; box - boxes.

  • - Los que terminan en -o añaden también -es, excepto si son nombres extranjeros o apocopados (cortos):

  • potato - potatoes; negro - negroes; piano - pianos; photo -photos.

  • - Los que terminan en -f o en -fe, cambian la “f” por “v” y añaden la terminación -es:

  • wolf -wolves; wife - wives; life - lives.

    excepto: handkerchief - handkerchiefs; cliff - cliffs

  • - Los que acaban en -y si va ésta precedida de consonante, cambia a “i” latina y añade -es, pero si va precedida de vocal, sigue la regla general, añade -s:

  • lady - ladies; baby - babies

    boy - boys; toy - toys

  • - Las palabras latinas y griegas forman el plural según las reglas del latín o del griego:

  • crisis - crises; thesis - theses; datum - data; radius - radii

    Si son palabras de uso muy frecuente se siguen las reglas del inglés:

    gymnasium - gymnasiums (gym - gyms).

    6. - Finalmente tenemos que destacar que hay una serie de sustantivos que no siguen estas reglas. Al referirnos a ellos hablamos de plurales irregulares:

    man - men; woman - women; foot - feet; tooth - teeth; mouse - mice; loose - lice; goose - geese; child - children.

    En inglés antiguo y sobre todo en textos religiosos se encuentra el plural brethen, de brother, que hoy está practicamente en desuso.

    Plurales de nombres compuestos:

  • - En general se pone en plural el último elemento, pero si “man” o “woman” son el primer elemento del compuesto, ambos se ponen en plural:

  • teapot - teapots; manservant - menservants; raincoat - raincoats.

  • - Cuando el compuesto está formado por otros elementos y nombres (por ejemplo, preposiciones o adverbios) sólo se pone en plural el nombre:

  • passer-by - passers-by; looker-on - lookers-on.

  • - Si el segundo elemento del compuesto es un adjetivo, solo se pone en plural el primero:

  • court-martial - courts-martial; mouthful - mouthfuls;

    La excepción a esta regla es que los nombres que terminan en el sufijo -ful (del adjetivo full) forman el plural añadiendo -s.

    handful - handfuls; mouthful - mouthfuls.

    TIEMPOS VERBALES

    Presente Simple, Presente Continuo.-

    El Presente Simple o habitual se utiliza con acciones que estamos haciendo constantemente; hábitos en el presente:

    I get up at 7 o'clock every day.

    El Presente Continuo se utiliza con acciones que estamos realizando en el momento en que hablamos, y se sobreentiende la partícula NOW:

    I am reading a book.

    Tanto el Presente Simple como el Presente Continuo tienen valor de futuro. En caso del Presente Simple, el valor de futuro lo da la expresión temporal que le acompaña:

    The train leaves the station at 8 o'clock in the evening.

    El Presente Continuo tiene valor de futuro cierto a diferencia de shall o will (que indican futuro simplemente) o la forma going to (que indica futuro próximo o premeditado):

    Tomorrow I´m playing tennis.

    Pasado Simple.-

    Se emplea para acciónes que empezaron en el pasado y terminaron en un momento del pasado, este momento puede estar expresado o puede sobreentenderse:

    They came last night. He joined the army in 1977.

    He sent me a present last week. I bought this in America.

    También se em`plea el pasado simple oara hacer preguntas sobre cosas que se sabe que terminaron en un momento determinado del pasado:

    When did you graduate? Where did you get that prize?

    Otro uso del pasado simple es para referirnos a costumbres que se tenían en el pasado, o para acciones que van acompañadas de los adverbios: sometimes, never, often, always etc.; también con expresiones de tiempo que indican repetición: once a week, three times a month, on Mondays, every Friday night etc.:

    He always went to school by bus.

    He visited his father once a month.

    John never drank wine.

    Presente Perfecto.-

    Se emplea para hablar de una acción, que si bien comenzó en el pasado, no se ha terminado aún o en cierto modo tiene relacón con el momento actual, y se emplea por tanto, con expresiones de tiempo no terminado. Suele emplearse con: this year, this morning, this summer, today etc.:

    I have eaten quite a lot today. We have written each other five times this month.

    El Present Perfect es un tiempo que se emplea para referirnos a acciones que acaban de terminar hace un instante. En inglés esta proximidad del momento en que se ha terminado una acción se expresa por medio de just y el Present Perfect. Su traducción al español es: ACABAR DE + INFINITIVO:

    I have just seen your mother in the street. (Acabo de ver a tu madre ...)

    We have just moved to a new house.

    También se emplea este tiempo para acciones pasadas cuando no se da el momento en que terminaron. Parece como si la idea de tiempo no terminado la tuviese que dar la vida de uno. Al menos esto facilita el saber emplear este tiempo:

    She has been to France many times (in her life).

    I have met lost of clever people in my life.

    Si las acciones a las que hacemos referencia van acompañadas de expresiones como: already, lately, recently, también se emplea el Presente Perfecto si estas acciones comenzaron en el pasado:

    We haven´t seen him yet. I haven´t already been there.

    We haven´t heard much of you recently.

    Por último se emplea este tiempo para hacer preguntas sobre el pasado cuando queremos saber si algo ha ocurrido alguna vez. En inglés se utiliza el adverbio interrogativo EVER:

    Have you ever seen anything like that? Has he ever tried to learn English properly?

    Presente Perfecto Continuo.-

    Tiene tres usos:

  • - Acciones que empezaron en el pasado, continuan en el presente o acaban de terminar:

  • Arthur has been studying very hard.

  • - También se usa con expresiones com: recently, this morning, today etc. que son expresiones de tiempo no terminado:

  • I have been waiting for you this morning.

  • - Se usa con las partículas: How long ......? y las contestaciones con: Since y For.

  • How long have you been living here? I've been living here since January.

    Pasado Perfecto Continuo.-

    Tres usos:

  • - Reemplaza al Presente Perfecto Continuo cuando nos referimos al pasado:

  • Arthur is tired because he has been studying very hard. (Present)

    Arthur was tired because he had been studying very hard. (Past)

  • - También se usa en oraciones temporales con acciones anteriores a otra acción pasada:

  • After Arthur had been driving for six months, he found it quite easy.

  • - En el Estilo Indirecto como pasado (backshif) del Presente Perfecto Continuo:

  • “Have you been studying English long?”

    He asked me if I had been studying English long.

    Usos de shall y will.-

    Son estos dos verbos especiales que se emplean para formar el futuro de los demás verbos. Son, pues, auxiliares de tiempo.

    El futuro en inglés, cuando lo único que queremos expresar es que algo va a tener lugar, se construye con shall para la primera persona de singular o plural y will para las demás, seguidos de infinitivo sin to del verbo que conjugamos:

    I shall work They will work

    La contracción de la afirmativa es ´ll para todas las personas, y la contracción de la negativa es shan´t o won´t.

    Pero no siempre se utilizan estos verbos para expresar simplemente el futuro. Hay una serie de casos en que el futuro se tiñe de un matiz que puede ser de mandato, súplica, sugerencia etc.:

    SHALL:

  • - Cuando se emplea con las primeras personas y terceras puede expresar ofrecimiento en el presente o en el futuro: (Se traduce al español po Querer que + subjuntivo)

  • Shall I help you? Shall my wife take you home?

  • - Con la segunda o tercera personas expresa promesa o amenaza:

  • You shall have a present if you work hard.

    My wife shall help you as soon as she comes.

  • - Con todas las personas se emplea shall en las subordinadas finales introducidas por SO THAT, para expresar determinación en el presente o en el futuro:

  • My wife drives very slowly so that I shall not be afraid.

    WILL:

  • - Con todas las personas, si el énfasis recae sobre el, indica determinación o propósito:

  • I will not go out (I am determined to stay at home)

  • - Si no se le dá énfasis, expresa deseo de hacer algo, sobre todo de hacerlo en el presente, con todas las personas:

  • If he is hungry I will give him something to eat.

  • - Con la segunda persona suele indicar invitación o súplica, si se emplea en la forma interrogativa: (Se traduce al español por Querer + infinitivo)

  • Will you close the window, please? Will you do me a favour, please?

  • - Con todas las personas puede indicar hábito en el presente:

  • She will sit there for hours waiting for her son.

  • - Con la segunda y tercera personas expresa también deducción:

  • He will be there by now.

    Usos de MUST y HAVE TO

    MUST: Esta es la forma única de un verbo defectivo que no tiene mas que presente de indicativo. Su tercera persona no tiene -s y rige siempre infinitivo sin to. La forma contracta de la negativa es mustn't.

    Las formas que le faltan a este verbo, que son practicamente todas, se pueden suplir con las expresiones: TO HAVE TO o TO BE TO (tener que).

    Must puede expresar:

  • - Obligación: Candidates must answer all the questions.

  • - Necesidad 8según la idea del hablante): He must leave early tomorrow morning.

  • - Suposición (Deducción): She must be at least forty.

  • - Consejo o recomendación (en tono más fuerte que should):

  • You will have to have your hair cut before you join the army.

    Must puede anteceder a un infinitivo de perefecto. Indica entónces una suposición (deducción) pasada por parte del hablante:

    It must have been a shock to him.

    Have to: Lo empleamos normalmente para completar la conjugación de must. Para formar la negativa e interrogativa empleamos do, does, did

    Do you have to go now? Did you have to buy a stamp?

    Con el mismo significado de to have to podemos usar to have got to:

    I have got to go = I must go. Have you got to go? = Must you go?

    En el presente de indicativo, que también puede utilizarse have to, hay frecuentemente una diferencia de significado entre esta forma y must. MUST expresa obligación desde el punto de vista del que habla y HAVE TO, como en los otros tiempos, desde el exterior, es decir, que la obligación es externa.

    Para expresar ausencia de obligación o de necesidad, es decir, lo opuesto a MUST, se emplea a veces la forma NEED NOT (needn´t). Otras alternativas son: haven´t got to, don´t have to, don´t need to.

    Usos de CAN y COULD

    Can: Es otro verbo defectivo. Sus formas son:

    Presente: CAN Futuro: CAN Pasado y Condicional: COULD

    Las contracciones son: can´t o cannot y couldn´t

    Can puede expresar:

  • - PERMISO: (para pedirlo o concederlo):

  • Can I speak to you for a moment? You can speak to the patient if you wish.

    Con más énfasis en la idea de permiso usariamos COULD o MAY o MIGHT

    Could I speak to you for a moment, please?

  • - POSIBILIDAD:

  • You can come if you want to.

    Para expresar posibilidad en el futuro no podemos utilizar CAN; tenemos que utilizar TO BE ABLE TO o el giro MANAGE TO:

  • - HABILIDAD o CAPACIDAD:

  • Can you type? (Sabes escribir a máquina?)

    MANAGE TO o TO BE ABLE TO no expresa capacidad del sujeto, sino más bien que la acción ha sido llevada a término o realizada totalmente:

    Although he was hurt, he managed/he was able to explain the accident.

  • - SUPOSICIÓN: (negativa)

  • He can´t be forty. It couldn´t be her husband; he is died two years ago.

    TO BE ABLE TO es el verbo que se emplea para suplir los tiempos que le faltan a CAN. Son todos los compuestos (porque no tiene participio pasado), el futuro y el condicional (porque no tiene infinitivo).

    Usos de MAY y MIGHT

    May: Es otro verbo defectivo. Sus formas son:

    Presente: MAY Futuro: MAY Pasado y Condicional: MIGHT

    Las contracciones de las formas negativas son: mayn´t y mightn´t.

    May expresa permiso, lo mismo en forma interrogativa que negativa:

    You may open the window if you are feeling hot.

    May y Might pueden expresar también:

  • - POSIBILIDAD: He may/might come tomorrow.

  • En el estilo indirecto utilizamos might si el verbo principal está en pasado:

    He said that he might come.

  • - SUPOSICIÓN en el pasado: si usamos may/might seguidos de infinitivo de perfecto:

  • The other road might have been better.

  • - Podemos usar ambos verbos en las oraciones condicionales:

  • If you called him he might answer back.

  • - Usamos MAY o MIGHT seguidos de as well para expresar intencionalidad vaga:

  • He might as well apply for the job (he doesn´t care about it.)

    Especulaciones sobre el pasado con MIGHT

  • Para una posibilidad pasada. En esta estructura MIGHT es sinónimo de MAY + infinitivo de perfecto:

  • The Sound of Music might have finished by now.

    The Sound of Music may have finished by now.

  • Puede ponerse en las oraciones condicionales (tipo 3, igual que would have):

  • If he had gone to the agency earlier, there might have been more choice.

  • En estilo indirecto como tiempo pasado de MAY:

  • He admitted that he might have made a mistake.

  • Se puede utilizar en “quejas”:

  • I didn´t know her husband had died. You might have told me!

    Usos de GOING TO o WILL

    Going to: Esta formas seguida de un infinitivo se utiliza en inglés para acciones futuras que son premeditadas y que de un modo u otro necesitan una preparación para llevarlas a cabo. A veces, aunque no siempre, van acompañadas de una expresión de tiempo:

    I'm going to ring my brother up. I need some soap because I´m going to wash up

    Peter has bought some paint because he's going to paint his bedroom.

    Will: Se emplea para acciones futuras no premeditadas. Generalmente se dice que se utiliza para acciones que no necesitan preparación, que son expontáneas:

    Give your coat. I'll take it to my room.

    That cake is very good; I will have some more.

    La distinción no es tan clara como a simple vista parece. Algunas gramáticas dan un ejemplo como el que vamos a citar, pero no siempre que hablamos nos vamos a encontrar con casos tan claros:

    Peter has sold his car. Yes, he´s going to buy a new car. (La preparación está en el hecho que Pedro ha vendido el coche viejo previamente para comprar después otro nuevo)

    As Peter has sold his car I will buy him a new one. (No hay nada premeditado. El hecho de que Pedro haya vendido el coche me ha hecho pensar en regalarle uno nuevo).

    Will se emplea sin poder ser sustituido por la forma going to en las oraciones condicionales o en las subordinadas temporales, yendo will en la oración principal:

    If you come with me I will do some shopping.

    También hay que emplear will con los verbos que no tienen forma progresiva o continua: believe, understand, know etc. Pero excepcionalemente con estos verbos se puede emplear going to aunque no es normal.

    Usos de SHOULD y WOULD

    Should: Aparte de ser auxiliar de condicional puede expresar deber (leve), consejo o recomendación, al igual que ought to.

    We should see the doctor if you aren´t feeling well.

  • - Se suele usar en oraciones completivas con that detrás de verbos como: suggest, decide etc.:

  • He suggested that I should see a lawyer.

  • - También se emplea con sentido final detrás de las conjunciones so that, in order that, in case etc.:

  • He banged the door so that someone should hear him.

  • - En el estilo indirecto sustituye a shall:

  • He asked, “Shall I help you?

    He asked whether he should help me.

  • - Se suele usar también detrás de ciertos adjetivos que expresan placer, sorpresa, disgusto etc.:

  • It is amazing that she should have laughed at you!

    It is fair that your parents should hear from you.

    Would: Aparte de ser también auxiliar de condicional, es el equivalente de will con referencia al pasado cuando will se usa como futuro ordinario, normal:

    He knows he will be late He knew he would be late.

  • - Se usa en lugar del verbo want cuando queremos pedir algo de forma educada:

  • I want to see Mr Steele I would like to see Mr Steele

  • - También lo usamos para expresar ruego:

  • Would you open the window?

  • - Indica también hábito o repetición:

  • She would sit there for hours waiting for her son.

  • - Would seguido de rather o sooner más infinitivo sin to expresa PREFERENCIA:

  • I would rather walk than sit.

  • - Al igual que used to, sirve para describir hábitos pasados. Se utiliza especialmente en inglés escrito:

  • During the weekend he would see him in his flat going through the paper.

    I´d often go off camping at weekends when I was young.

    Usos de OUGHT TO

    Ought to es un verbo defectivo que rige infinitivo sin to puesto que la partícula to pertenece al verbo. Tiene una forma única: ought to para todas las personas. Ought to puede utilizarse como presente, pasado y futuro y expresa:

  • - Obligación, pero no por parte del hablante (como must), ni de tipo externo (como have to), sino como un simple recuerdo o llamada a la atención por parte del hablante; en este sentido es mucho menos enfático que must y muy similar a la idea que expresa should:

  • You should not tell lies. You ought not to tell lies.

  • - También se puede emplear expresando consejo, igualmente en este caso con menos énfasis que must:

  • You ought to read this book.

  • - Ought to puede ir seguido de infinitivo de perfecto, igual que should para lamentar algo que no se realizó:

  • I can´t do anything for you now. You ought to have told me yesterday afternoon.

    Las locuciones verbales WOULD RATHER/SOONER y HAD BETTER

    Would rather o sooner: expresa preferencia entre dos cosas, por tanto se traduce por preferiría esto a aquello (entre dos acciones)

    I´d rather go than stay

  • Si es el mismo sujeto en las dos acciones:

    • Va seguido por infinitivo de presente sin to para acciones presentes o futuras:

    I´d rather study English.

    • Va seguido por infinitivo de perfecto sin to cuando se refiere a acciones pasadas:

    I´d rather have gone to the cinema yesterday

  • Cuando son sujetos diferentes en las acciones:

    • Va seguido de simple past para referirse a presente o futuro:

    I´d rather Tom went

    • Va seguido de past perfect al rferirse a acciones pasadas:

    I´d rather Tom have gone yesterday.

    Had better significa será/sería mejor para el sujeto que sea:

    • Va seguido de infinitivo de presente sin to para referirse a presente o futuro:

    I´d better go

    • Va seguido de infinitivo de perfecto sin to para referirse al pasado:

    I´d better have gone

    • Es equivalente a la estructura It would be better for me, you, him ... to ...

    Nota: Estas locuciones van siempre seguidas por INFINITIVO sin TO

    Uso de “auxiliares” en afirmativa

    • Se pueden usar “los auxiliares” en afirmativas como: mandatos, invitaciones, oraciones enunciativas para dar más énfasis:

    Come on, Arthur! Do open the door!

    • En inglés hablado se acentúa el auxiliar, y en inglés escrito puede aparecer subrayado, en cursiva o en negrita, para resaltarlo:

    John can´t come tomorrow.

    -But he can (he told me so)

    The Verb “TO GET”

    = to obtain

    to receive

    I got some tickets for the theatre.

    What time do you get the mail every day?

    = to become

    He got very angry when the lawyer came.

    We get older every day.

    = movement

    The news got about that John had gone abroad.

    How are you getting along?

    The prisoners got away by climbing the walls.

    I shall be out this morning but I shall get back by 12 o'clock

    GET INTO

    The bad boy is always getting into trouble.

    GET ON

  • I always get on the bus here to get home.

  • I´m getting on well at school.

  • c) I´m getting on well with my parents.

    GET OFF

    I always get off the bus at the end of my journey.

    GET OUT

  • The teacher told the children to get out their books.

  • After being ill, you must get out into the fresh air and the sunshine.

  • GET OVER

    I had a grave (serious) illness but finally I got over it.

    GET TO

    The train gets to London at 3 o'clock.

    GET UP

    I get up at 7 o'clock every morning.

    GET THROUGH

  • He got through his work in three hours.

  • He got through his examination.

  • Usos de verbo to GET

  • El uso básico del verbo get es obtener, conseguir:

  • Has Mary got a job yet?

  • get + past participle o adjective, significa become (hacerse, llegar a ser); en este caso verbaliza al participio o al adjetivo

  • ill = enfermo to get ill = enfermar

    tired = cansado to get tired = cansarse

    wet = mojado to get wet = mojarse

    married = casado to get married to = casarse con

  • get + object + past participle: uso causativo (al igual que have + object + past participle); significa que alguien hace algo por uno, por tanto tiene significado pasivo):

  • I must get my hair cut. I must have my hair cut

  • have got + infinitivo con to: indica obligación lo mismo que have to:

  • I´ve got to go now.

  • get to: significa llegar a un sitio (cubierto), normalmente a una estación de tren:

  • What time do we get to London?

    The Verb “TO HAPPEN”

  • HAPPEN to somebody or something

  • What has happened to John.

    A strange thing happened to me.

    What has happened to my pen?

    What has happened to this radio?

    Where is he?

    It´s not here.

    It doesn´t work.

  • HAPPEN to + infinitive

  • I happen to know the answer.

    John happened to be here.

    = I know it by chance.

    = John was there by chance.

  • As it HAPPEN; Whatever HAPPENS

  • As it happens, I know the answer.

    You must tell the truth whatever happens

    = By chance, I know it.

    The Verb “TO FEEL LIKE”

    + NOUN

    This morning I feel like the strongest man in the world.

    This morning I feel like a long way

    = I feel that I am ...

    = I want to have ...

    + -ING

    This morning I feel like walking.

    Do you feel like playing cards?

    = I want to walk.

    = Do you want to play ...?

    + IT

    This morning I´m not going to work because I don´t feel like it.

    = because I don´t want to.

    + ANYTHING

    This morning I don´t feel like anything.

    =I don´t want to eat or drink anything.

    Significados de to FEEL

  • Con adjetivos: estar en un estado emocional o físico:

  • Arthur had felt terrible all day.

  • Con adjetivos cuando el sujeto es una parte del cuerpo significa dar la impresión:

  • His chest felt painful

  • Con objetos significa tocar, palpar:

  • Mary felt his forehead.

  • Feel like = “want”, en coloquial significa apetecer, dar la gana. Rige gerundio.

  • I don´t feel like going to Baiona tomorrow.

  • Concompletivas de “that” significa tener una opinión, creer:

  • I feel that we may have made a mistake.

    The Verb “TO HELP”

    1.- HELP SOMEONE (TO) INFINITIVE:

    Arthur Mrs Steele collect the dirty glasses

    Sheila helped Mrs Steele (to) do the washing up.

    Mr Smithers Mrs Harrison move the chairs and tables.

    2.- With the meaning of remedy, AVOID:

    I cannot (can´t) help coughing

    I cannot (can´t) be helped

    3.- When HELP is needed in a emergengy:

    Help! Yelled the trapped children.

    4.- HELP is frequently used in informal contexts:

    Help your mother; help with the housework;

    Help Father with the gardening; help with the washing up.

    The Verb “TO NEED”

    +NOUN

    + INFINITIVE with TO

    + INFINITIVE without TO

    I need a friend.

    I don´t need friends.

    Do you need friends?

    I need to go.

    I do not need to go.

    Do you need to go?

    I need not (needn´t) go

    Need you go?

    The Verb “TO DARE”

    + PERSONAL OBJECT

    + INFINITIVE with TO

    + INFINITIVE without TO

    I dare you to go.

    He dared me to sing.

    He dared us to say anything.

    I dare to go.

    I do not dare to go.

    Do you dare to go?

    I dare not (daren´t) go

    Dare you go?

    The Verb “TO LOOK”

    a) To LOOK + adjective = to seem, appear

    He looks happy

    They look sad

    John looks tired

    He didn´t look old

    = He seems happy.

    = They seem sad.

    = John appears tired.

    = He didn´t appear old.

  • To LOOK LIKE + Noun = to resemble,

  • The soldier looked like a boy

    He looks like a policeman

    I look like my father

    to have the appearance of

    = He had the appearance of a boy.

    = He has the appearance of a policeman.

    = I resemble my father.

    Look here!

    Look out!

    He looked up

    He looked down

    I will look in on you

    I looked away

    Look at

    seek

    be careful

    examine

    Look up to

    Look down on

    = Look at this! Listen!

    = Be careful!

    = He raised his eyes.

    = He dropped his eyes.

    = I will visit you.

    = I looked in another direction

    Look at your book!

    Look for your book!

    Look out for the traffic.

    Look into the problem!

    = admire

    = despise

    = Mira!

    = Cuidado!

    = levantar

    = bajar

    = visitar

    = desviar

    Look at it!

    Look for it!

    Look out for it!

    Look into it!

    Children should look up to their parents.

    I look down on liars.

    The Verb “TO SEEM”

    1.- SEEM TO / SEEM THAT ...

    I seem to be right.

    They seemed to know him.

    It seems that I am right.

    It seemed that they knew him

    The Verb “TO MIND”

    1.- To MIND = To LOOK AFTER:

    I´ll mind the baby while you are out.

    Will you mind my luggage, please, for a few minutes?

    2.- To MIND = To BE CAREFUL:

    Mind that chair! Don´t fall over it!

    If it rains, mind you don´t get wet!

    Mind you get the tickets! Don´t forget!

    Mind you don´t spend too much money during your holidays!

    3.- To MIND = To TAKE NOTICE:

    Never mind! It´s not important.

    Don´t mind John. He´s not really angry.

    4.- Do you MIND ...? / Would you MIND ...?:

    Do you mind closing the window? Would you mind closing the window?

    Do you mind if I close the window? Would you mind if I close the window?

    Usos de “MUCH, MANY, LITTLE y FEW

    Para expresar en inglés poca cantidad empleamos LILTTLE y FEW.

    FEW se emplea con los nombres contables y significa pocas cosas.

    LITTLE va con nombres incontables y significa poco/poca.

    Tanto LITTLE como FEW tienen valor negativo y niegan la existencia de una cantidad. En lengua hablabda no es muy frecuente el uso de little y few a menos que vayan precedidos de too, extremely, very etc. Es más frecuente el uso de NOT MANY, HARDLY EVER o NOT MUCH con el verbo en forma afirmativa o emplear MUCH o MANY con el verbo en forma negativa:

    Así en vez de decir: He said little about his illness,

    en conversación se prefiere:

    He didn´t say much about his illness o He said hardly anything about his illness.

    Cuando FEW y LITTLE van precedidos de artículo indeterminado a, entónces tienen valor afirmativo, con el significado de unos cuantos (a few) o una pequeña cantidad (a little).

    Don´t worry if you haven´t any money. I have a few pounds here.

    He was very thirsty but he has drunk a little water and he feels better now.

    Para expresar mucha cantidad empleamos en inglés MUCH y MANY. Tanto much como many son adeverbios de cantidad.

    MUCH se emplea con los nombres incontables con el significado de gran cantidad:

    He hasn´t drunk much this morning.

    Pero su uso debe quedar restringido a las oraciones negativas e interrogativas a menos que sea el sujeto de la oración o que califique al sujeto:

    Much has been said about him but nobody believes it.

    Much money has been spent in that building.

    Excepto en ejemplos como los que hemos dado, a veces incluso en casos así, much se sustituye por a lot, a lot of, plenty of, a great deal of, lots of etc. en las oraciones afirmativas:

    He always eats a lot of bread for breakfast.

    There is a great deal of noise in this room.

    MANY con el mismo significado que MUCH, se emplea con los nombres contables en plural:

    There were many people outside the church.

    Have you seen many films this summer?

    MANY se usa indistintamente en oraciones afirmativas, negativas e interrogativas aunque a veces se emplea en afirmativas expresiones como VERY MANY. La única excepción en el empleo de MANY es cuando se utiliza con un nombre en singular precedido del artículo a:

    Many a person has died because of that (=many people).

    Colocación de “BOTH y ALL”

    Cuando son sujeto de la oración en una frase larga pueden ir delante del sustantivo al que acompañan:

    Both

    live far from here

    (of) the children

    All

    are English

    También pueden ir detrás del sustantivo:

    both

    The boys (they)

    love chocolate

    All

    Si un verbo normal como el del ejemplo, van colocados antes de él. Si el verbo es auxiliar va detrás de él:

    both

    The girls are

    our friends

    all

    Cuando son sujetos de una oración, pero ésta es corta, o cuando se trate de respuestas breves, si hay verbo auxiliar tenemos dos posibiliadades:

  • Que vayan entre el pronombre y el auxiliar.

  • Que vayan delante del auxiliar empleándolos con la preposición of o sustituyendo la forma del sujeto del pronombre por la de complemento, como exige la preposición:

  • (a)

    both

    They

    can

    all

    (b)

    Both

    of them can

    All

    Si en estas respuestas breves prescindimos del verbo, la construcción que empleamos es la b)

    Both of them

    Who can go?

    All of them

    Cuando acompaña al sustantivo que hace oficio de complemento, en oraciones largas, podemos emplearlos inmediatamente detrás del verbo utilizando la preposición of y la forma del complemento del pronombre. También hay posibilidad de posponerlos a la forma de complemento del pronombre prescindiendo de la preposición of:

    (a)

    both

    The girls ate

    the sandwiches

    all

    (b)

    both

    They didn´t eat

    the sandwiches

    all

    (c)

    both

    They wanted

    them

    all

    (d)

    both

    They wanted them

    all

    Si van con el complemento pero en las respuestas cortas o en frases también cortas, se usan seguidas de of y el pronombre complemento:

    Both

    of us

    All

    Usos de “EITHER ... OR // NEITHER ...NOR”

    Las oraciones coordinadas disyuntivas se construyen en inglés con la conjunción OR si son afirmativas y con NOR si son negativas:

    Will you come or will you stay?

    I don´t know, nor can I guess.

    Cuando queremos darle más fuerza a la oración que ofrece la alternativa, en vez de emplear sólo OR utilizamos EITHER ... OR...:

    You must either stay or go with me.

    He can either keep it or give it to his sister.

    Si la oración es nagativa, esta disyuntiva se expresa con NEITHER ... NOR... y el verbo en forma afirmativa, o con EITHER ... OR ... y el verbo en forma negativa. Se puede emplear cualquiera de las dos construcciones, aunque quizás la de uso más extendido es la primera:

    Neither my brother nor my sister found the money you had lost.

    They are neither German nor Russian.

    They aren´t either German or Russian.

    Por regla general en estas construcciones hay concordancia entre el verbo y el sujeto que está próximo a él, aunque a veces suene extraño:

    Either Mary or you are wrong.

    Neither Peter nor I am feeling well.

    Normalmente y para evitar ésto se emplea la construcción similar a la de Addition to Remarks:

    Either Mary is wrong or you are.

    Peter is not feeling well, neither am I.

    Comparación del “ADJETIVO y del ADVERBIO”

    Los Adjetivos Calificativos tienen tres grados. POSITIVO, COMPARATIVO, SUPERLATIVO

    bright ---------------- brighter --------------------- brightest

    intelligent----------- more intelligent --------- most intelligent

    La Comparación puede ser de tres tipos: IGUALDAD, SUPERIORIDAD, IFERIORIDAD:

    La Comparación de igualdad se forma con AS ... AS y el adjetivo en grado positivo:

    Mary is as clever as Peter

    That book is as interesting as mine.

    La Comparación de superioridad se construye con la forma del comparativo del adjetivo seguido de THAN:

    Your brother is taller than your father.

    Geography is more difficult than I thought.

    El Comparativo de los adjetivos se forma siguiendo las siguientes reglas:

    1.- Los adjetivos de una sílaba toman el sufijo -ER, doblando la consonante final en los casos en que vaya una vocal sólo entre dos consonantes:

    Old ---------------- older; hard ---------------- harder; big ----------------- bigger

    2.- Los adjetivos de tres o más sílabas llevan antepuesto MORE al grado positivo del adjetivo:

    more helpful; more intelligent; more interesting.

    3.- Los adjetivos de dos sílabas siguen una de las dos reglas ya expuestas: unos toman el sufijo -ER y a otros se le antepone MORE. Como regla general los que terminan en -y, -w, -er, -ly toman el sufijo -ER y los que terminan en -re, o -ful se le antepone MORE:

    pretty ----------------- prettier; helpful ----------------- more helpful.

    El Comparativo de inferioridad se forma con LESS y el grado positivo del adjetivo, pero es más frecuente construirlo con NOT AS ... AS o NOT SO ... AS:

    Your dress is less long than Mary´s

    Your dress is not (as) so long as Mary´s.

    El SUPERLATIVO se forma siguiendo las mismas reglas del COMPARATIVO pero con la terminación -EST en vez de -ER y anteponiendo MOST en vez de MORE. El uso del Superlativo en inglés así formado corresponde al superlativo relativo español. Es decir, no expresa una cualidad en grado máximo unicamente sino que lo que hace es compraralo con un grupo:

    Mary is the most intelligent girl in her class.

    Soria is the smallest capital in Spain.

    La preposición española DE después de superlativos en inglés se traduce por IN seguido de un sustantivo de lugar y por OF cuando no es de lugar.

    Cuando se emplea el superlativo sin artículo su valor es similar al que tiene el adjetivo precedido de VERY, TERRIBLY, TREMENDOUSLY etc.

    Hay que destacar una serie de excepciones idiomáticas en las que interviene el comparativo o el superlativo:

    • THE seguido de comparativo .... THE seguido de comparativo indica que algo aumenta o disminuye. Su equivalente al español es: Cuanto mas/menos ... mas/menos:

    • Comparativo and comparativo. Equivale a: CADA VEZ MÁS:

    • HAD BETTER seguido de infinitivo sin TO. Significa: Será/Sería mejor que con subjuntivo:

    Hay una serie de comparativos y superlativos irregulares que no se forman siguiendo las reglas dadas y que son los siguientes:

    Positivo

    Comparativo

    Superlativo

    Good/well

    Bad/badly

    Much/many

    Little

    Near

    Far

    Old

    Late

    Better

    Worse

    More

    Less

    Nearer

    Farther

    Further

    Older

    Elder

    Later

    Latter

    Best

    Worst

    Most

    Least

    Nearest (distancia)

    Next (orden)

    Farthest (para distancia ambos)

    Furthest (para algo adicional)

    Odest

    Eldest (persona misma familia)

    Latest

    Last

    Resumen:

    COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES:

    Form: One-syllable and most two-syllable adjectives: adjs + -er/est: tall - taller, tallest

    (except adjs: -ed/ing) adjs + ier/-iest: heavy - heavier, heaviest

    Irregular: better/best; worse/worst; less/least; more/most; farther/farthest

    Two or more syllables: more convinient/most convinient.

    Intensifiers: quite/fairly/rather/very/too/extremely/increasingly (good)

    a bit/a lot/much/very much/a food deal (better)/more (convinient)

    Use: Comparing two: John is as tall as Mary (AS ................. AS)

    John is not as/so tall as Mary (NOT AS/SO ... AS)

    John is taller than Mary (-ER/-IER ... THAN)

    Comparing more than two:

    John is the tallest/the most intelligent student in our class.

    Características de los VERBOS DEFECTIVOS

    Se denominan verbos defectivos a aquellos que carecen de alguna forma vebal, es decir, todos los verbos en inglés tienen tres formas básicas: infinitivo, pasado, participio pasado, alrededor de las cuales se forman todos los tiempos verbales. Pues bien los verbos que carezcan de alguna o algunas de estas formas se denominan DEFECTIVOS:

    • Todos ellos carecen de infinitivo (por tanto no se le puede poner la partícula to, ni tampoco pueden hacer el futuro ni el condicional) y participio de pasado (con lo que no pueden hacer tiempos compuestos ni tiempos pasivos).

    • Van seguidos siempre de infinitivo sin to (bien sea de presente o perfecto), excepto OUGHT TO y USED TO, puesto que este to pertenecen a estos defectivos.

    • Nunca llevan -s en las terceras personas de singular del presente de indicativo.

    • Como verbos auxiliares-defectivos hacen la interrogativa y negativa por sí solos.

    • Si van seguidos por infinitivo de presente se refieren a acciones presentes o futuras

    • Si van seguidos por infinitivo de perfecto se refieren a acciones pasadas.

    PRINCIPALES VERBOS AUXILIARES MODALES o DEFECTIVOS

    must; can/could; may/might; will/would; shall/should; ought to; used to; need/dare (se denominan también semimodales, puesto que pueden ser modales o léxicos).

    MUST / NEED / CAN / MAY

    Presente/Futuro

    Pasado/Condicional

    Verbos que suplen las deficiencias

    can

    could

    to be able to

    may

    might

    to be allowed/permitted

    must

    ---

    to have to

    Must en afirmativa implica OBLIGACION interna, es decir, impuesta por el que habla o escribe, a diferencia de have to en donde la OBLIGACIÓN es externa, ésta la imponen terceras personas o circunstancias. También puede implicar DEDUCCIÓN, dependiendo del contexto.

    Must en negativa (Mustn´t) implica PROHIBICIÓN. También dependiendo de contextos, puede implicar que es erroneo o equivocado llevar a cabo ciertas acciones.

    Needn´t es la negativa de must como obligación, por tanto indica ausencia de obligación y se traduce por “no es necesario”.

    Can´t es la negativa de must como deducción. No se puede confundir la forma can´t con cannot, esta última solo puede ser tomada como negativa de can (poder).

    Diferencia de “CAN y MAY”

    Can tiene tres sigificados: May tiene dos significados:

    • Poder (capacidad física). - Poder (posibilidad).

    • Habilidad (saber = how to know). - Permiso.

    • Permiso (darlo o concederlo).

    Donde se pueden confundir los significados de los dos verbos es en cuanto a permiso y la diferencia es que may se utiliza mucho más que can con este significado, puesto que can implica además esa capacidad física.

    • Ver ejemplos en los apartados de los Usos de CAN / COULD // MAY / MIGHT.

    He may come = quizás

    He might come = posibilidad remota

    COULD = acción no terminada: He could swim across the river.

    WAS ABLE = acción terminada: He was able to swim across the river.

    CAN´T: significa DEDUCCIÓN en negativa (can´t # cannot (negativa de can)).

    MUSN´T: aparte de PROHIBICIÓN puede también significar que algo es erroneo,

    peligroso, o tonto el hacerlo.

    SHOULD y OUGHT TO: significan debería. Should es deber de consejo. Ought to es más

    bien deber moral.

    You should read more books.

    You ought to read more books.

    OBLIGACIÓN: must - have to - should - ought to de mayor a menor fuerza de obligación

    USED TO: sólo tiene forma pasada. Significa “solía”. Se utiliza para costumbres en el

    pasado. Siempre va seguido de Infinitivo:

    I used to read

    Si se quiere expresar costumbre en presente:

    I usually read.

    Como verbo defectivo puede hacer la interrogativa y negativo por si solo, o también con el auxiliar “did”:

    I used not (usedn´t) to read I did not use to read

    Used you to read? Did you use to read?

    Sin embargo en las respuestas cortas se hace con auxiliar (Yes, I did.)

    • Una característica propia para todos los auxiliares defectivos, independientemente de que vayan en forma PRESENTE o PASADA:

    Si van seguidos de INFINITIVO de PRESENTE se refieren a acciones presentes o futuras.

    Si van seguidos de INFINITIVO de PERFECTO se refieren a acciones pasadas.

    Used es adjetivo con el significado de “acostumbrado” cuando va precedido de verbos como to be/become/seem/appear. Rige también la preposición “to”, por tanto a continuación hay que poner este caso gerundio (la forma -ING), puesto que en inglés la regla general es que después de preposición hay que poner siempre GERUNDIO:

    I´m used to reading

    “to” funciona como preposición si aparte del infinitivo español puede entrar un pronombre personal de complemento o un sustantivo.

    NEED + GERUNDIO (-ING)

    Need seguido de GERUNDIO tiene siempre significado pasivo:

    I´m afraid the flat needs doing up a bit.

    Esta estructura significa: IT IS/WAS NECESSARY + FOR + OBJECT + TO BE DONE.

    Diferencias entre SAY/TELL/SPEAK/TALK

    SAY: Normalmente no va seguido por la persona a la que uno se dirige:

    What did you say?

    TELL: Con frecuencia va seguido de la persona a la que nos dirigimos:

    • Construcción de infinitivo (o acusativa): He told me to get on with my work.

    • También se utiliza con partículas interrogativas + infinitivo con to:

    He told me what to do.

    • En frases hechas:

    To tell lies / Tell me a story / Tell me the truth

    SAY: Significa: expresar por medio de palabras, y TELL significa DECIR en el sentido de contar, relatar, narrar.

    SPEAK: tiene cuatro significados:

  • Con idiomas:

  • Do you speak English?

  • Con objeto: tiene el sentido de dar una conferencia, echar un discurso:

  • Today I´m going to speak about Shakespeare.

  • En el teléfono: cuando se descuelga:

  • This is Vigo 430387. Who´s speaking?

  • Con el significado de decir algo rige las preposiciones to (con) y about (de):

  • She was so angry with me that she didn´t speak to me all day.

    TALK: Tiene dos significados:

  • Charlar, conversar. Rige las preposiciones to y about:

  • What were they talking about?

  • Alborotar (make a noise with words):

  • Stop talking and get on with your work!

    Diferencias entre SEEM y LOOK

    Ambos significan parecer. Y la diferencia está en que cuando van seguidos de adjetivo, se usa LOOK cuando queremos resaltar la apariencia física de algo o alguien. Mientras que si después va un infinitivo hay que usar siempre SEEM.

    LOOK tiene, sin embargo, otros significados, dependiendo de la preposición que le acompañe: look at (mirar a); look for (buscar); look up (buscar algo en el lugar apropiado); look out! (cuidado!); look forward to (esperar allgo con ilusión, ansiar); look on to (admirar a alguien); look down on (despreciar); look like (parecerse a).

    THINK / SUPPOSE / HOPE

    I think so - creo que si I don´t think so - creo que no

    I suppose so - supongo que si I suppose not - supongo que no

    I hope so - espero que si I hope not - espero que no

    I´m afraid so - me temo que si I´m afraid not - me temo que no

    ¡¡¡¡ no se puede negar nunca LA COMPLETIVA DE “THINK” !!!

    Significados de la palabra “LEFT”

    • Right // Left.

    • To Leave Left Left = dejar, partir, marchar, irse.

    • Sobrante, que queda de sobra left-overs = sobras (de la comida).

    Diferencia entre “BEEN TO” y “GONE TO”

    Ella ha ido al banco: - She has gone to the bank.

    - She has been to the bank.

    BEEN TO = ir, implicando estar de vuelta, que ya ha vuelto.

    Have you ever been to England?

    GONE TO = que estás allá, implica solo ida.

    Expressing WISHES and REGRETS

  • Si nos referimos a presente o futuro. Se hace con wish + simple past:

  • I wish he had a bit more more money ...

    Do you wish you could speak Portuguese?

    • Con el verbo to be, se utiliza were para todas las personas (subjuntivo)

    I wish the kitchen were a bit longer.

    Estos deseos som imposibles. Wish suele traducirse por: Ojalá.

  • Si nos referimos al pasado. Se hace con wish + past perfect:

  • I wish I had seen you yesterday.

    I wish you had married me instead of him.

    I WISH and IF ONLY

    Se utiliza wish y if only + simple past or could cuando queremos que algo cambie en el presente:

    I wish I could sing ( I can't sing)

    If only I wasn't ill (I am ill)

    Se utiliza wish y would para quejarse de alguna situación o circunstancia:

    I wish he would stop smoking!

    I wish they would be quiet!

    Se utiliza wish o if only + past perfect o could + infinitivo de perfecto cuando queremos cambiar una situacion pasada:

    Matt wishes he had apologized (he didn't apologise)

    If only I had told the truth (I didn't tell the truth)

    It´s (ABOUT) TIME + Simple Past

    Va seguido siempre de pasado simple con significado de presente o futuro:

    It´s (about) time we found a flat.

    It´s time he was here. He is late.

    It´s NO GOOD + -ING

    It´s no good / It isn´t any good siempre va seguido de gerundio (-ing) con significado de there is no advantage:

    It´s no good looking up hundreds of flats.

    GERUNDIO

    Como forma no personal del verbo tiene todas las funciones del sustantivo:

  • Como sujeto de la oración:

  • Living in London is expensive.

    • La misma función también la tiene el infinitivo con to y la diferencia que hay en poner de sujeto un gerundio o un infinitivo está en que con el gerundio se ha experimentado la acción, mientras que con el infinitivo no necesariamente:

    To live in London is expensive.

    La estructura de gerundio como sujeto equivale a: IT´S + ADJETIVO + TO-INFINITIVE:

    It is expensive to live in London.

  • Después de los siguientes verbos hay que utiizar gerundio:

  • admit anticipate avoid consider delay deny

    detest enjoy excuse* finish forgive* imagine

    involve keep mind miss postpone resist

    rest stop help (en can´t help) stand (en can´t stand)

    • A los verbos que llevan asterisco se le suele poner un adjetivo posesivo antes del gerundio.

    Arthur didn´t enjoy cleaning the flat.

    My husband detests doing his own cooking.

  • Se pone gerundio después de ciertos phrasal verbs, principalmente en aquellos phrasal que van seguidos de dos partículas, dónde la segunda partícula siempre es preposición: carry on, give up, keep on, leave off, put off, do away with, put up with...

  • Many firms are giving up employing their own typists

  • La regla en inglés es que después de preposición hay que poner siempre gerundio; por tanto hay que poner gerundio despues de los verbos que rigen preposición, dentro de esos verbos, los más utilizados son: accuse someone of, approve of, to be fond of, to be good/bad at, to be used to, to feel like, to insist on, to look forward to, to succeed in, to think of/about, what about ...?

  • She left without saying anything.

  • También hay que poner gerundio después de los adjetivos posesivos:

  • Mary insisted on Arthur´s helping / on his helping.

    En inglés hablado o en inglés informal se puede cambiar este posesivo por un nombre o pronombre personal de complemento:

    Mary insisted on Arthur helping

    Will you excuse my leaving early? // Will you excuse me leaving early?

    Puede hacerse también con la estructura de condicional, evitando así el posesivo:

    Will you excuse me if I leave early?

    Participio de presente

    El uso básico del participo de presente es para la formación de tiempos continuos. Se forma al igual que el gerundio añadiéndole -ing al infinitivo.

    Usos:

  • Con los vebos de percepción (de los sentidos): see, hear, smell, watch, notice.

  • En la estructura impersonal there is/are.

  • Para añadir algo nuevo a una oración.

  • Come adjetivo “activo”.

  • Va siempre después de los verbos come y go, si es un verbo de actividad física

  • I´m going to swimming this afternoon.

  • Después del verbo keep.

  • I´m sorry to keep you waiting.

  • Después de los verbos: spend y waste.

  • Se puede utilizar en vez de oraciones causales, reemplazando a las conjunciones: because, since, as

  • I went to the station expecting to meet you but you didn´t arrive as I thought at first.

    Participio de pasado

    Su uso principal es para la formación de los tiempos compuestos (con have) y los tiempos pasivos (con to be) de los verbos.

  • Como participio pasivo o pasado para añadir algo nuevo a una oración:

  • There were a lot of bottles thrown into the river.

    Cars parked on double yellow lines will be taken away.

  • Como adjetivo “pasivo”:

  • He tried to sell me a stolen watch.

    PARTICIPIOS en vez de ORACIONES SUBORDINADAS

    a) en vez de ORACIONES DE RELATIVO (Present and Past Participles).

    b) en vez de ORACIONES TEMPORALES DE PRESENTE (Present Participle).

    c) en vez de ORACIONES TEMPORALES DE PASADO (Perfect Participle).

    d) en vez de ORACIONES CAUSALES (Present and Perfect Participles).

    a) en vez de oraciones de relativo (Present and Past Participles):

    He stays in a cottage in Wales belonging to his aunt.

    The cottage was in a village called Penol.

    There were heavy winds blowing across the motorway.

    Leave a note out telling him what you want.

    Tanto el Participio de Presente como el Participio de Pasado se pueden usar en lugar de oraciones de relativo.

    b) en vez de oraciones temporales de presente (Present Participle):

    While walking down Earls Court Road, he happened to bump into as fellow student.

    When thinking about Wales, one remembers that the Welsh are renowned for their singing.

    He drove down the road thinking about his problems.

    Aquí el Participio, con o sin “while” o “when” reemplaza a una oración temporal de presente para mostrar que las dos acciones estan teniendo lugar simultaneamente.

    c) en vez de oraciones temporales de pasado (Perfect Participle):

    Having made a reasonable amount of maney, Arthur didn't need to do any more work.

    Having got to Camarthen, he took a wrong turning.

    El Participio de Prefecto se puede usar -generalmente en inglés escrito- como alternativa de oraciones subordinadas introducidas por "when", "after", "as soon as" etc.

    d) en vez de oraciones causales (Present and Perfect Participles):

    Consisting of mountains, castles and seaside resorts, North Wales is the best known to tourists.

    Not knowing what to do, she decided to do nothing.

    Having lost his job, he is now unemployed.

    En estas oraciones los Participios se usan como alternativas para oraciones subordinadas introducidas por “as”, “because” or “since”.

    Falsos Participios

    Se les llama así porque se les añade -ED a un sustantivo. Es la combinación de un adjetivo por medio de guión con un sustantivo en -ED. Se pueden hacer “falsos participios” con todos los sustantivos:

    We have a house with four bedrooms We have a four-bedroomed house.

    Verbos que no se pueden poner en “tiempos continuos”

    La siguientes verbos no se pueden poner en tiempos continuos, aunque algunos de ellos se pueden encontrar en tiempos continuos pero con otro significado:

    to see* to like to trust to appear (seem) to hear

    to think* to be* to smell to keep (continue) to wish

    to believe to seem to notice to care to expect*

    to belong to contain to realize to recognize to remember

    to forget to refuse to forgive to understand to matter

    to know to mind to mean to suppose to concern

    to want to possess to love to hate to consist

    to own to dislike to have* to feel (think)

    Hay 5 verbos que si se pueden poner en tiempos continuos:

    • El verbo to see: cuando tiene el significado de visitar (visit, meet):

    Tomorrow I´m seeing to my doctor

    I shall be seeing John tonight if you want me to give him the message.

    • To think: se puede utilizar en continuo cuando no se da ni se pide opinión:

    What are you thinking about?

    • To be: se puede emplear en continuo cuando es “auxiliar” de tiempos continuos pasivos de los demas verbos:

    Many buildings are being built in this street.

    • También cuando tiene el significado de comportarse (to behave):

    You are being very silly!!!

    • To expect: se puede utilizar en continuo cuando es sinónimo de wait for (esperar fisicamente, mientras que expect no implica esperar físico):

    I´m expecting a telephone call from Ireland.

    I´m expecting a letter tomorrow.

    • To have: se puede poner en continuo si es sinónimo de comer, recibir, tomar ... es decir, cuando le acompañan palabras que son su complemento directo:

    Don´t disturb, he´s having a rest.

    They were having lunch when I arrived.

    Verbos seguidos por INFINITIVO sin TO

    Los verbos seguidos por infinitivo sin to son los verbos de los sentidos (percepción), los verbos to make (que toma infinitivo con to cuando se conjuga en pasiva) y to let, el verbo to help (que puede ir seguido de infinitivo con o sin to) y las locuciones verbales would rather/sooner y had better (que van casi siempre contraidas con el pronombre personal sujeto: I´d rather/sooner, I´d better).

    Verbos seguidos por INFINITIVO con TO

    To agree to expect to learn to refuse

    to appear to fail to manage to regret

    to arrange to forget to neglet to seem

    to ask to help to prepare to swear

    to care to hesitate to pretend to tend

    to decide to hope to promise to want

    Arthur managed to find a seat.

    • También se puede poner construcción negativa (not + to-infinitive) con algunos de estos verbos:

    to agree to decide to manage to seem

    to appear to hope to pretend to swear

    to ask to learn to promise to tend

    Arthur decided not to wait.

    Verbos seguidos de Objeto + INFINITIVO con TO

    Es la construcción acusativa o de infinitivo, en dónde el objeto del verbo principal es a su vez sujeto de infinitivo (es la estructura procedente del infinitivo no concertado latino, donde el sujeto del infinitivo va en caso acusativo):

    Esta estructura en inglés se da con verbos de voluntad, mandato, consejo etc... en oraciones compuestas sustantivas en función de Complemento Directo (donde nunca se puede hacer con completivas de “THAT” (that-clause))

    to advice to order to allow to permit

    to ask to prefer to expect to teach

    to forbide to tell to help to warn

    to invite to want

    He told him to come back the next day.

    Do you want me to help you?

    Verbos seguidos por “HOW TO + TO-INFINITIVE”

    Los verbos son: ask, discover, explain, find out, forget, remember, tell, understand, wonder:

    Another student explained to Arthur how to register.

    Adjetivos seguidos de INFINITIVO con TO

    able happy afraid likely

    angry sad delighted sorry

    disgusted suppose disappointed surprised

    glad unable

    The principal was delighted to see so many students.

    • También la estructura IT IS/WAS + Adjective + TO-INFINITIVE se usa con los siguientes adjetivos: difficult, easy, hard, impossible, possible:

    It is difficult to light a pipe when you are driving a car.

    Verbos seguidos de INFINITIVO o GERUNDIO sin cambio de significado

    to begin to bother (fastidiar) can´t bear to continue

    to love to hate to like to prefer

    to start

    It started snowing/to snow while we were on the train.

    • Los verbos: to like, to love, to hate y to prefer tienen que ir sólo seguidos por INFINITIVO con TO cuando van conjugados en condicional

    Would you like to come to the cinema tonight or would you prefer to go to a solitary place?

    Verbos seguidos de INFINITIVO o GERUNDIO con cambio de significado

    to remember to forget to try to stop

    to regret to mean to allow/permit

  • To REMEMBER:

    • Va seguido de gerundio cuando significa “recordar algo que ya se ha hecho”, es decir, cuando nos referimos al pasado:

    I remember seeing the Queen when I was 10 years old.

    • Va seguido de infinitivo cuando significa “acordarse de que uno tiene que hacer algo”, es decir, cuando nos referimos al futuro:

    I must remember to go to the bank tomorrow.

    • Este verbo puede ir seguido de un completiva de “that” (that-clause), cuando los sujetos de cada parte de la oración son diferentes:

    She remembered that Arthur had forgotten to take his overcoat.

  • To FORGET:

    • Tiene el mismo cambio de significado que remember. Sin embargo, cuando va seguido de gerundio puede colocarse la preposición about:

    Surely, you haven´t forgotten (about) meeting her already.

    I forgot that you asked me to go to the bank.

  • To TRY:

    • Seguido por gerundio significa “experimentar, probar o hacer algo para ver que efecto tiene”:

    He tried taking a couple of aspirins, but they didn´t have any effect.

    • Con infinitivo significa “intentar”:

    He tried to do this exercise.

  • To STOP:

    • Seguido de gerundio significa “dejar de, parar de hacer algo (not continue)”

    Will you please stop making that noise?

    • Seguido de infinitivo significa “parar de hacer lo que está en curso para hacer otra cosa”

    When we got to the top of the hill we stopped to look at the view.

  • To REGRET: Significa “lamentarse en general”

    • Con gerundio toma el significado de “sentir que uno ha hecho algo”

    I don´t regret leaving my last job at all.

    • Con infinitivo significa “sentir que uno tenga que hacer algo”

    Dr Newton regrets to say that that he cannot answer readers´ questions.

    • Sin embargo, este verbo a menudo va seguido de la completiva de “that” (that-clause) con ambos significados:

    I don´t regret that I left my last job at all.

  • To MEAN:

    • Con gerundio significa “involve” (tener que ver con), usado sólo impersonalmente:

    Having a bad-chest means going without cigarettes.

    • Con infinitivo significa “intentar”:

  • To ALLOW / To PERMIT: Van seguidos de gerundio cuando la persona o personas no son mencionadas. Por otra parte si se menciona la persona o personas, entónces tienen que ir seguidos de infinitvo:

  • Don´t allow smoking in class!

    I don´t allow my students to smoke in the classroom.

    Verbos seguidos de OBJETO + INFINITIVO sin TO o PARTICIPIO DE PRESENTE

    Todos los verbos de sensación: see, hear, feel, smell ... y los verbos listen to y watch pueden ir seguidos de OBJETO + INFINITIVO o PARTICIPIO DE PRESENTE (-ING):

    I have ever seen so many people all waiting to be served.

    I have already heard him tell some of those stories on TV.

    Hay una diferencia entre emplear infinitivo o participio de presente, especialmente si la acción es corta. Sin embargo, el uso del infinitivo indica que la acción está finalizada:

    I heard the Beatles play “Yesterday” on the radio. (escuché toda la canción)

    I heard the Beatles playing “Yesterday” on the radio. (puede que no escuchara la canción entera)

    Verbos seguidos de INFINITIVOS PASIVOS

  • En la lista de verbos mencionada hay ciertos verbos que van seguidos de infinitivos pasivos

  • Some policiemen themselves would prefer to be armed.

  • VERBO + OBJETO + INFINITIVO PASIVO con TO

  • They wanted the car to be returned on Monday morning.

    c) ADJETIVO + INFINITIVO PASIVO con TO

    I was surprised not to be invited to the party.

    Verbos seguidos de INFINITIVO CONTINUO

    • Acentúa o enfatiza el aspect continuo de la actividad, es decir, lo que sucede en el momento de hablar: appear, expect, hope, pretend, regret, seem, be supposed to:

    Some students appeared to be taking notes.

    Verbos seguidos de INFINITIVO de PERFECTO

    • Se utiliza para referirse a algo que ya ha sucedido o se supone que habrá sucedido, y se utiliza con los veerbos: appear, expect, fail, hope, pretend, promise, seem, be supposed to:

    Galileo is supposed to have invented the telescope.

    INFINITIVO de PROPÓSITO o FINALIDAD

    • Indica la finalidad o propósito de la acción (Vease oraciones finales):

    The students were waiting to hear what the Principal had to say.

    TO BE + INFINITIVO con TO

    • Sirve para describir planes o acciones futuras. Va seguido de infinitivo de presente. Con esta misma función puede emplearse el presente contínuo o futuro contínuo. Pero cuando los planes o acciones son pasadas no hay posible alternativa:

    In the second week of the term they were to visit a car-factory in Vigo

    • También puede describir planes que han fracasado o no se han llevado a cabo. En este caso el verbo to be va seguido de infinitivo de perfecto:

    The new car model was to have been out last month, but there was a strike.

    • Obligación: particularmente cuando el hablante está repitiendo órdenes dichas por terceras personas:

    You are to be back at the bus at 2 o´clock.

    PREPOSITIONAL VERBS y PHRASAL VERBS

    • Se entiende por preposional verb, la combinación de un verbo con una preposición. Son todos transitivos, puesto que después de una preposición siempre tiene que haber algun elemento sea sustantivo, gerundio, pronombre o frase preposicional.

    • Un phrasal verb es la combinación de un verbo con un adverbio, la mayor parte de las veces no tiene nada que ver con el significado original del verbo. A su vez pueden ser transitivos o intransitivos.

    TAKE OFF (tr.) something = to remove

    (tr.) someone = to imitate

    He took off his hat.

    TAKE OFF (intr.) = to leave the ground

    The plane took off at 12.30 p.m.

    • En cuanto a la posición del complemento directo en los phrasal, hay que tener en cuenta tres aspectos:

  • Si el C.D. es corto, es decir, compuesto de una o dos palabras, puede ir antes o después del adverbio:

  • He took off his hat.

    He took his hat off.

  • Si el C.D. es largo, es decir, compuesto por varios elementos, hay que colocarlo inmediatamente después del adverbio para que el phrasal no pierda así su significado.

  • He took off his hat which was too large.

  • Si el C.D. es un pronombre personal de complemento, hay que colocarlo entre el verbo y el adverbio, de lo contrario sería falta gramatical:

  • He took it off.

    • una excepción: en cuanto al phrasal get over, donde hay diferencia en cuanto a significado:

    He got over it (recuperarse, recobrarse de una enfermedad ...recover)

    He got it over (deshacerse, desembarzarse de .... get rid of)

    • Si se trata de prepositional vebrs, el complemento tiene que ir colocado siempre después de la preposición:

    Arthur and Mary talked to their old friends (they talked to them).

    La Puntuación

    1) Exclamation mark (!): Se utiliza después de mandatos, exclamaciones e interjecciones:

    Go away! What a beautiful day! Hell!

    2) Semi-colon (; ): Se utiliza para unir oraciones de igual importancia, yustapuestas:

    This is s very good car; in fact it is the best.

  • Colon (: ): Se utiliza para introducir una lista, o también para unir oraciones cuando la segunda es consecuencia o explicación de la primera:

  • Let me give you some advice: don´t trust him!

    Learn the following: the present, the past, the future and .....

  • Inverted commas or quotation marks (“ ”): Se utilizan en el estilo directo o también para resaltar o destacar en un artículo algo, o para acotaciones:

  • I don´t know, said Mary, why did you tell it to me?

    The advertisement was put in the paper by a large expanding company

  • Comma ( , ):

  • Se utiliza delante o después del nombre de la persona a la que uno se dirige:

  • Come on, Arthur! Mary, are you in?

  • Delante de la tail questions o question-tags:

  • You aren´t happy, are you?

  • Después de Yes o No en las respuestas cortas y después de expresiones de introducción.

  • Yes, I did. No, I didn´t. Well, never mind!

  • Delante o después de palabras o expresiones entre paréntesis y nombres en aposición:

  • Arthur´s tutor, Mr Traddford, gave him his timetable.

  • Después de cada palabra o expresión en una lista de más de dos, pero no delante de la palabra and (aunque en inglés americano se ponga):

  • The Registrar, the Librarian and the Lodging Officer said a few words.

    f) Antes y después de la oraciones de relativo explicativas:

    The Open University, which is open to all, is a unique institution.

  • Después de la oraciones subordinadas cuando van delante de la oración principal:

  • When I was a boy, I used to drink milk.

  • En el estilo directo para separar la oración del verbo introductor de la oración de estilo directo (la que va entre comillas) y también para separar palabras en acotaciones del resto de la oración:

  • “All you need”, he said, “is love”

    POSICIÓN DE ADVERBIOS y FRASES ADVERBIALES EN LAS ORACIONES.-

  • Adverbios de modo: Contestan a la pregunta con HOW? y se colocan después del C.D. si lo hay, si no, después del verbo:

  • The first term seemed to go by very quickly.

    The rest of the day was spent in a very relaxed way.

    Los adverbios de modo se forman normalmente añadiéndole al adjetivo la terminación -LY: quick --> quickly; ésta misma terminación si se le añade a un sustantivo da su correspondiente adjetivo: friend --> friendly.

    En los casos en que las palabras terminadas en ­-LY sean adjetivos, como en el último caso, para formar en español su correspondiente adverbio de modo se recurre a la estructura: in + adjetivo + way: in a friendly way.

  • Adverbios de lugar: Contestan a la pregunta con WHERE?, siguen al C.D., y si no lo hay, al verbo:

  • Mary did all the Christmas shopping in Oxford Street.

  • Adverbios de tiempo: Contestan a la pregunta con WHEN? o HOW LONG? normalmente se colocan al final de la frase, pero a veces pueden aparecer al principio:

  • It continued snowing for the rest of the day.

  • Adverbios de frecuencia: Contestan a la pregunta con HOW OFTEN?, tienen tres colocaciones:

  • - Después de los tiempos simples del verbo to be:

    Arthur was often late to work.

    - Antes de los tiempos simples de los demás verbos:

    Jennifer always preferred to play with Arthur´s trains.

    - Dónde haya uno o más auxiliares se coloca después del primero:

    I have never heard such awful music.

  • Adverbios de grado: Son los que modifican a un adjetivo o a otro adverbio y se colocan delante de las palabras a las que modifican:

  • The weather was usually cold.

    Algunos de estos adverbios de grado modifican a verbos, entónces se ponen delante del verbo principal o después del primer auxiliar:

    He almost had an accident in his car.

  • El adverbio YET: Normalmente se coloca al final de frase, pero puede aparecer, sobre todo en inglés escrito, después de un auxiliar. Con el verbo en negativa significa: todavía; y con el verbo en interrogativa significa: ya. Como no puede ir con el verbo en afirmativa, hay que poner already con el significado de ya; y still con el significado de todavía. Tanto already como still tienen la misma colocación que los adverbios de frecuencia en la frase (Repasar las partículas any more/any longer o no more/no longer):

  • Jennifer had not arrived home yet o Jennifer had not yet arrived home.

    Jennifer had already arrived home.

    Churches are still well attended.

  • Otras características: Si hay dos o más adverbios en una oración la colocación sería MODO-LUGAR-TIEMPO. Pero si se trata de VERBOS DE MOVIMIENTO, la colocación sería LUGAR-MODO-TIEMPO:

  • Arthur and Mary went to Applefield by train at Christmas.

    La Partícula “AS”

  • Como CONJUNCIÓN:

    • CAUSAL (=because, since)

    Arthur did not go as he does not like to be pushed.

    She put the puddings on the stove as they take a long time to cook.

    • TEMPORAL (=when, while)

    I got to the station just as the train was leaving.

  • Como PREPOSICIÓN: La diferencia entre as y like es que as tiene el significado de igualdad, es decir, que lo es realmente, mientras que like indica comparación, es decir, que no lo es:

  • He spoke as a lawyer (Habló como un abogado (es abogado))

    He spoke like a lawyer (Habló como un abogado (pero no es abogado))

    He works as a slave.

    he works like a slave.

    QUITE/RATHER/SUCH + A/AN + NOMBRE SINGULAR CONTABLE.-

    La forma más débil de expresar gradación es quite a/an y la forma más fuerte es

    such a/an:

    It was quite a good play, i suppose (not bad, but not really good either).

    Arthur sat down to breakfast with rather a long face.

    PREPOSICIONES FINALES

    Estas preposiciones se ponen al final de la frase cuando se trata de preguntas directas o indirectas, y en las oraciones de relativo (especificativas) cuando el verbo que lleva en las frases rige preposición:

    Who are we waiting for?

    I wonder what she is thinking about.

    The play our teacher spoke about was rather amusing.

    ANY + COMPARATIVOS

    Después de verbos negativos y la preposición WITHOUT se emplea ANY delante de adjetivos y adverbios en grado comparativo:

    Arthur didn´t need to do any more work.

    Can you push any harder?

    Without any further delay Arthur phoned David.

    WH-WORDS + TO-INFINITIVE

    Se emplean para hacer preguntas indirectas para pedir consejo o información de algo:

    Arthur had no idea what to do with his artichoke.

    If you don´t know where to look, start with the book-case.

    Tanto “which” como “what” pueden funcionar también como adjetivos interrogativos, es decir, pueden preceder a un sustantivo:

    Can you tell me which bus to take?

    Your teacher will advise you what books to read.

    LAS PARTICULAS: “TOO” e “ENOUGH”

    Too siginifica “demasiado” cuando va con adjetivos y adverbios y significa “también” cuando va al final de frase después de coma. Se coloca delante de los adjetivos y adverbios pero cuando hay sustantivos hay que intercalar las partículas “much” o “many” entre too y el sustantivo. Los adjetivos y adverbios siempre tienen matiz negativo y para resaltar este matiz se suele hacer con la estructura “for + pronombre personal de complemento + infinitivo con to”:

    This window is too dirty for me to see through.

    Enough significa “bastante, suficiente”. Se coloca después de adjetivos y adverbios, pero delante de los sustantivos (good enough, enough money). Va siempre, al contrario que too, con palabras que tienen matiz positivo; y para resaltar este matiz también se hace con la estructura “for + pronombre personal de complemento + infinitivo con to”:

    This window isn´t clean enough for me to see through.

    Estructuras cuando queremos decir lo mismo:

    This window was so dirty that we could´t see through it

    This window was too dirty for us to see through.

    This window wasn´t clean enough to see through.

    SO/SUCH ... THAT

    Las partículas so/such ... that se utilizan para hacer oraciones con el significado de tan/tanto .... que. SO se emplea con adjetivos (donde se incluyen much,many,little y few + sustantivos) y advebios. Por otra parte SUCH se emplea con sustantivos (se pondrá SUCH A/AN si el sustantivo es contable singular y SUCH solamente si el sustantivo es incontable o plural):

    It was so cold that the river froze.

    There were so many people that we could´t see.

    He is such a fool that he doesn´t understand anything.

    It was such a hot day that I took off my shirt.

    ALTHOUGH / THOUGH

    Though es la forma apocopada (corta) de Although. Son conjunciones concesivas y significan “aunque, sin embargo”. La diferencia entre ellas está en la colocación en la frase:

  • Tanto Although como Though pueden ponerse ambas al principio de frase:

  • Although/Though they were poor they were happy.

  • Though puede ponerse al final de la frase después de coma. Although puede ponerse también en medio de la frase:

  • They were happy. They were poor, though

    They were happy although they were poor.

    CONSTRUCCIÓN ACUSATIVA o INFINITIVA INGLESA

    Se da esta estructura en las oraciones subordinadas sustantivas en función de Complemento Directo que dependa de verbos de voluntad, mandato, consejo, deseo, en donde el C.D. del verbo principal es a su vez sujeto del infinitivo y este infinitivo se traduce al español por subjuntivo que le sigue (es igual al infinitivo no concertado latino):

    Quiero que él venga = I want him to come

    Si el verbo principal no es de voluntad, se hace con that + indicativo o con gerundio precedido de adjetivo posesivo:

    No creo que ella haya dicho eso = I don´t believe that she has said that

    I don´t believe her having said that.

    EXLAMACIONES

    Normalmente en inglés se hacen las exclamaciones de dos maneras:

  • What + a/an + sustantivo contable singular

  • What + sustantivo (plural o incontable)

    What a beautiful day!

    What beautiful days!

    What weather!

  • How + adjetivo o adverbio + pronombre sujeto + verbo:

  • How beautiful she is!

    How beautifully she dances!

    PRONOMBRES, ADJETIVOS y ADVERBIOS INTERROGATIVOS con “EVER”

    • Se usa “ever” para enfatizar el pronombre, adjetivo o adverbio, expresando sorpresa. Con todos, “ever” se une directamente excepto con WHY, con el que se pone por separado:

    Whatever are you doing now?

    Why ever can they get back on time?

    • Ever es sinónimo de any o every, y se traduce por “cualquiera que, quienquiera que, lo que quiera que etc...” y se utiliza para traducir el subjuntivo en inglés, llamándose ésto traducción por reduplicación:

    Whatever = anything that, everything that.

    Whoever = anyone that, everyone that.

    • Se utilizan estas partículas para introducir oraciones nominales, bien como sujeto o como complemento directo del verbo principal:

    Whoever is tired of London is tired of life.

    I´ll do whatever you want.

    • Puede ser sinónimo de NO MATTER, e introducir oraciones adverbiales, equivalente a la estructura: It doesn´t matter what-/who-/which-/where-/when-/how...:

    Whatever else he did, he had better get a vacation job.

    Wherever you go there is always someone we have to wait for.

    However busy you are I´m sure you have time for a cup of tea.

    IN CASE / UNLESS

    IN CASE se utiliza para evitar cosas que no se desean como sinónimo de “providing eventualities”. Se utiliza para resguardarse contra algo que está sucediendo o para evitar que suceda, y se traduce por si acaso. Suele ir con tiempos o locuciones verbales que indican tiempo presente (normalmente subjuntivo):

    Paddy brought his overalls in case Arthur needed any help.

    Take your umbrella in case it rains

    UNLESS es una conjunción condicional negativa que significa IF NOT (= a menos que) y se emplea para hacer amenazas o dar avisos:

    Most people employed a professional painter, unless they were very hard up.

    PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS

    Se forman para primeras y segundas personas con el adjetivo posesivo añadiendole -self (singular) o -selves (plural); y para las terceras con el pronombre personal de complemento más -self o selves: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, (singular) ourselves, yourselves, themselves (plural):

    Usos:

  • Como objeto de un verbo cuando el sujeto y el objeto del verbo son la misma persona. Sirve para convertir todos los verbos en verbos reflexivos:

  • I cut myself yesterday when I was having a shave.

    Did you hurt yourself when you fell doown?

  • Se utilizan después de preposiciones cuando el sujeto del verbo y el objeto de la preposición es la misma persona:

  • What did you say? Nothing, I was talking to myself.

    Mary looked at herself in the mirror.

  • Se usan también para enfatizar nombres y pronombres, por tanto se coloca después del

  • nombre o pronombre al que dan énfasis. En inglés hablado suelen ir al final de frase:

    I don´t soeak Spanish myself. Do you?

    Arthur himself cooked the dinner.

    HACER COMPARACIONES

    AS ... AS // NOT SO ... AS:

    Con as ... as se pueden compara cosas, personas o acciones. Se usa tanto con adjetivos con con adverbios. Cuando la comparación es negativa se puede cambiar por not so ... as, aunque en inglés hablado se prefiere utilizar la primera fórmula:

    The living-room was almost as bad as the kitchen.

    Painting is not so difficult as papering.

    Jumbo Jets don´t fly as fast as Concordes.

    AS con MUCH/MANY se utiliza tanto con nombres como con pronombres:

    Nombre: As much money; As many people; As many of the questions.

    Pronombres: As much of it; As many of them (the questions)

    You have got aas much of it (pintura) on the floor as you have on the wall.

    He earns as much money as his two brothers put together.

    AS ... AS + CLAUSE:

    El segundo as va seguido de una oración subordinada. Generalmente se emplea con adverbios, aunque puede emplearse también con adjetivos:

    He writes Russian as well as he speaks it.

    As fast I put it in, it falls out again.

    She is as tall as she is thin.

    AS ... AS en símiles:

    Los símiles son frases hechas, por lo que hay que procurar no transliterar, puesto que difieren de uno a otros idiomas y puede resultar negativo. Hay que expresar todo el conjunto. Si no se sabe la comparación u ofrece alguna duda se recurre a la estructura que vale para cualquier símil: as ... as anything:

    As heavy as lead As drunk as a lord

    As light as a feather As white as a sheet

    As strong as an ox As soft as putty

    As weak as a kitten As sour as vinager

    As cold as ice As black as night

    As quiet as a mouse As clean as a new pin/whistle

    As pretty as a picture As deaf as a post/wall

    As brave as a lion As quick as a flash/lightening

    As proud as a peacock As ugly as sin

    As pale as a ghost As old as the hills

    As mad as a March hare As poor as church

    As easy as ABC As fresh as a daisy

    As obstinate as a mule As ... as anything

    GET SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING

    Get + Object + To-infinitive significa persuadir a alguien, convencer. Si el objeto es una cosa significa causar, provocar que esa cosa suceda:

    We couldn´t get the car to move because of the mud.

    They were determined to get the Department of Environment to think again.

    I got our new M.P. to ask a question in the House.

    MAKE SOMEONE DO SOMETHING

    Make + Object + Infinitive (sin TO) tiene más el significado de imponer, forzar, obligar que de persuadir:

    Do you think you can make the ministry change their minds?

    Those people in Essex managed to make them think again.

    ALL + CLAUSE

    All seguido de una oración subordinada tiene dos significados:

  • The only thing cuando sujeto o complemento del verbo TO BE:

  • All he wanted to do was to go to bed.

    This is all that one has to pay.

    All you need is love.

  • Everything (todo) cuando se utiliza como complemento de cualquier otro verbo o después de preposición. Existe la excepción de un refrán, que se construye

  • con el verbo TO BE y significa todo (último ejemplo):

    He told me all I wanted to know.

    After all that had happened I was tired out.

    ALL THE GLITTERS IS NOT GOLD. - (refrán)

    TAIL QUESTIONS o QUESTION-TAGS

    Llamamos question-tags o tail questions en inglés a aquellas preguntas breves que añadimos aun comentario para pedir a nuestro intelocutor la confirmación de lo que decimos.

    Su uso es muy frecuente, especialmente en la lengua hablada y su correspondencia en español es: ¿verdad?; ¿no es verdad?; ¿verdad que si?; verdad que no?

    En inglés estas preguntas siempre se hacen con los auxiliares. Cuando hay un verbo auxiliar en la frase, se repite éste, y es otro verbo cualquiera se emplea do, does, did; en cualquier caso el sujeto es siempre un pronombre o there si la oración es impersonal.

    Si la oración es afirmativa, la pregunta que hacemos es nagativa, y al contrario:

    You can speak English, can´t you?

    Mary´s parents live in Middleford, don´t they?

    You got up early, didn´t you?

    Lo mismo que el sujeto siempre tiene que ser un pronombre o there, el auxiliar en interrogonegativa siempre tiene que ir contraido; y como la primera persona del presente del verbo to be “am” no se puede contraer con “not”, pasa a la segunda forma del verbo:

    I am a student, aren´t I?

    También la question-tag del imperativo se hace con “will”:

    Close the window, will you?

  • Repetir lo que ya se sabe

  • Este tipo siempre es afirmativa, indiferentemente de uqe el verbo principal vaya en afirmativa o negativa, en donde el hablante se limita a repetir o confirmar algo que ya sabe. Va a menuda precedida de “so” y la entonaciónes en sentido creciente:

    You´re Mr Newton, are you?

    So you know the sort of things we make, do you?

  • Ponerse de acuerdo con alguien

  • En este tipo la entonación es decreciente y la question tag es afirmativa o negativa según el verbo principal. El auxiliar del verbo principal se acentúa y si no hay auxiliar hay que ponerlo:

    • Arthur looks smart today.

    Yes, he does look smart, doesn´t he?

    • He must have bought a new suit.

    Yes, he must, mustn´t he?

    • Jack isn´t very friendly today.

    No, he isn´t very friendly, is he?

  • Cuando se está casi seguro de la respuesta

  • Aquí el auxiliar también debe acentuarse, o añadirlo en caso de que no lo hubiese. La entonación es decreciente:

    You are coning to my party, aren´t you?

    Stalin did die in 1951, didn´t he?

    Napoleon wasn´t born in Sardinia, was he?

  • Cuando se está completamente seguro de la respesta

  • Aquí el auxiliar del verbo principal no se acentúa. La quention-tag tiene entonación decreciente y el hablante está bastante seguro de los hechos o quiere simplemente confirmación:

    Bruce was sent to prison for armed robbery, wasn´t he?

    Applefield is near Reading, isn´t it?

  • Cuando se busca una respuesta de SI o NO

  • Estas quetion-tags son dichas con entonación creciente y el hablante es pera la respuesta de “si” si la question-tag es negativa o “no” si es afirmativa:

    Arthur took the job, didn´t he?

    He won´t go back to Middleford, will he?

    ORACIONES CONDICIONALES

    Las oraciones condicionales se clasifican en diferentes tipos de acuerdo con la correspondencia temporal ente la oración condicional introducida por la partícula IF y el tiempo en que vaya la oración principal:

    If you study, you pass your exams.

    If we hurried, we shall catch the 10 o´clock train.

    If we hurried, we would catch the 10 o´clock train.

    If we had hurried, we would have caught the 10 o´clock train.

    Los ejemplos dados representan los tres tipos más usuales de oraciones condicionales en inglés.

    Los ejemplos 1 y 2 corresponden a las oraciones condicionales que llamamos probables, posibles, reales o de validez general, es decir, aquella en que se cumple la condición.

    El ejemplo 3 corresponde al tipo de oraciones improbables o hipotéticas; es menos probable que la condición se realice; puede o no realizarse.

    El ejemplo número 4 es el que corresponde a las oraciones llamadas imposibles; la condición no puede cumplirse de ninguna manera.

    La secuencia de los tiempos para cada uno de los tipos es el siguiente:

    1.- Oraciones Posibles

    Oración Condicional

    Oración Principal

    PRESENTE

    If you study,

    PRESENTE

    If you study,

    PRESENTE

    If you study,

    PRESENTE

    If you want to pass your exams

    PRESENTE

    you pass your exams

    FUTURO

    you will pass your exams

    Auxiliar modal en presente + Infinitivo de presente si to

    you can pass your exams

    IMPERARIVO

    Study

    2.- Oraciones Improbables

    Oración Condicional

    Oración Principal

    PASADO SIMPLE

    If you studied,

    PASADO SIMPLE

    If you studied,

    CONDICIONAL SIMPLE

    You would pass your exams

    Auxiliar modal en pasado + Infinitivo de presente sin to

    you could pass your exams

    3.- Oraciones Imposibles

    Oración Condicional

    Oración Principal

    PRETERITO PLUSCUAMPRFECTO

    If you had studied,

    PRETERITO PLUSCUAMPERFECTO

    If you had studied,

    CONDICIONAL COMPUESTO

    You would have passed your exams

    Auxiliar modal en pasado + Infinitivo de perfecto sin to

    you could have passed your exams

    Observaciones:

    1.- En el tipo 1 de las correspondencias temporales de presente, es el único caso en que if puede ser sustituido por when, con lo que se denomina condición abierta, de validez general, es decir, que siempre se da:

    When you study, you pass the exams.

    2.- En el tipo 2 de condicional cuando se trate del Pasado Simple del verbo to be, hay que poner were para todas las personas (subjuntivo):

    If I were you, I would study much harder.

    3.- En el tipo 1 de condicional cabe la posibilidad de utilizar en la oración condicional el defectivo should, que en este caso nada tiene que ver con que sea auxiliar de condicional sino que el significado es: por si acaso:

    If I should go, you will come with me.

    4.- En estos dos últimos casos, al igual que con el Pluscuamperfecto del tipo 3 de condicional tenemos la posibilidad de omitir if al invertir el orden del sujeto y del verbo sin que la oración pierda su matiz de condicional:

    Así en vez de decir: podriamos decir:

    If I were you, ... Were I you, ...

    If I should go, ... Should I go, ...

    If you had studied, ... Had you studied, ...

    Por último hay otras conjunciones y giros que pueden introducir oraciones condicionales, aparte de la partícula if, por ejemplo: unless, as long as, provid, providing that, even if, supposing (that):

    You can come provided you tell your mother first.

    We won´t leave the town unless they send us away.

    Supposing the plane is late?

    Tenemos que hacer notar que unless es sinónimo de if not, Normalamente se utiliza en el primer tipo de condicional:

    I won't give you a ticket unless you pay me.

    As long as and providing that significan lo mismo que but if only if. Se utilizan normalmente en el primer tipo de condicional:

    They'll find the hotel as long as they follow the map

    Even if significa lo mismo que if, pero enfatiza la condición. Se puede usar para referirse al pasado, present y futuro:

    Even if we had ordered a taxi, we wouldn't have arrived on time.

    El Verbo: TO SUGGEST

    Suggest significa sugerir y se emplea para hacer sugerencias. Tiene varias estructuras:

  • Si suggest va en presente puede ir seguido por simple indicativo o that-should, es decir, por una oración completiva con that:

  • Mr Steele suggests (that) Arthur works harder.

    Mr Steele suggests (that) Arthur should work harder.

  • Si suggest va en pasado solo puede ir seguido por that-should o por gerundio (la forma -ing) que también puede ir precedida por adjetivo posesivo, aunque existe también la forma coloquial que en vez de ir precedida la forma -ing por adjetivo posesivo puede ir precedia por pronombre personal de complemento (aunque gramaticalmente es incorrecto):

  • Mr Steele suggested Arthur should work harder.--> (forma literaria)

    Mr Steele suggested his working harder. --> (forma standard)

    Mr Steele suggested him working harder. --> (forma coloquial)

    She suggested that they should meet at the cinema

    She suggested their meeting at the cinema.

    She suggested them meeting at the cinema.

    LA VOZ PASIVA

    La Voz Pasiva en inglés se forma con el verbo to be en el tiempo correspondiente y el participio pasado del verbo que se conjuga.

    La Voz Pasiva se emplea con mucha más frecuencia en inglés que en español: Su uso nos permite colocar al principio de la oración, como sujeto, al complemento de una oración activa para darle más realce, pues siempre es la primera palabra de una frase la que mayor efectoppsicológico presente:

    “Moll Flanders” was written by Henry Fielding.

    En este ejemplo nos ineteresa hacer notar el hecho de que “Moll Falnders”, y no otro libro, fué escrito por Henry Fielding; por eso empleamos la voz pasiva: por el contrario si quisieramos hablar de Hrmry Fielding diríamos:

    Henry Fielllding wrote “Moll Flanders”

    Como en las oraciones pasivas el sujeto es el complemento directo de la oración activa, solo los verbos transitivos se pueden poner en pasiva. Todos los tiempos de la voz activa tienen sus correspondientes tiempos en la voz pasiva, aunque algunos, los continuos sobre todo, se usan muy raramente.

    He gives ----------> He is given

    He is giving ------> He is being given

    He will give ------> He will be given

    He has given ----> He has been given

    Transformaciones:

  • Esta es igual a la española, se da en las oraciones transitivas formadas por sujeto + verbo + complemento directo:

  • C.D. activo ----------------> Sujeto pasivo

    Verbo activo ----------------> Verbo pasivo (en el mismo tiempo)

    Sujeto activo ----------------> Complemento Agente (con by)

    Arthur bought a book A book was bought by Arthur.

  • Se da en las oraciones transitivas que aparte de llevar complemento directo, llevan también complemento indirecto, normalmente este complemento indirecto siempre es de persona, por lo que pasa a ser sujeto en la pasiva:

  • C.ID. activo ----------------> Sujeto pasivo

    Verbo activo ----------------> Verbo pasivo (en el mismo tiempo)

    C.D. activo ----------------> Queda igual (no cambia)

    Sujeto activo ----------------> Complemento Agente (con by)

    Arthur bought Mary a book Mary was bought a book by Arthur.

  • Se da en las oraciones subordinadas sustantivas en función de complemento directo; es tipicamente inglesa y sigue la siguiente estructura:

  • Sujeto de la subordinada Sujeto pasivo

    Verbo de la principal Verbo pasivo (en el mismo tiempo)

    Sujeto de la principal Complemento Agente

    de presente (acción simultanea o posterior)

    Verbo de la subordinada Infinitivo con to

    de perfecto (acción anterior)

    Act. They expected that everyone attended Solidarity Services.

    Pas. Everyone was expected to attend Solidariry Services.

  • Es la que coincide con la española en las oraciones subordinadas sustantivas en función de complemento directo, se hace poniendo en pasiva la oración principal dejando igual la oración subordinada sustantiva, que es la fórmula que tenemos en español, y se emplea principalmente con los verbos de dicción o pensamiento, que es forma de traducir el morfema pasivo español se de la pasiva refleja. No obstante se prefiere la transformación del apartado c) en inglés.

  • Act. They say that Mary is the most beautiful girl in the school

    Pas. It is said (by them) that Mary is the most beautiful girl in the school. c) Mary is said to be the most beautiful girl in the school.

    NOTA: Cuando el sujeto de la activa es un pronombre personal, pronombre indefinido o un sustantivo no limitado ni determinado no suele ponerse en inglés de Complemento Agente; sin embargo si es un nombre propio o un sustantivo determinado hay que ponerlo como Complemento Agente (con by) en la pasiva.

    REPORTED SPEECH

    Hay dos formas de informar lo que una persona ha dicho:

  • ESTILO DIRECTO: las palabras exactas dichas por el hablante original que son repetidas y situadas entre comillas (“”). (Poniendo dos puntos (:) o coma (,) antes de las comillas):

  • John said, “I enjoy playing cricket”

    He said, “I am learning English”

  • ESTILO INDIRECTO (Reported Speech):

    • Expresar el significado exactos sin utilizar las palabras originales del hablante.

    • La frase del estilo indirecto se convierte en el complemento directo gramatical del verbo introductor:

    John said that he enjoyed playing cricket.

    He said that he was learning English.

    HE SAID = REPORTING CLAUSE (frase introductora)

    REST = REPORTED CLAUSE (frase del estilo indirecto)

    Los tipos principales de oraciones ( Oraciones subordinadas sustantivas (Statements), Preguntas (Questions), Mandatos (Commands), como tmbién Exclaciones (Exclamations) se pueden expresar en estilo indirecto. Las construcciones son como sigue:

    I) STATEMENTS ( “That-clause”)

    A) Cambios de tiempos Verbales. Varios casos:

  • Cuando el verbo introductor esta en presente simple, pretérito perfecto o futuro, la oración directa se hace sin efectuar ningun cambio de tiempo verbal:

  • He says/will say/has said, “This work is too difficult”

    “ “ “ “ “ “ that this work is too difficult.

  • Pero cuando el verbo introductir está en un tiempo verbal en pasado, que es lo normal, es normal que el verbo de la frase indirecta pase a un tiempo verbal anterior, lo que se denomina en inglés BACK-SHIFT (=cambio a una referencia temporal anterior). Dos tipos posibles de back-shift:

  • PRESENTE (NOW) a PASADO (THEN)

  • Presente “ Pasado

    Preteriro Perfecto “ Pretérito Pluscuamperfecto

    Presente de defectivos “ Pasado de defectivos

  • PASADO (THEN) a PRETERITO PLUSCUAMPERFECTO (BEFORE THEN)

  • PRETERITO PLUSCUAMPERFECTO (BEFORE THEN) No back-shift (no es posible ningun cambio a tiempo anterior porque en Inglés no hay ningún modo de expresar BEFORE-BEFORE-THEN ni en tiempo ni aspecto verbal.

  • CAMBIOS: en la oración de estilo indirecto:

    Simple Present ---------------- Simple Past

    Simple Past--------------------- Past Perfect

    Future shall/will --------------- Conditional should/would

    Present Progressive---------- Past Progressive

    Present Perfect---------------- Past Perfect

    DOS POSIBILIDADES DE BACK-SHIFT

    Presente---------------------------Pasado

    Pasaso-----------------------------Preterito Pluscuamperefcto

    “I am tired” she complained that she was tired.

    “I love cricket” he said that he loved cricket.

    “He is being a fool” Everybody thought that he was being a fool.

    “I saw them yesterday” She told me that she had seen them yesterday.

    Presente Pasado Pluscuamperfecto

    E.D. NOW THEN BEFORE THEN

    E.I. THEN (pasado) BEFORE THEN (Pluscuamperfecto) (Nothing at all)

    E.D. “Max had already gone when I phoned him this morning”

    E.I. Jim said that Max had already gone when he phoned that morning”

    Explicación del BACK-SHIFT: el tiempo de la oración original, que sea presente NOW para el estilo directo, pasa a ser pasado THEN para el estilo indirecto y se está en pasado THEN pasa a pluscuamperfecto BEFORE THEN haciendo el cambio respecto al PUNTO DE ORIENTACION.

    EXCEPTIONS:

  • Cuando lo expresado por la oración de estilo indirectohe idea coincide en tiempo y hora con lo expresado en estilo directo (o el estado de cosas reflejadas todavía existe en el momento de hablar), no hay necesidad de hacer cambios en los tiempos verbales. Es decir, cunado el evrbo introductor está en tiempo pasado, el tiempo presente se mantiene en la oración del estilo indirecto cuando exprese una verdad universal ( o una generalidad exacta, verdades generales o hechos habituales).

  • Socrates said: “ Virtue is knowledge”

    Socrates said that virtue is knowledge.

    Peter said: “The moon is 50.000 miles away”

    Peter said that the moon is 50.000 miles away.

    Jim said: “I eat at two o'clock everyday”

    Jim said that he eats at two o'clock everyday.

  • El Back-shift desde Pasado Simple / Pasado Continuo a Preterito Pluscuamperfecto puede también no aplicarse en las oraciones causales, si de algun modo cambia el significado de la frase en aspecto verbal, aunque generalmente el pasado pasa a pluscuamperfecto:

  • She said:”I decided not to buy the house because it was in the main road”

    She said that she had decided not to buy the house because it was in the main road.

    El Pasado y el Pasado Continuo no cambia en las oraciones temporales:

    He said: “When we were living in London, we had a lot of friends”

    He said that when they were living in London, they had a lot of friends.

  • Auxiliares Modales: WOULD, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, MIGHT, USED TO, COULD, MUST (ind.), HAD BETTER normalmente no cambian:

  • He said: “I might be there”

    He said that he might be there.

    She said:”I would help him if I could”

    She said that she would help him if she could.

    MUST (como Obligación) puede cambiar también a HAD TO:

    She said:”You must go”

    She said that you must/had to go.

    SHOULD (after I/We) se cambia a WOULD, pero cuando implica Obligacion permanece sin cambio:

    He said:”I should be grateful if I ...”

    He said that he would be grateful if he ....

    I said:”You should be more careful”

    I told him that he should be more careful.

    He said:”If my children were older I should emigrate”

    He said that if his children were older he would emigrate.

  • Oraciones Condicionales del tipo 2 permanecen también invariables. Como también lo hacen los Tiempos Pasado (= subjunctive) utilizados después de WISH, IT IS TIME, WOULD RATHER ...

  • He said:”I wish I knew”

    He said that he wished he knew.

    She said:”I´d rather Tom went”

    She said that she'd rather Tom went.

  • Otros cambios que son necesarios cuando se pasa de Estilo Directo a Indirecto:

  • La conjunción that se puede poner inmeditamente después del verbo introductor, pero no es esencial y muy a menudo se suprime.

    C) Los Pronombres y Adjetivos Posesivos generalmente cambian de 1st o 2nd a 3rd persona (excepto cuando el hablante está informando con sus propias palabraas); es decir, cuando el verbo de la frase del estilo indirecto tiene el mismo sujeto que el verbo de la frase de estilo directo:

    I said:”I like my new house”

    I said that I liked my new house.

    He said:”I have forgotten the combination of my safe”

    He said that he had forgotten the combination of his safe.

    Algunas veces se le puede añadir un nombre para evitar ambigüedad:

    Tom said:”He came in through the window”

    Tom said that the thief had come in through the window.

  • Palabras que se refieren a LUGAR y TIEMPO y denoten cercanía pasa a sus correspondientes palabras que denoten lejanía. Si el estilo Indirecto se hace en el mismo día a lugar estos cambios no son necesarios:

  • thisthat herethere

    thesethose tomorrowthe next day/the day after

    nowthen yesterdaythe day before/the previous day

    agobefore the day before yesterdaytwo days before

    todaythat day the day after tomorrowin two days' time

    We met at the bridge and he said:”I'll be here again tomorrow”

    We met at the bridge and he said that he'd be there again the next day.

    • If the speech is reporting on the same day, these changes aren't necessary:

    At breakfast this morning he said:”I'll be very busy today”

    At breakfast this morning he said that he'll be very busy today.

    II) QUESTIONS (Wh-clauses)

    Las reglas anteriores se aplican también a las preguntas indirectas; sin embargo hay unos puntos adicionales que hay que significar o tener en cuenta:

  • El verbo introductior SAY se cambia a ASK o algun verbo similar de acuerdo a lo que intentemos querer decir: INQUIRED/WONDERED/WANTED TO KNOW ...

  • La palabra de unión de la frase del verbo introductor con la frase del estilo indirecto es IF or WHETHER, excepto cuando las preguntas directas empiecne con unpronombre o partícula interrogativa tales como WHO/ WHY/ WHAT/ WHERE/ HOW /WHEN... etc. que será la que haga de unión.

  • La estructura interrogativa de las preguntas directas se reemplaza por la CONSTRUCCION AFIRMATIVA en el Estilo Indirecto; tanto los auxiliares DO/DOES/DID cono el SIGNO de INTERROGACIÓN se omiten:

    • “Do you live here?”

    He asked me if I lived there.

    • “Did you go to England last year?”

    The teacher asked the student if he had gone to England the previous year.

    • He said:”I have left my watch at home. Can you tell me the time, please?”

    He said that he had left his watch at home and asked me (politely) if I could tell him the time.

    • “Does Peter speak Spanish?”

    He asked if Peter spoke Spanish.

    • “What's your name?”

    He asked her what her name was.

    • “Which chair shall I sit in?”

    He wonderedwhich chair he should sit in.

    IF/WHETHER.- El uso generalmente favorece a IF cuandoquiera que la distinción entre ellos no sea necesaria:

    He asked me if (or whether) I had seen the film.

    WHETHER expresa una duda o una elección entre dos alternativas así muy a menudo va seguido de OR:

    “Is it your turn or Susan's?”

    She asked whether it was his turn or Susan's.

    WHETHER (y no IF) se utiliza en:

  • Cuando la pregunta indirecta precede a la oración principal:

  • Whether this is true or not, I cannot say.

  • Delante de un INFINITIVO:

  • She hasn't decided whether to sail or fly to America.

    He wondered whether to leave.

  • Cuando introduce una Oración Concesiva:

  • Whether he works or not, I don't think he will pass his/the exam.

  • Las preguntas que empiezan con SHALL I/WE pueden ser de cuatro formas:

  • Pueden ser especulaciones acerca del futuro o pueden pedir información de algun acontecimiento futuro también. estas preguntas siguen la Regla Ordinaria (shallwould). El verbo introductor es normalmente: WONDER

  • Las Especulaciones son normalmente introducidas por WONDER:

    • “Where shall I be (this time) next year?”

    He wondered whre he would be in a year's time

    • “When shall I know the results of the test?”

    The student asked when he would know the results of the test.

    • “Shall I ever understand women?”

    He asked himself if he would ever understand women.

  • Ofrecimientos: El verbo introductor es: OFFER

    • “Shall I bring you a cup of tea?”

    He offered to bring me a cup of tea or

    He offered me a cup of tea.

  • Sugerencias: Verbo introductor: SUGGEST + that-should o -ING

    • “Shall we meet at the theatre?”

    He suggested that they should meet at the theatre. (formal)

    meeting at the theatre.

    their meeting at the theatre. (standard)

    them meeting at the theatre. (colloquial)

  • Petición de instrucciones o consejo: alternativa WAS/WERE TO

    • “Shall we send it to your flat, Sir?”

    He asked the customer if they should send it to his flat.

    were to send it to his flat.

    • “What shall we do with your mail while you're away?”

    His landlady asked Paul what she should do with his mail while he was away.

    what she was to do with his mail while he was away .

  • WILL YOU/WOULD YOU/COULD YOU

  • Preguntas Ordinarias:

  • He said: “Will you be here tomorrow?”

    He asked her if she would be there the following day.

  • Peticiones: ASK + Object + To-infinitive

  • He said, “Will you help me, please?”

    He asked me (politely) to help him

  • Invitacion/Ofrecimiento: verbo tansitivo OFFER

  • He said, “Will you have a drink?”

    He offered me a drink.

  • Mandatos: Depende de la entonación:

  • “Will you be quiet for a moment !”

    “Do be quiet for a moment !” He told them to be quiet

  • COMMANDS

  • Las reglas que afectan a pronombres, adjetivos y otros cambios también se pueden aplicar a los mandatos indirectos, excepto que no hay backshif porque no hay verbos en forma personal (son oraciones subordinadas de infinitivo, que es una forma no personal)

    Additional notes:

  • El vebro introductor SAY ... cambia a un verbo of MANDATO or PETICION tales como TELL/ORDER/COMMAND... de ascuerdo a la intención que queramos expresar:

  • My mother said to me: “Go home !”

    My mother told me to go home.

  • Se tiene que introducir un Complemento Directo que representa la persona a la que va dirigida el mandato:

  • I was there and he said: “Stand up !”

    I was there and he told me to stand up.

  • La forma imperativa del verbo en el mandato directo pasa a su corresponsdiente forma de infinitivo con to, si el mandato es negativo se le antepone NOT al infinitivo con to (Mandato Negativo = NOT + TO-INFINITIVE):

  • “Be quiet !” I told Peter to be quiet.

    “Fire !” The captain ordered the soldiers to fire.

    “Run quickly !” He told me (us) to run quickly.

    “Put on you space-suits !”

    He told/commanded/instructed them to put on their space-suits.

    En inglés hay muchas posibilidades de expresar un mandato, for example: “WILL YOU?”

    “Shut the door, will you?” (Es un mandato)

    He told him to shut the door.

    Es muy fuerte y dependede la entonación:

    “Will you stop talking !”

    The teacher told the students to stop talking.

    Mandatos Negativos: NOT + TO-INFINITIVE

    His friend said: “Don't be rude !”

    His friend asked him not to be rude.

    “Don't move, boys !” He told the boys not to move.

    “Please, don't forget !” She begged me not to forget.

    Otras formas de Estilo Indirecto de espresar Mandatos Indirectos:

    1) La Construcción: To BE + TO-INFINITIVE

    He said:”Don't open the door !”

    He told me not to open the door or

    He said that I was no to open the door.

    a) El verbo introductor en tiempo presente:

    He says:”Meet me at the station !”

    He says that we are to meet at the station.

  • Mandato precedido po una oración subordinada:

  • Tiempo

  • Condicional

  • He said:”If she leaves the house follow her”

    He told me to folllow her if she left the house or

    He said that if she left the house I was to follow her.

  • EXCLAMATIONS:

  • Las Exclamaciones en el estilo indirecto pasan a ser Oraciones Subordinadas (that-clauses). Una exclamación es en cierto modo una oración:

  • What como un determinante en un frase nominal.

  • How como gradación con adjectivo/adverbio.

    “What a beautiful present !” He said that it was a beautiful present

    “What a lovely house !” He said that it was a lovely house.

    “What a terrible noise !” He said that it was a terrible noise.

    “What a different situation she is in !” He said that she was in different situation.

    “How marvellous !” He said that it was marvellous.

    “How beautiful she dances !” He said that she danced beautiful.

  • Para expresar emcionesse utilizan INTERJECCIONES:

  • “Ugh !” /Λx/ (disgust)

    “Oh !” /Ou/ (surprise)

    “Ouch !”/∂υt/ (pain)

    He gave an exclamation of disgust/surprise/pain.

    He exclaimed with disgust/surprise/pain.

  • Otros casos no tienen reglas y todo depende del significado de la exclamación:

  • He said:”Good morning” He greeted me/wished me a good morning.

    He said:”HappyChristmas” He wished me a Happy Christmas.

    He said:”Liar” He called me a liar.

    He said:”Congratulations” He congratulated me.

    He said:”Damn !” He swore

  • Dos casos especiales: PLEASE y THANK YOU

  • “I should like some tea, please !” (please is not use in R.S.)

    He said politely that he would like some tea or

    He asked politely for some tea.

    He said:”Thank you”

    He thanked me.

  • LET'S/LET HIM/LET HER/LET THEM.-

  • Genralmente expresan una sugerencia y se hace con el verbo SUGGEST en Estilo Indirecto. Hay otras varias formas de expresar sugerencia: What about ... etc.

    Se utiliza el verbo SUGGEST como verbo introductor seguido de:

  • -ING form (precedida de una adjetivo posesivo o pronombre personal)

  • That-clause with SHOULD

  • He said:” Let´s have a good breakfast !”

    He suggested their having a good breakfast. (standard English)

    He suggested them having a good breakfast. (spoken English)

    He suggested that they should have a good breakfast (formal English)

    He said:”Let´s wait here till the rain stops”

    He suggested their waiting there till the rain stopped.

    He suggested that they should wait till the rain stopped.

    Formas Negativas:

    He said:”Let´s not say anything about it”

    He suggested their not saying anything about it.

    He suggested that they should not say anything about it.

    Otras formas de expresar SUGERENCIAS:

  • What about + -ING: “What about going to the cinema this evening”

  • He suggested going to the cinema that evening.

  • Shall + 1st person

  • How about + -ING form

  • Do you feel like + -ING

  • Suppose + simple present.

  • YES/NO ANSWERS:

  • Se expresan en el estilo Indirect con SUJETO + verbo auxiliar apropiado:

    He said:”Can you swim?” and I said: “No”

    He asked me if I could swim and I said that I couldn't.

    He said:”Do you like it?” and she said:”Yes”

    He asked her if she liked it and she answered that she did.

    Yes/No: se pone en el estilo indirecto con el auxiliar solo, y la negación si la contestación es No:

    “Would you be here for the next ten minutes?” she said, and I said:”Yes”

    She asked if I would be there for the following ten minutes and I answered that I would.

  • MIXED TYPES: (Question + Statement or Command), poco a poco:

    • “I don't know the way, do you?”, he asked

    He said that he didn't know the way and asked me if I did.

    • “You pressed the button”, said the mechanic. “Don't do it again. You might have a nasty accident”.

    She had pressed the button and the mechanic told her (warned her) not to do it again because (as) she might have a nasty accident.

    • “Could you show me to work it? I'm not used to electric typewriter's”, she said

    She asked me if I could show her to work it as (adding that/ explaining that) she wasn't used to electric typewriter's

    • “Ugh ! there is a slug in my lettuce, writer !”, she cried

    She gave an exclamation of /she exclaimed with/ disgust because (that) there was a slug in her lettuce and cried for the waiter.

    • “What about going for a swim. It is quite fine now”, he said

    He suggested going for a swim because it was quite fine then.

  • FREE INDIRECT SPEECH.-

  • Un recurso muy común en la narrativa.

  • Consiste en expresar una oración poniendo el verbo en un tiempo anterior mientras se omite (o se pone entre parentesis) las oraciones del verbo introductor, que son las siglas convencionales E.I.

  • Los pronombres y tiempos verbales se cambian como en el estilo indirecto normal, pero por otra parte la estructura permanece como en el E.D. (se mantiene la inversion) porque no hay verbo introductor.

  • Es un medio más flexible para expresarse que el normal (=dependent) E.I., más concision: nada de he said, he exclaimed ...

  • es utilizado por Virginia Wolf, James Joice etc.

    Mary, “Why do they always have to pick on me?” -------------- D.S.

    Mary asked why did they always have to pick on her? --------- R.S.

    Why did they always (grooned Mary) have to pick on her? --- F.I.S.

    or Why did they always have to pick on her? ------------------------ F.I.S.

    RELATIVES CLAUSES

    Pronombres Relativos

    Personas

    Cosas

    Nom.

    WHO (THAT)

    WHICH (THAT)

    Ac.

    WHOM (THAT)

    WHICH (THAT)

    Gen.

    WHOSE

    WHOSE(*)

    (*) El pronombre WHOSE tiende a ser utilizado solamente para personas, aunquegramaticalmente es correcto utilizarlo también para cosas cada día este uso esmenos frecuente recurriendo a otras estructuras para evitar usarlo:

    En vez de This film whose tittle is "Lipstick" is quite good.

    Diríamos This film the tittle of which is "Lipstick" is quitegood.

    DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES.-

    Estas oraciones llamadas también RESTRICTED son las oraciones ESPECIFICATIVAS en español, que identifican o establecen la identidad del ANTECEDENTE:

    Paul found the book (which) you lost

    This is the room where the tragedy ocurred.

    Las personas o cosas se distinguen por la oración especificativa, la que da una información esencial del antecedente y no pueden ser omitida porque cambiaría el sentido general de la frase, igual ocurre en español.

  • El relativo THAT solo se puede usar en las DEFINING (especificativas), tanto de SUJETO como de OBJETO, sustituyendo a personas y a cosas.

  • This is the driver who/that overtook us five minutes ago.

  • Cuando el pronombre relativo no es sujeto de la oración generalmente se omite (principalmente en inglés hablado) dando lugar a las CONTACT.

  • The man (whom/who/that) I saw yesterday is a lawyer.

  • Cuando es sujeto de la oración no se puede omitir, excepto si va con un tiempo continuo o pasivo, que al suprimir el pronombre relativo también hay queomitir el verbo "TO BE" quedando solo el Participio de presente (en tiemposcontinuos) o el Participio de pasado (en tiempos pasivos).

  • The boy (who is) walking along the street is my cousin.

    The church (which was) built in the 19th century has beautiful windows.

  • Ni el pronombre WHO ni THAT ni WHOSE admiten preposiciones delante de ellos, así que quellos verbos que rigen preposición, ésta siempre se pone al final de la oración de relativo.

  • This is the book (contact) he looked at.

  • En estilo formal o literario la preposición puede preceder al pronombre WHOM o WHICH, pero nunca a los del apartado anterior (WHO, THAT o WHOSE):

  • The people from whom they had hired the car wanted it to be returned:

    No obstante algunas preposiciones no pueden ser postpuestas especialamente aquellas preposiciones que tienen que ver con nociones temporales:

    That was the meeting (that) I kept falling asleep during (incorrect).

    That was the meeting during which I kept falling asleep (correct).

    NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES.-

    Estas oraciones llamadas también NON-RESTRICTED son las oraciones EXPLICATIVAS en español, que no definien ni restringen el ANTECEDENTE:

    Mr Smith, who is an ingeneer, lives in Oxford.

    The Victoria Line, which was open in March 1969, was London first

    complete new tube for 60 years.

    No definen ni distinguen al antecedente sino que solamente dan una información adicional del antecedente. Van siempre entre comas y aunque se precinda de ellas no cambia el sentido general de la frase, igual ocurre en español.

    Peter has a sister, who works at the U.N. headquarters in Geneve.(implica que

    solo tiene una hermana).

    Observaciones:

  • No se puede usar nunca el pronombre THAT.

  • Se pueden dividir en dos oraciones.

  • Van siempre entre comas.

  • El pronombre relativo no se puede suprimir nunca aunque no sea el sujeto de la oración, si es persona WHO (sujeto)/WHOM (objeto) y si es cosa WHICH:

  • Liz Taylor, who acted in Anthony and Cleopatra, judged the competition.

    The London train, which should arrive at 2.30, is ten minutes late.

    George Sand spent many holidays in Majorca with Chopin, whom she first met

    in Paris.

    The headmaster has recently been to Canada, which he described in detail

    in a lecture.

    Tipos de pronombres relativos:

  • Pronombres relativos como sujeto:

  • On the sunny days which/that began their holiday, they really appreciated the peace and quiet.

  • Pronombres relativos como objeto: se pueden suprimir en las especificativas:

  • Jennifer was home for one of the few weekends (which/that) she had during his training.

  • Pronombres relativos con preposición; éstas van al final de la oración de relativo:

  • The man (who/that) I worked for isn´t the most generous man in the world.

  • WOSE siempre precede a la cosa poseida:

  • The girl whose foot you trod on happens to be my girlfriend.

  • WHERE (in which), en estos contextos actua como adverbio relativo:

  • Trust Arthur to find the one place where it had been raining.

  • WHY:

  • Surely the reason why he stole the money is obvious.

  • Adverbio relativo: BEFORE:

  • On the eveing before they were due to live, Arthur telephoned his mother.

  • Adverbio relativo: AFTER:

  • It began to rain during the week after they arrived.

    ORACIONES TEMPORALES

    Las oraciones temporales son las introducidas por las conjunciones: when, as soon as, whenever, after, before, as, while, until, etc...

    Se clasifican en inglés en tres tipos de acuerdo a la correspondencia verbal:

  • Oraciones temporales referidas al presente:

  • Correspondencias verbales

    Oración Principal

    Simple Present

    Oración Temporal

    Simple Present

    Mary takes her umbrella with her when it rains.

    Arthur has his supper as soon as he gets home.

    I turn the radio off whenever they play pop.

  • Oraciones temporales referidas al pasado:

  • Oración Principal

    Simple Past

    Simple Past

    Past Perfect

    Simple Past

    Past Progresive

    Oración Temporal

    Simple Past

    Past Prefect

    Simple Past

    Past Progressive

    Simple Past

    I turned the TV on when I got home.

    Mr Steele went to the office as soon as he arrived.

    Mary had already left before Arthur arrived.

    We saw an accident as/when we were going to work.

    I was listening to the radio when the telephone rang.

  • Oraciónes temporales referidas al futuro:

  • Present Continuous

    Future

    Going to form

    Auxiliar modal en prsente

    Simple Present

    Simple Present

    Present Perfect

    Present Perfect

    I´m going to have a bath when I get home tonight.

    I´ll do my homework before I go to bed.

    Arthur can´t go home until he has finished work.

    We´re going out as soon as we´ve had dinner.

    Observaciones:

  • Cuando se usa el pasado simple en las dos oraciones indica que la segunda acción sigue inmediatamente a la primera.

  • Cuando se utiliza en alguna de ellas el pasado perfecto o pluscuamperfecto, es cuando nos referimos a una acción anterior a otra acción pasada.

  • Cuando se utilizan pasados continuos en las dos nos indica que las dos acciones son

  • simultaneas.

    Nota importante: La subordinada temporal nunca puede ir en TIEMPO FUTURO.

    ORACIONES FINALES

    Hay dos tipos de oraciones finales en inglés:

  • Aquellas en las que el sujeto de la oración principal es el mismo que el de la subordinada, o en las que el complemento directo de la oración principal es el sujeto de la subordinada.

  • Las que tienen sujetos distintos (diferentes), es decir que el sujeto de la oración principal es distinto del de la oración subordinada.

  • El primer tipo de oraciones se suele expresar por madio del infinitivo con to o bien con in order o so as seguidos del infinitivo con to:

    I went ro London to see you.

    That boy is working hard in order to pass his exam.

    In order y so as se emplean cuando la oración final es negativa y cuando el complemento de la oración principal (si es una persona) no es el sujeto de la subordinada:

    I have taken my umbrella so as not to get wet.

    Yesterday John took his brother to the cinema so as to feel less lonely.

    La segunda clase de oraciones se expresan con so that + will/would o can/could o may/might o shall/should + infinitivo sin to y con in order that + may/might o shall/should + infinitivo sin to.

    Las formas verbales can, will, may (raramente shall) se emplean cuando el verbo principal está en presente, futuro o pretérito perfecto. Si el verbo principal está en pasado se emplean could, would, might o should:

    Peter has bought a car so that his children can go for a ride every Sunday.

    She puts on the light so that they will able to read.

    He learnt French so that his friends could be impressed.

    Cuando las oraciones son negativas, se expresa del mismo modo, poniendo el verbo auxiliar en negativa:

    He finished his homework so that his father wouldn´t be able to punish him.

    Pero más frecuenta que esta fórmula de negación es el uso de to prevent o avoid from, seguidos de gerundio (-ing):

    He lent us some mney to prevent us from going to the bank.

    POSITION OF ADVERBS

    Adverbs of MANNER

    a) Adverbs of MANNER after a short object:

    He repeated the word SLOWLY.

    He explained the exercise CAREFULLY.

    b) Adverbs of MANNER before a long object:

    He repeated SLOWLY everything the teacher said.

    He explained CAREFULLY what he wanted the students to do.

    c) Adverbs of MANNER before the verb for emphasis:

    He SLOWLY repeated all the words.

    SLOWLY he repeated all the words.

    He CAREFULLY explained what had to be done.

    CAREFULLY he explained what had to be done.

    Adverbs of INDEFINITE TIME

    Adverbs of INDEFINITE TIME before the verb:

    The king ALWAYS asked the same questions.

    The students GENERALLY speak in English.

    We NEVER see Dick nowadays.

    The soldiers OFTEN came from countries far from Prussia.

    They SOON learned enough to understand it.

    Adverbs of DEFINITE TIME

    a) Adverbs of DEFINITE TIME at the end:

    I came here YESTERDAY. They left London EARLY.

    The news came ONE MORNING. Say the sentences AGAIN.

    This never happened BEFORE. We'll go back home TOMORROW.

    b) Adverbs of DEFINITE TIME at the beginning, for emphasis:

    YESTERDAY I came here. ONE MORNING the news came.

    BEFORE this never happened. TOMORROW we shall go back home.

    Adverbs between auxiliary and participle:

    Such a thing had NEVER happened.

    We had RECENTLY joined Frederick's army.

    The king was ALWAYS shouting.

    We have OFTEN been in London.

    Adverbs of DEGREE

    Adverbs of DEGREE before verb or participle:

    The soldier HARDLY spoke German.

    The king JUST asked a few simple questions.

    The king NEARLY fell off his horse.

    He could HARDLY speak.

    Adverbs after "TO BE" not before:

    We were NEVER happy in that town.

    I am ALWAYS at home.

    The young soldier was JUST twenty.

    Jhon is SELDOM ill.

    SUFFIXES

    Suffixes (adjectives)

    -FUL

    -LESS

    -Y

    -WARD (adj.)

    -WARDS (Adv.)

    careful, fearful, hopeful,useful, beautiful.

    cloudy, foggy, hilly, noisy, rainy, stormy, sunny.

    careless, fearless, hopeless, useless.

    homeward, downward, upward, southward.

    homewards, downwards, upwards, southwards.

    Suffixes (nouns)

    -ER

    -OR

    -M AN

    -MAKER

    -IST

    -ETC.

    baker, butcher, driver, painter, writer, builder

    actor, author, conductor, doctor, sailor, tailor.

    policeman, fireman, fisherman, businessman.

    dressmaker, shirtmaker, watchmaker, shoemaker.

    artist, dramatist, pianist, violinist.

    metal-worker, coachbuilder, shopkeeper, car-driver.

    Suffixes (abstract nouns)

    -DOM

    -HOOD

    -NESS

    kingdom, freedom, wisdom, dukedom.

    childhood, manhood, fatherhood, neighbourhood.

    carefulness, happiness, hardness, likeness

    Prefixes

    = negative

    in several

    directions

    bad, badly

    too much

    too little

    unable, unafraid, uncertain, uncommon, unhappy

    indistinct, impossible, illegal

    disagree, discontinue, dishonest, disloyal

    disperse, distend, display, disseminate.

    a mistake, a misdeed, a misunderstanding, to mislay

    to overeat, to overcharge, to overflow, to overload, to overestimate, to overheat, to overwork, to overdo.

    to underpay , to undercharge, to undervalue,

    to underestimate.

    GLOSSARY - BACHILLERATOS

    Aprobar un exámen = TO PASS

    Aprobar, dar aprobación a algo, aprobar una medida = TO APPROVE (OF)

    I passed the exam.

    I approve the law.

    Suspender un exámen = TO FAIL : I failed the exam.

    Suspender, tener colgado algo = TO SUSPEND : I suspended the clothing.

    Copiar un exámen, engañar = TO CHEAT : I cheated the exam.

    Asignatura = SUBJECT: I have eight subjects.

    Firma = SIGNATURE: I like your signature.

    Firmar = TO SIGN: I signed the paper.

    Año Académico = YEAR / LEVEL: I study 3rd year/level.

    Cursillo = COURSE: I attended to English course. I haven't passed the course.

    Carrera Universitaria = UNIVERSITY COURSE: He studies a University course.

    Carrera Profesional = CAREER: This career is very (dangerous) difficult.

    Carrera de correr = RACE: The race will be tomorrow.

    Título Universitario = DEGREE: He has a degree.

    Título de Bachiller / Licenciado = BACHELOR DEGREE: He has a bachelor degree.

    Doctorado (Letras) MASTER OF ARTS // (Ciencias) MASTER OF SCIENCE

    Your uncle is Master of Arts / Sciences

    Catedrático = (Proffesor) DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY // PHILOSOPHY DOCTOR

    His father is Doctor of Philosophy

    Notas = MARKS/QUALIFICATIONS: Your marks are good

    Hacer un exámen (lo hace el alumno) = TO TAKE: The pupil took an exam.

    Hacer un exámen (lo prepara el profesor) = TO MAKE: The teacher made an exam.

    Apuntes = NOTES: He lost his notes.

    Presentarse a un exámen = TO SIT IN // TO SIT FOR: The pupil sat for an exam.

    Deberes escolares = HOMEWORK: My son did his homework yesterday.

    Tarea de casa = HOUSEWORK: My mother is making the housework.

    Derecho(s) = RIGHT(S):

    Deber(es) = DUTY/DUTIES: People have rights and duties.

    Colegio Privado = Public/Private/Independent School: I study in a public school.

    Colegio Público = STATE SCHOOL: He studies in a state school.

    Guardería = NURSERY SCHOOL: In this nursery school there are few children.

    Escuela Primaria = PRIMARY SCHOOL: The primary school starts at six years old.

    Escuela Secundaria = SECONDARY SCHOOL: The secondary school starts at 11.

    Selectividad=ADVANCED LEVEL EXAMINATION: I'll take the advanced level exams.

    Educación Superior = HIGHER EDUCATION The higher education starts at 14.

    UNIVERSIDAD:

    - Ingenierias = Polytechnic: In Vigo there is a Polytechnic.

    - Magisterio = College of Education: In Vigo there is a College of Education.

    - Demás Carreras = University: In Vigo there is a University.

    F.P. 2 Grado = College of Further Educaction In Vigo there is a College of .....

    Formas de expresar la edad

    He is 40.

    He is 40 years old.

    He is 40 years of age.

    He is about/around 40.

    He is about/around 40 years old.

    He is in his fourties (40-49)

    He is in his early fourties (40-45)

    He is in his late fourties (45-49)

    He is fourty something (40 y algo)

    He is a baby ( 0 - 2)

    He is a child ( 2 - 8)

    He is a boy ( 8 - 14)

    He is a teenager ( 13 - 19)

    He is a young man ( 19 - 35)

    He is a middle-aged man ( 35 - 55)

    He is an elderly man (anciano)

    False Friends

    miserabe # miserable (triste)

    No tiene donde caerse muerto = He is poor because he hasn't any money.

    Eres un miserable, tacaño = You are a mean man and egoistic.

    He is miserable (triste) because his father was dead.

    Realize # realizar (= darse cuenta) // realizar = do/make/carry out/ perform

    They realized that she was wrong.

    They made a cake.

    Actually # actualmente (= realmente) // actualmente = at present/currently/nowadays

    in fact, indeed

    Actually it is wonderful.

    At present he is a singer.

    Actual # actual (= real) // actual = modern/current/present/fashionable

    The story is actual

    It's a current issue (tema de actualidad).

    Boring # bored, etc. adjs. (= aburrido =es aburrido // = aburrido=estar aburrido)

    Story # history (cuento, (historieta) // historia (asignatura))

    End # ending (fin/final) = finish,close,purpose,extremo // final, conclusion, desenlace

    After # afterwards (prep, conj.// adverb.)

    Know # meet (saber, conocer // encontrarse con, toparse con)

    Exit # Success (salida // éxito)

    Notice # News

    Program / Programme

    On the one hand / On the other hand

    To realise something / to make a dream come true

    Avoid # prevent (evitar, eludir // impedir a uno que haga algo)

    Follow / Continue (seguir, entender // seguir, continuar)

    Cook # Cooker ( cocinar, cocinera // cocina, electrodomJstico)

    Econimic = económico, rentable (developmen, growth, policy)

    Economical = económico (method/style/appliance), puede ir con more, less, very etc.

    Classic = clásico, típico, memorable (study, text, play)

    Classical = clásico, culto (theory/idea/method/music)

    Work # job (inc.=trabajo, empleo // con.= trabajo, empleo, tarea)

    Travel = viaje, viajar en general

    Trip = viaje, excursión (incluye estancia)

    Journey = viaje, trayecto (solo desplazamiento)

    Like / as (para comparaciones, ejemplos // como, en calidad de)

    Solve # Resolve (= solucionar/solution // decidir/resolution/decide)

    They solved the problem.

    They resolve to go to the party.

    Used to // Usually (= hábitos en el pasado // hábitos en el presente)

    They used to sleep longer in summer

    They ussually sleep less in winter.

    Another (sing,) uno más igual al anterior.

    Please, give me a book ..... give me another (book).

    Other (sing. o plural) otro más distinto al anterior.

    Please, give me a book ..... give me other (# book).

    Pass (movement, go by)

    I passsed in front of you and you didn't look at me.

    Spend (occupy time, spend time = pasar el tiempo)

    (buy things, spend money = gastar dinero)

    I spent my holidays in Italy.

    I spent a lot of maney.

    Waste (malgastar el dinero)

    (perder el tiempo)

    I wasted my money.

    I wasted the time.

    Be (in position, place = estar en un lugar)

    He is in Vigo.

    Stand (on your feet = estar de pié)

    He is tired because of standing in the bus.

    Stay (not to go away = quedarse)

    He didn't go to the party, he stayed at home.

    I'm sitting = estoy sentado.

    I'm standing = estoy de pié.

    I'm kneeling = estoy arrodillado.

    I'm lying = estoy tumbado.

    To lie lied lied = mentir

    He used to lie.

    To lie lay lain = yacer, tumbarse

    She lies in peace with her husband.

    When she was dead, she lay in peace.

    To lay laid laid = poner horinzontal (la mesa), colgarse

    When she starts to lay from the tree, she broke one leg.

    To raise raised raised = (tr) levantar, alzar

    The soldiers raised the flags.

    To rise rose risen = (intr) levantarse, salir el sol

    I like to see the sun rising.

    To hang hanged hanged = colgar, ahorcar, ejecutar a uno

    The thieves were hanged by the police.

    To hang hung hung = colgar, estar colgado

    Mary hung the clothes.

    Hard (adj.): difficult The problem is hard.

    (adv.): much I'm tired because I worked hard.

    Hardly (adv.): scarcely = apenas I'm not tired because I hardly worked.

    To live (verb) = vivir

    lives (3rd person) = vive

    life (sust. sing.) = vida

    lives (sust. plur.) = vidas

    live (adj.) = en vivo, en directo

    alive (adj.) = vivo no muerto (not dead)

    living (adj.) = que tiene vida interna,

    funcionamiento interno

    (inner working)

    I live in Vigo.

    He lives in Vigo.

    My life is very happy.

    Their lives are very sad.

    The live concert was very good.

    He isn't dead, he is alive.

    it is a living essence.

    Last = the final one (no hay m<s despuJs)

    This has been my last exam in COU.

    = the one before (el inmediatamente anterior)

    Last night i went to the party.

    Latest = the most recent (el m<s reciente): the latest one

    I have just read Cela's latest novel (adn no muri\ y puede escribir m<s)

    The last one = the last one up to now (el dltimo hasta el momento)

    I have just read Shakespeare last novel (ya muri\, no puede escribir m<s)

    Latter: the former ... the latter (el primero ... el dltimo de una enumeraci\n)

    We went there with Peter and Mary; the former (Peter) invited us, the latter (Mary) paid for our dinner.

    Late = after the time fixed (llegar despuJs de un tiempo)

    You are always late.

    Later = comparativo de "late"

    You are always later than me.

    SINÓNIMOS

    look worried love hate break talk mend

    watch preocupied like dislike crash speak repair

    see anxiuous enjoy loathe crack chat fix

    observe nervous keen on detest split converse

    glance afraid adore can't stand destroy say

    gaze frightened be fond of can't bear crush whisper

    scan scared smash exclaim

    fracture dialogue

    gossip

    critic

    mad friend

    crazy collegue

    insane partner

    fool classmate

    nuts folk

    pal

    comrade

    Distintos significados según la pronunciación

    ROW /rou/ = remar/remo (paddle) The row (paddle) is broken.

    /rou/ = fila de butacas: The last row in the cinema.

    /rau/ = bronca, discusi\n: The row was very violent.

    LEAD /li:d/ = dirigir, conducir: He led us towards that old castle.

    /led/ = plomo: Lead is a metal.

    LIVE /liv/ = (verb) vivir I live in Vigo.

    /laiv/ = (adj.) en vivo, en directo The live concert was very good.

    CONTENT /acento en "O"/ = contenido: The content of that film was very good.

    /acento en "E"/ = contento: I'm content because I passed the exam.

    OBJECT /acento en "O"/ = objecto: What is the object?

    /acento en "E"/ = poner observación a algo: OBJECT TO: I object to the law.

    DESERT /'dezet/ = desierto: I went to desert.

    /di'ze:t/ = desertar, abandonar: The soldier deserts the battle.

    DESSERT /di'ze:t/ = postre: What is there for dessert?

    WIND /wind/ = viento: The wind blew the roof.

    /waind/ = dar cuerda: The company didn't give wind to the problem

    ATTEND = asistir: He attended to school.

    = atender: He attended his ill brother.

    ASSIST = ayudar

    RIGHT = derecho:Go straight/along the King Street, turn to the right and you get the coach station

    = de acuerdo I'll see you tomorrow. All right!

    = derechos (rights): People have rights and duties.

    WILL = (aux. futuro): I'll see you tomorrow.

    = testamento: The will was written by Mary.

    FOOD = comida comprada en supermercado: When we go to supermarket I buy food.

    MEAL = comida que se sirve en la mesa: Mary makes the meal every day.

    LUNCH = comida del mediodía He always have lunch at 2.00 a.m.

    BREAKFAST = desayuno We always have breakfast at 7.30 a.m.

    DINNER = cena We always have dinner at 6.00 a.m.

    SUPPER = cena This is the last supper.

    Prepositions

    ON con días (si se menciona el día):

    DAYS week On Monday.

    date On February 24th, 1953

    On weekends

    On holidays On Christmas Day

    On my birthday On Christmas Eve

    IN con unidades de tiempo menor o mayor que un día:

    centuries In the 20th century

    years In 1999

    seasons In Winter

    months in January

    Partes del día In the morning/afternoon/evening.

    Edades cronológicas In the Middle Age.

    AT con horas, clock, time // y excepciones de las anteriores:

    At night/at noon/at dawn/at midday/at Christmas/at Easter

    at midnight/at the moment/at lunchtime/at the age of. etc.

    PROVERBS

    Silence gives consent.

    From smoke into smother.

    March winds and April showers bring forth May flowers.

    The nearer the church, the farther from God.

    That is true which all men say.

    Bussiness is bussiness.

    Travellers tell strange tales.

    Birds of a feather flock together.

    Ill weeds grow apace.

    Every dog has his day.

    It is no use crying over spilt milk.

    Misfortunes never come singly.

    It never rains but it pour on the poor.

    Watched pot never boils.

    The longest day will have an end.

    What is bred in the narrow comes out in the bone.

    Like master like man.

    Health is better than wealth.

    God helps them that help themselves.

    The pan calls the kettle black.

    All is not gold that glitters.

    Where there is a will there is a way.

    Hunger is the best sauce.

    There is many a slip 'twist the cup and the lip.

    Look before you leap.

    There is no smoke without fire.

    More noise than work.

    The early bird catches the worm.

    No pains no gains.

    Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones.

    Love me, love my dog.

    One cannot make an omelet without breaking the eggs.

    Out of the frying pan into the fire.

    There are none so deaf as those that won't hear.

    Enough is as good as a feast.

    Cat after kind (or king).

    Deeds are fruits, words are but leaves.

    Quién calla, otorga.

    De Herodes a Pilatos

    Marzo ventoso, Abril lluvioso sacan a Mayo florido y hermoso.

    Detrás de la Cruz está el diablo.

    Voz del pueblo, voz del cielo.

    Los negocios son los negocios.

    A luengas tierras, luengas mentiras.

    Cada oveja con su pareja.

    Mala hierba nunca muere.

    A cada puerco le llega su San Martín.

    A lo hecho, pecho.

    Las desgracias nunca vienen solas.

    A perro flaco, todo son pulgas.

    El que espera, desespera, y el que viene, nunca llega.

    No hay bien ni mal que cien años dure.

    La cabra siempre tira al monte.

    De tal palo, tal astilla.

    La salud vale más que el dinero.

    A dios rogando y con el mazo dando.

    Dijo la sarten al cazo: "Apartate, que me tiznas.

    No es oro todo lo que reluce.

    Querer es poder.

    A buen hambre no hay pan duro.

    Del plato a la boca se pierde la sopa.

    Antes que te cases, mira lo que haces.

    Cuando el rio suena, agua lleva.

    Mucho ruido y pocas nueces.

    Al que madruga Dios le ayuda.

    No hay atajo sin trabajo.

    El que vea la mota en el ojo ajeno, vea la viga en el propio.

    Quién bien quiere a Beltrán, bien quiere a su can.

    No se pescan las truchas a bragas enjutas

    Salir de las llamas y caer en las brasas.

    No hay peor sordo que el que no quiere oir.

    Un "NO" a tiempo vale mucho dinero.

    Dios los cría y ellos se juntan.

    Hechos son amores y no buenas razones.

    PROVERBS (2)

    It's the last straw that breaks the camel's back.

    The leopard cannot change its spots.

    Life is not al beer and skittles.

    Little pitchers have big ears.

    That is all my eye and Betty Martin.

    Big fleas have little fleas.

    A burnt child dreads the fire.

    Old birds are not caught with chaff.

    The child is father of the man

    The cobbler should stick to his last.

    Don't count your chickens before they are hatched.

    It's no use crying over spilt milk.

    Every dog has his day.

    The early bird catches the worm.

    Even a worm will turn.

    All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

    Take time by the forelock.

    There's many a slip between cup and lip.

    There's no smoke without fire.

    You can't make silk purse out of sow's bristles.

    There is no royal road to learning.

    Rome was not built in a day.

    When poverty comes in at the door, love flies out of the window.

    One swallow does not make summer.

    You can't make an omelette without breaking eggs.

    Don't look a gift horse in the mouth.

    A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

    As you make your bed, so you must lie on it.

    Birds of a feather flock together.

    Blood is thicker than water.

    You can't get blood out of a stone.

    Those who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones.

    All is not gold that glitters.

    When Greek meets Greek, then comes the tug of war.

    Make hay while the sun shines.

    Where ignorance is bliss, `tis folly to be wise.

    It's an ill wind that blows nobody any good.

    In for a penny, in for a pound.

    The labourer id worthy of his hire.

    What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander.

    Every cloud has a silver lining.

    A miss is as good as a mile.

    A fault confessed is half redressed.

    Never say die.

    A rolling stone gathers no moss.

    A stitch in time saves nine.

    One man's meat is another man's poison.

    It never rains but it pours.

    Let not the sun go down upon thy wrath.

    He who pays the piper calls the tune.

    Es la gota que colma el vaso.

    Genio y figura hasta la sepultura.

    No todo el monte es orégano. La vida no es coser y cantar. No es color de rosa.

    Los niños tienen la costumbre de escuchar.

    That's all nonsense.

    Todo lo grande o pequeño tiene sus problemas.

    Gato escaldado del agua huye.

    No es fácil engañar a un perro viejo. Más sabe el diablo por viejo que por diablo.

    Viendo al niño que quiere saber que va a ser de mayor.

    Zapatero a los zapatos.

    No hay que hacer castillos en el aire.

    No vale la pena lamentarse de algo que no tiene arreglo.

    A todo cerdo le llega su San Martín.

    A quién madruga Dios le ayuda.

    A la persona más tranquila se le acaba la paciencia en un momento determinado.

    Todo el mundo necesita descanso y diversión.

    Coger la oprtunidad por los pelos.

    Del plato a la boca se pierde la sopa.

    Cuando el río suene agua lleva.

    Aunque la mona se vista de seda, mona es y mona se queda.

    No se aprende sin esfuerzo.

    Zamora no se hace en una hora.

    Poverty mrried life is a great danger.

    Una golondrina no hace verano.

    El que wuiere pesca que moje el culo.

    A caballo regalado no le mires el diente.

    Más vale pájaro en mano que cien volando.

    Quién mala cama hace en ella yace.

    Dios los cria y ellos se juntan.

    Son muy fuertes los lazos de parentesco.

    No se puede sacar agua de las piedras. No le pidas peran al olmo.

    Nadie tira piedras contra su tejado.

    No es oro todo lo que reluce.

    A encounter between equals.

    Hacer el agosto. Aprovechar las circunsts.

    Es mejor ser ignorante, pues ser sabio crea problemas.

    No hay mal que por bien no venga.

    Preso por mil, preso por 1.500.

    A cada uno hay que darle lo que le corresp.

    Lo que es bueno para uno, es bueno para el otro.

    No hay mal que por bien no venga aunque 100 años dure.

    Lo mismo de librase por poco que por mucho.

    Si has cometido algo y lo ves compensado.

    Ánimo, mientras hay vida, hay esperanza.

    Si estás rodando continuamente, no llegas a ninguna parte.

    Más vale prevenir que curar, pero pronto.

    Lo que para uno es bueno, para el otro es veneno.

    Llueve sobre mojado, una desgracia nunca viene sola.

    No te vayas a la cama sin hacer las paces.

    El que paga tiene derecho a escoger.

    - PROVERBS - (Cont.)

    absence Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

    actions Acttions speak louder than words.

    apple An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

    bed As you make your bed so must you lie on it.

    beggars Beggars must not bechoosers.

    bed Early to bed, early to rise

    Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

    bird A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

    An early bird catches the worm.

    Birds of a feather flock together.

    bitten Once bitten, twice shy.

    blood Blood is thicker than water.

    You cannot get blood out of a stone.

    boys Boys will be boys.

    brooms New brooms sweep clean.

    cake You cannot eat your cake and have it.

    cat A cat may look at a king.

    When the cat's away the mice will play.

    charity Charity begins at home.

    chickens Don'count your chickens until they are hatched.

    cloud Every cloud has a silver lining.

    coat Cut your coat according to your cloth.

    cooks Too many cooks spoil the broth.

    courtesy Courtesy costs nothung.

    dog Barking dogs seldom bite.

    Every dog has his day.

    Let sleeping dogs lie.

    drowning A drowning man will clutch at a straw.

    eggs Don't pull all your eggs in one basket.

    enough Enough is as goos as a feast.

    example Example is better than precept.

    exchange Exchange is not robbery.

    feathers Fine feathers make fine birds.

    fire Where there's smoke there's fire.

    first First come, first served.

    fool A fool and his money are soon parted.

    fortune Fortune knocks one at every man's door.

    friend A friend in need is a friend indeed.

    fruit Forbidden fruit tastes sweetest

    frying-pan Out of the frying-pan into fire.

    God God helps those who help themselves.

    grasp Grasp all, lose all.

    habit Habit is second nature.

    hanged As well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb.

    haste More haste, less spped.

    hay Make hay while the sun shines.

    heads Two heads are better than one.

    heart Faint heart never won fair lady.

    honesty Honesty is the best policy.

    hunger Hunger is the best sauce.

    hungry A hungry man is an angry man.

    imitation Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery.

    lamb A pet lamb is a croos ram.

    late Better late than never.

    laugh Laugh and grow fat.

    He laughs best who laughs last.

    leak A small leak will sink a grat ship.

    least Least said soonest mended.

    listeners Listeners hear no good of themselves.

    loaf Half a loaf is better than no bread.

    look Look before you leap.

    meat One man's meat is another man's poison.

    miss A miss is as good as a mile.

    necessity Necessity is the mother of invention.

    news No news is good news.

    pence Look after the pence and the pounds will look after themselves.

    penny A penny saved is a penny gained.

    In for a penny, in for a pound.

    Penny wise, pound foolish.

    EXERCISE.-

    1.- Don't pull all your eggs in one basket.

    2.- A rolling stone gathers no moss.

    3.- One man's meat is another man's poison.

    4.- Make hay while the sun shines.

    5.- Empty vessels make most noise.

    6.- Cut your coat according to your cloth.

    7.- Birds of a feather flock together.

    8.- Every cloud has a silver lining.

    9.- Out of the frying-pan into the fire.

    10.- Don't count your chickens before they are hatched

    A.- People mix with those who have tates similar to their own.

    B.- Live within your means.

    C.- It is unwise to reckon your gains until you actually get them.

    D.- Even when things seem gloomy there is alwasy hope.

    E.- You should not risk all you have in a single speculation.

    F.- What suits one prson may not suit another.

    G.- In trying to get yourself out of trouble you often get into a worse one.

    H.- It is the people who have nothing in their heads who talk most.

    I.- One who often changes his job will never be rich.

    J.- Work while you can; don't put things off till tomorrow.

    PHRASAL VERBS

    Verbos con adverbio/preposición

    To BREAK To LOOK

    - away = irse, escaparse - at = mirar a

    - down = averiarse, abatirse - after = cuidar de

    desglosar, descomponer - down on = despreciar

    - in = adiestrar, acondicionar - into = examinar

    - into = violentar - for = bucar

    - off = desgajar, dejar sin terminar - forward to = desear, tener ganas de

    - out = estallar, hacer estallar - out = tener cuidado

    - through = abrirse camino - over = ojear, echar un vistazo

    - up = levantar la sesi\n - up = visitar, buscar en un diccionario, listin, etc.

    To COME

    - about = suceder, acaecer To CARRY

    - across = atravesar, tropezarse con - on = continuar, seguir, comportarse

    - off = desprenderse - out = sostener

    - on = avanzar, adelantar - through = terminar

    - out = salir, nacer, adelantarse

    - over = suceder To BRING

    - round = volver en sí, restablecerse - about = originar, provocar

    - up = surgir - back = devolver

    - round = persuadir

    To GET - out = revelar, publicar

    - away = huir - up = educar

    - down = bajar, apearse, entristecerse

    - off = bajarse de un vehiculo To GO

    - on = subirse a un vehiculo - about = circular, emprender, intentar

    progresar, llevarse bien con alguién - back = volver

    - on with = progresar, llevarse bien con alguién - back on = retractarse

    - out of = salir de - for = ir en busca de, favorecer, apoyar

    - over = recuperarse, deshacerse de - in = entrar

    - up = levantarse - in for = tomar parte en, favorecer

    - into = meterse

    To HOLD - off = dispararse, morirse

    - up = parar, atracar - on = seguir, ocurrir

    - on = esperar, aguantar - round = dar la vuelta

    - out = aguantar, mantenerse firme - through = atravesar, pasar, sufrir

    - over = aplazar, diferir - with = estar de acuerdo con, acompañar

    - without = pasarse sin

    To KEEP

    - back = retener, suprimir, preservar To PUT

    - down = sujetar - down = depositar, poner abajo

    - on = seguir, proseguir - off = posponer, apagar, desconectar

    - up = mantener, conservar, continuar - on = ponerse, conectar

    - up = levantar, hospedar

    - up with = soportar

    To GIVE To RUN

    - away = regalar, dar - away = huir

    - back = devolver - away with = fugarse

    - off = despedir, echar - down = difamar, hablar mal de

    - on to = dar a - into = chocar, toparse con

    - out = cansarse, rendirse - out of = quedarse sin existencias

    - up = rendirse, dejar de (+-ING) - over = atropellar

    To SEE To MAKE

    - off = despedir, ir a despedir - for = contribuir

    - about = averiguar - out = descubrir, descifrar, componer

    - through = comprender, conocer - over = ceder

    - to = atender - up = inventar, maquillarse, costear

    To TAKE To TURN

    - aback = dejar atónito, desconcertar - down = bajar el volumen, doblar

    - after = parecerse a - into = convertirse en

    - away = apartar, quitar - off = apagar, desconectar

    - back = hacer volver, retroceder - on = encender, conectar

    - down = escribir, tomar nota - up = aparecer

    - in = incluir, admitir, engañar - out = apagar, resultar, suceder

    - on = aceptar, comprender - over = entregar, invertir

    - out = extraer, quitar - to = redundar en

    - off = quitarse la ropa, despegar un avión

    - over = tomar posesión de To WORK

    - up = empezar, adoptar - out = calcular

    THE GENDER

    Kinds:

    1.- Male

    2.- Female

    3.- Either male or female

    4.- Neither male or female

    These concepts reflected in grammatical gender of nouns

    1) Masculine: man, bull

    2) Femenine: woman, cow

    3) Common words: student, friend

    4) Neuter: tree, table

    Sex in Modern English Grammar is expressed in various ways:

    1) By the meaning of the noun itself:

    COMMON MASCULINE FEMENINE

    parent father mother

    child boy girl

    son daughter

    spouse husband wife

    youth lad lass

    sovereign king queen

    horse stallion mare

    sheep ram ewe

    deer (=ciervo) stag doe (hind)

    swine (cerdo) boar sow

    fowl cock hen

    Some words have only masculine form:

    MASCULINE FEMENINE

    widower widow

    bridegroom bride

    bachelor spinster

    nephew niece

    lord lady

    uncle aunt

    master mistress

    dog (hound) bitch (breach)

    drake duck

    brother sister

    monk nun

    gentleman lady

    wizard (brujo) witch

    gander (ganso) goose

    cob (swan) cisne hen

    2.- Masculine and Femenine are also indicated by addition of a suffix:

    a) The most common femenine suffix is -ESS:

    MASCULINE FEMENINE

    abbot abbess

    actor actress

    baron baroness

    duke duchess

    emperor empress

    god goddess

    host hostess

    lion lioness

    major majoress

    prince princess

    negro negress

    tiger tigress

    waiter waitress

    b) Other femenine suffixes are:

    -TRIX -INE -INA -ETTE -I -EUSE -ENNE

    MASCULINE FEMENINE

    administrator administratix

    victor victrix

    prosecutor prosecutrix

    executor executrix

    hero heroina

    Joseph Josephina

    Gzar Gzarina

    Baron Baronette

    fiancé fianceé

    protegé protegeé

    masseur masseuse

    comedian comedienne

    3.- By using an extra word which clearly shows the gender, either as suffix or prefix:

    MASCULINE FEMENINE

    doctor lady doctor

    male nurse nurse

    boyfriend girlfriend

    dog fox bitch fox (wixen)

    Jackass Jenny ass

    billy goat nanny goat (=niZera)

    laundry man laundry woman

    milkman milkmaid (milkwoman)

    landlord landlady

    tom cat tabby cat

    cock pigeon hen pigeon

    cock robin Jenny robin

    4.- By use of pronouns = personal pronouns which refer to the nouns are the most common gender indicators in English. The 3rd. person singular pronouns have different forms for masculine, femenine or neuter:

    The student hadn't got her book with her.

    My friend said that he had sold his house.

    Sometimes the 3rd. person singular pronouns are prefixed to words to distinguish gender:

    MASCULINE FEMENINE

    a he-donkey a she-dankey

    a he-devil a she-devil

    a he-bear a she-bear

    5.- Sometimes the words MALE/FEMALE are prefixed to othe words:

    MASCULINE FEMENINE

    a male cat a female cat

    a male rabbit a female rabbit

    COMMON GENDER.-

    In English there are many words for animate beings that do not indicate their gender. That is to say, these words indicate both masculine and femenine:

    cousin friend person fool neighbiur

    When making a sentence using one of these words, when the gender is not known you can use "he/she/they":

    Your cousin wrote but he/she didn't say his/her name.

    All substantives coming from verbs to denote agents are common gender:

    reader teacher drunkward inhabitant copyist liar

    Some substantives coming from other substantives also denote common gender:

    criminal librarian musician prisoner

    Because of social conditions many common gender words are used only of:

    1) males: baker, tailor, merchant, soldeir, shoemaker, captain

    2) females: nurse, milliner (sombrerera), cook, flirt (maja), dressmaker

    Some words having masculine or femenine forms have become common gender by using one of the forms to denote the genus:

    Masculine: man, dog, lion, jew

    Femenine: duck, goose, hen, bee

    UNNATURAL GENDER.-

    Names of people.- They become neuter when the idea of personality is little developed:

    baby. She was a baby. It is a girl.

    When we wish to speak scornfully of a person we use the pronoun "that" or "it":

    Would you like to be married to that? Fancy seeing it every day.

    Name of animals.- domestic and large beasts are normally personified according to their sex:

    I have a dog. His name is Sam.

    With smaller animals and birds, the neuter is generally used, but some are referred to as masculine and some as femenine:

    Masculine: cuckoo, rabbit, mouse.

    Femenine: dove, sparrow, lark, thrush, mole, bee, hare.

    Name of things.- countries and cities are generally neuter, but in literary English they can be referred to as femenine:

    England ruled the seas thanks to its/her navy.

    Sexless things.- generally referred to as femenine: moon, nature, sea, ships, engines, aircraft, motor-cars ... and abstract ideas.

    Sexless things.- referred to as masculine: sun, rivers, mountains, war, death etc.

    GENDER IN PRONOUNS.-

    First and second person pronouns do not denote gender because it is clear from context:

    I me my mine you your yours

    For the third person there are three forms: Masculine, femenine and neuter. Sometimes this causes difficulties in expression: it is necessary to use constructions like "he/she/they":

    Nobody knows how to do that, do they?

    The reader's heart, if he or she has a heart ...

    Some pronouns are two-sex and some no-sex:

    two-sex no-sex

    Interrogative Who? what?

    Relative Who which

    Indefinite somebody something

    anybody anything

    everybody everything

    VERBS USED WITH PREPOSITIONS

    1.- The following verbs are used without a preposition in English, but with preposition in Spanish:

    to abuse

    Never abuse friendship

    abusar de

    to approach

    He approached the house

    acercarse a

    to attend

    I attended the meeting

    asistir a

    to lack

    The poor man lacked means

    carecer de

    to mock

    They mocked me

    burlarse de

    to marry

    John married Mary

    casarse con

    to stop

    He stopped working

    dejar de

    to cease

    I ceased working

    cesar de

    to finish

    He finished working

    terminar de

    to begin

    He began working

    empezar a

    to distrust

    I distrust Michael

    desconfiar de

    to enjoy

    He enjoys good health

    disfrutar de

    to doubt

    I doubt his word

    dudar de

    to enter

    They entered the shop

    entrar en

    to smoke

    He smokes a pipe

    fumar en

    to play

    They played football

    jugar a

    to ride

    I like riding horses

    montar a

    to sound

    This sounds hollow

    sonar a

    2.- The following verbs are used with a preposition in English, but without a preposition in Spanish:

    to ask for

    He asked for a book

    pedir

    to listen to

    They listened to the radio

    escuchar

    to hope for

    We hoped for a fine day

    esperar

    to look at

    She looked at the picture

    mirar

    to look for

    I was looking for my watch

    buscar

    to operate on

    They operated on Mary

    operar

    to pay for

    I will pay for the ticket

    pagar

    to point at

    He pointed at me

    señalar

    to search for

    He searched for his papers

    buscar

    to wait for

    I was waiting for the bus

    esperar

    to rob of

    They robbed me of my watch

    robar

    to steal from

    They stole my watch from me

    robar

    to remind of

    That reminds me of England

    recordar

    3.- The following verbs are used with a preposition in English, but a different preposition in Spanish:

    to buy from

    I bought a book brom the bookseller

    Comprar a

    to congratulate on

    I congratulated him on his success

    felicitar por

    to consist of

    All consisted of doing it

    Consistir en

    to demand of

    They demanded too much of John

    exigir a

    to depend on

    It depends of the circumstances

    Depender de

    to fall into

    He fell into the river

    caerse en

    to live on

    He lives on charity

    vivir de

    to marvel at

    He marvelled at the news

    Maravillarse de

    to play a trick on

    They played a trick on John

    gastar una broma a

    to think of

    He thought of his children

    pensar en

    to translate into

    Translate this into English

    traducir al

    to dream of

    I dreamt of you last night

    soñar con

    to smell of

    This smells of soap

    oler a

    to taste of

    This tastes of fish

    saber a

    VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE PREPOSITIONS: OF/FROM/IN/ON/TO/AT/FOR and WITH

    OF: accuse, approve, assure, beware, boast (or ABOUT), complain (or ABOUT), consist, convince (or ABOUT), cure, despair, dream (or ABOUT), expect (or FROM), hear (or FROM), be/get rid, smell, suspect, taste, think (or ABOUT), tire(d), warn (or AGAINST)

    FROM: borrow, defend (or AGAINST), demand (or OF), differ, dismiss, draw, emerge, escape, excuse (or FOR), hinder, prevent, prohibit, protect (or AGAINST), receive, separate, suffer

    IN: believe, delight, employ(ed), encourage, angage(d), experience(d), fail, help (or WITH), include, indulge, instruct, interest(ed), invest, share, involve(d), persist.

    ON: act, base(d), call, comment, concentrate, congratulate, consult (or ABOUT), count, decide, depend, economize, embark, experiment, insist, live, rely, lean (or AGAINST), operate, perform (or IN), write (or ABOUT), pride (oneself), vote (ON a motion; FOR someone).

    TO: accustom(ed), amount, appeal, apply (or FOR), attach(ed), attend, belong, challenge, compare (or WITH), condemn(ed), confess, consent, convert, entittle(d), listen, mention, object, occur, prefer, react (or AGAINST), respond, reply, see, submit, surrender, turn, yield.

    AT: amuse(d) (or BY), arrive (or IN), astonish(ed) (or BY), exclaim, glance, guess, knock, look, point (or TO), shock(ed) (or BY), stare, work (or ON), surprise(d) (or BY), wonder (or ABOUT).

    FOR: account, ask (or OF), act (or ON), apologize, blame, beg, call, charge, exchange, hope, look, mistake, mourn, pay, prepare, provide, search, thank, vote (or ON), wait (or ON).

    WITH: agree, begin, communicate, compare (or TO), complete (or AGAINST), comply, confuse, contrast (or TO), cope, correspond, disgust(ed), finish, help (or IN), interfere (or IN), mix, occupy(ied), part, please(d), quarrel (or ABOUT), reason, satisfy(ied) (or BY), threaten(d).

    WORDS FOLLOWED BY FOR/WITH/OF/TO/AT/FROM/IN/ON and ABOUT

    FOR: eager, enough, famous, fit, gateful (or TO), qualified (or IN), sorry, ready (or TO), responsible, sufficient, thankful (or TO), valid.

    WITH: angry (WITH someone; AT something), busy (or AT), consistent, content, familiar (or TO), identical, patient, popular.

    OF: afraid, ahead, aware, capable, careful (or WITH), certain, conscious, envious, fond, guilty, ignorant, independent, jealous, kind (or TO), north/south/east/west, short, shy, sure, worthy.

    TO: close, contrary, cruel, dear, equal, faithful, fatal, harmful, inferior, indifferent, liable, new, obedient, obvious, polite, previous, rude, similar, sensitive, useful.

    AT: bad, clever, efficient, expert (or IN), good, indignant, quick, slow, sad (or ABOUT), skilful (or IN).

    FROM: away, different, far, safe.

    IN: deficient, fortunate, honest, weak.

    ON: dependent, intent, keen.

    ABOUT: curious, doubtful (or OF), enthusiastic, relunctant (or TO), uneasy, right (or IN).

    This section consists of a list of verbs, adjectives and particles with the particular preposition that usually follow them. The vebs list has been compiled in the form of sentence examples. The adjective and particle lists give a phrase only:

    They abandoned their fellow soldiers TO the enemy (left)

    They were alsolved FROM blame for the mistake

    He was too absorved IN his work to hear the bell

    She had to answer/account TO her father for her behaviour

    They were accused OF stealing

    They were acquitted OF blame for the mistake libertar absolver

    He was accustomed TO a large breakfast

    She acquainted him WITH the situation (informar a uno sobre)

    Money problems only added TO their unhappiness

    He could not adjust TO thr new conditions

    The question admits OF several answers

    He admitted TO being the thief (confesarse culpable de)

    They admitted him TO their plans

    They agreed ON/ABOUT the question

    She agreed TO his suggestion

    He agrred WITH his father on the plan

    He aimed the gun AT the target

    He apologized TO her for his behaviour (disculparse con)

    Delighted, she approved OF his behaviour

    He armed himself AGAINST possible danger

    She asked at the hotel FOR her friend (ask to see)

    She asked at the hospital ABOUT her friend (ask how s/o is)

    She asked a favour OF her (ask s/o to do domething)

    They would not associate WITH his friends

    Wise investments assured him OF large income

    She was very attached TO her aunt (fond of)

    He attached his caravan TO his car

    She asked him to bear WITH her temper (tolerate)

    He began BY playing a concerto

    He began WITH a concerto

    They believed strongly IN internationalism

    That book belongs TO me

    He boasted OF his success at billiards

    She borrowed a pond FROM his sister

    Thieves broke INTO the bank

    He broke himself OF smoking

    She broke WITH him after a row

    He brushed the dust FROM/OFF his coat

    She burst INTO tears at the news

    The smouldering rags burst INTO flames

    She did not care ABOUT/FOR reading her uncle

    He changed his scooter FOR a car

    He changed FROM elementary to an intermediate class

    She changed INTO something warmer (put on - warmer clothes)

    How much were you charge FOR dinner?

    He was charged WITH careless driving

    They commented ON his behaviour (speak about)

    He compared her WITH her friend

    He compared her TO a flower

    They competed WITH one another FOR the job

    She complained TO him ABOUT his friend

    They concealed the news FROM him (keep from)

    We concentrated ON doing one job at at time

    She concluded FROM his remark that he was angry (deduce)

    He confused her WITH her friend

    She was confused BY his directions

    I congratulated him ON winning

    Her father consented TO her engagement

    Civilisation consists IN having a constructed attitude

    Porridge consists OF oatmeal and water

    It downed ON them that they had been tricked (realise)

    A greengrocer deals IN vegetables

    We deal WITH the greengrocer at the corner

    She delighted IN listening to music

    He depends ON his father for allowance

    They deprived the prisoner OF his property and money

    The word isosceles derived FROM the Greek

    She asked him not to refer TO the matter again

    He reflected ON her attitude character (think about)

    He released her FOM her promise

    She relied ON her father for everything

    She soon replied TO their letter

    He reprimanded them FOR arriving late

    Illness resulted FROM lack of food

    The game resulted IN a draw

    He ruled ON the case very carefully (give judgement)

    He ruled OVER a large kingdom

    This serviette ring serves AS an egg-cup

    He served the summons ON the debtor

    She served WITH the W.R.N.S. during the war

    His creditors settled FOR anything they could get

    He retired and settled IN a seaside town

    He settled WITH his creditors

    She shared IN her husband's worries

    She shared the money WITH him

    They sheltered FROM the storm, by standing in a doorway

    The markman shot AT the clay pigeon

    He shouted AT the man who annoyed him (speak badly)

    He shouted ACROSS the valley TO his friend (call to)

    She spoke OF the man as an old friend

    She spoke ABOUT/OF a matter I thought was secret

    He spoke TO his friend

    The general spoke WITH the soldiers

    He died FOR his beliefs

    He died FROM/OF starvation

    My ideas differ FROM yours

    We differ IN our ideas

    We differ ON this idea

    We differ WITH each other ON this

    She directed her remarks AT her father

    She directed him TO the station

    He disagreed WITH her ON/OVER the matter

    The dustman disposed OF five tons of rubbish yesterday

    They dreamt OF winning a fortune

    Wide-eyed, they drank IN the beauty of the place

    They drank TO better days

    The evening ended IN confusion (result)

    The evening ended WITH a dance (conclude)

    We must enrol FOR the exam before next week

    He exchanged his house FOR a bigger one

    They excluded him FROM the club (deny entry to)

    They excused him FOR his absence (for not bring there)

    They excused him FROM attending (allow not to be there)

    She failed IN her exam

    She failed IN trying to pass the exam

    He fell INTO the habit of not attending

    They feed mostly ON vegetables

    She fed him WITH a spoon

    She told him not to fuss OVER her

    He was gladdened BY her good news

    In passing they glanced AT him

    He asked them to glance THROUGH the notebook

    She grieved AT the bad news

    She grieved FOR the missing child

    He grieved OVER the past

    She helped him IN/OVER this matter

    She helped him WITH the English

    They hid FROM her in the celler

    They hinted AT the idea that she was wealthy

    They improved ON the old engine with the new one

    He inculcated knowledge UPON her

    She insisted ON coming with us

    He was inspired WITH courage by her example

    He was inspired BY her

    He instilled knowledge INTO her

    She joined IN the singing

    She joined WITH us in singing the song

    They judged her BY/ON her performance

    Unkindly they laughed AT her

    In support they laughed WITH her

    He was leaning AGAINST the wall smoking

    He leaned ON his brother for support

    Don't meddle IN/WITH other people's affairs

    They objected TO her bahaviour (dislike, complain)

    The doctor operated ON him for a cyst

    Although panniless she would not part WITH her jewellery

    They were prohibited FROM buying arms

    He played FOR England at Lord's

    It is rude to point AT someone

    You may however point TO someone or something (indicate)

    They presented him WITH a clock when he retired

    They presented a clock TO him when he retired

    They prevented him FROM buying a house

    He provided FOR her in his will

    He provided her WITH a car

    They quarrelled ABOUT/OVER money

    They quarrelled WITH their neighbours

    She reckoned ON inheriting a few thousand when he died

    She had to reckon WITH his mother (deal with, take into account)

    He soon recover FROM flu

    She succeeded IN passing the exam

    She succeeded TO her father's property

    He supplied her WITH a car

    He supplied a car TO the hotel

    She suspected him OF stealing

    They swore AT the man for his bad driving

    He swore ON the Bible he was telling the truth

    She sympathised WITH him in his loss

    He threatened them WITH the police

    He threw the book AT them in anger

    He threw the coin TO a poor man

    She was treated FOR the complaint by a specialist

    He treated her TO a drink

    She translated an English novel INTO Finnish

    He asked the operator not to trouble herself ABOUT looking up the number

    We trust IN him (believe in)

    We trust TO his honesty (believe in)

    We would trust him WITH everything we have

    These figures vary FROM the official ones (differ)

    The tides vary WITH the moon (alter)

    She vouched FOR her friend's honesty

    They watched hopefully FOR the sign that he was getting better

    The mother watched OVER her child(take care of, guard )

    He wrote to his friend ABOUT the exhibition

    They yielded TO the enemy's demands

    In this list the short forms s/o, s/th have been used for someone and something:

    abridgement OF a book

    absent FROM class

    agreeable TO a suggestion

    alive TO a possibility

    alive WITH ideas/insects

    aloof FROM a situation

    angry WITH someone

    angry AT her behaviour

    antipathetic TO an idea

    anxious ABOUT/FOR someone

    apparent FROM a remark

    apparent IN her behaviour

    apparent TO everyone

    appreciative OF someone

    apprehensive FOR s/o's safety

    apprehensive OF someone

    apt + infinitive with TO

    ashamed OF someone

    attentive TO someone

    auxiliary TO something

    averse TO an idea

    avoidance OF s/o or s/th

    aware OF something

    awkward AT doing something

    awkward IN a situation

    basis FOR agreement

    basis IN fact

    blind TO something

    bound FOR somewhere

    capable OF something

    cautious OF acting

    celebrated FOR a performance

    characteristic OF someone

    comparable TO something

    compatible WITH something

    conditional (UP) ON something

    conductive TO something

    consistent WITH something

    deaf TO an appeal

    deficient IN something

    grateful TO someone BY something

    hatred OF someone

    hostile TO s/o or s/th

    identical WITH something

    impassive TO something

    impatient AT an obatacle

    impat ient OF success

    impatient WITH someone

    (im)polite TO someone

    inappropiate FOR someone

    inappropiate TO something

    incapable OF something

    indebted TO someone FOR something

    independent IN attitude

    independent OF someone

    indifferent TO someone/something

    injurious TO health

    innocent OF something

    inseparable FROM someone/something

    (ir)relevant TO something

    jealous OF someone/something

    kind Of you to call

    kind TO friends

    liable FOR something TO someone

    liable TO do something

    loyal TO someone

    mad AT someone

    mad WITH pain

    noted FOR something

    obidient TO someone/something

    oblivious OF something

    the (an) opportunity OF

    an oportunity TO

    orthodox IN something

    parallel TO/WITH something

    particular ABOUT something

    peculiar TO somewhere

    pleased BY something

    pleased WITH someone/something

    popular WITH someone

    presumptuous OF him

    proud OF someone/something

    destructive OF an abstract idea

    destructive TO something concrete

    detrimental TO something

    devoid OF a quality

    different FROM s/o or s/th

    disappointed BY soemthing

    disappointed WITH someone

    disgusted AT/WITH s/o or s/th

    disgusted BY something

    displeased AT something

    displeased WITH someone

    eager FOR something

    eligible FOR something

    employed AT a place

    employed BY someone

    employed IN a job

    envious OF s/o or s/th

    equivalent IN (literally)

    What is the equivalent TO (figuratively)

    What is dog equivalent TO in Latin?

    evident FROM a statement

    exception TO a rule

    exclusive OF tax

    except FROM tax

    faithful TO someone/something

    familiar TO someone (known to someone)

    familiar WITH someone (onclose terms with)

    familiar WITH something

    famous FOR something

    favorable FOR something

    favorable TO someone

    filled WITH something

    full OF something

    equivalent OF dog in Latin?

    good AT games

    good FOR you (health)

    good OF you to do s/th (kind)

    good TO a needy (charity)

    good WITH children (understanding)

    good WITH food (accompany)

    qualified BY experience FOR a job

    quick AT a subject

    quick IN movement

    reckless OF danger

    regardless OF consequences

    related BY marriage

    related IN other ways

    related TO each other

    responsible TO someone FOR something

    revenge ON someone FOR something

    rich IN minerals

    safe FROM something (an enemy)

    safe WITH someone

    schooled IN something

    sensible OF something (aware, grateful for)

    sensitive TO unkindness

    sick OF doing something

    sick WITH an illness

    solicitious OF something

    sufficient FOR one's needs

    suitable FOR a purpose

    suitable TO one's needs or position

    surprised AT/BY something

    surprised INTO doing something

    suspicious OF someone

    sympathetic TOWARDS someone

    terrified BY someone/something

    thoughtful FOR/OF people

    thoughtless OF people

    tolerant IN a matter

    unequal IN skill

    unequal TO demands

    unjust TO someone

    unmindful OF something

    valued IN ,50

    valued FOR her good qualities

    vexed AT something

    vexed WITH someone ABOUT/FOR something

    void OF something

    weak AT languages

    weak IN vitamins

    COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING WITH SUITABLE PREPOSITIONS:

    1. She admitted him ______ her plans.

    2. Burglars broke ______ their flat.

    3. The surgeon operated ______ him for appendicitis.

    4. He presented the fireman ______ a medal.

    NOMBRES COMPUESTOS

    B¡Error! Marcador no definido.

    BLACK-OUT = mareo, amnesia temporal

    BLAST-OFF = lanzamiento

    BREAKDOWN = interrupción, fracaso

    avería, crisis

    BREAK-OUT = evasión, fuga

    BREAK-THROUGH = descubrimiento

    BREAK-UP = separación

    BUILD-UP = concentración de fuerzas

    BY-PASS = carretera de circunvalación

    C

    CALL-UP = reclutamiento

    CARRY-ON = embrollo, lío

    CARRYINGS-ON = relaciones amorosas

    ilicitas

    CAVE-IN = socavón, derrumbamiento

    CHANGE-OVER = cambio

    CHECK-UP = chequeo

    CLEAN-OUT = limpieza a fondo

    CLOSE-UP = primer plano

    COMEBACK = rehabilitación, acciones

    BONDS = obligaciones

    COMEDOWN = humillación, revés, bajón

    CUTBACK = corte

    D

    DOWN-FALL = caida, ruina

    DOWNPOUR = chaparrón, aguacero

    D. Day = día, momento crítico

    DRAWBACKS=inconveniente, desventajas

    DRESSING-DOWN=reprimenda, rapapolvo

    DROPPING-OFF = bajada en Nº de .....

    DROPPING-OUT = darse de baja, retirarse

    F

    FALL-OUT = polvillo radioactivo

    FLARE-UP =arranque de cólera,riña, estalli-

    do súbito, manisfestación,

    ruptura de hostilidades

    FLASH-BACK = escena retrospectiva

    FRAME-UP = conspiración

    G

    GET-AWAY = escapada

    GET-UP = atavíos

    GO-AHEAD = luz verde, permiso o señal

    para construir

    GO-BETWEEN = intermediario

    GOINGS-ON = actividades/conducta

    sospechosas

    S

    SEND-OFF = despedida (por todo lo alto)

    SETBACK = revés, contratiempo

    SET-TO = bronca, pelea (coloquial)

    SET-UP = situación, tinglado

    SHAKE-UP = reorganización, conmoción

    SHOWDOWN = confrontación, conflicto

    SPLASHDOWN = amerizaje

    STAND-BY = persona de toda confianza,

    recurso seguro

    STAND-IN = suplente (CINE = doble)

    SHOW-OFF = presumido, ostentoso (pers.)

    T

    TAKEOVER = toma de posesión, entrada

    en funciones, ABSORCION

    TAKING-TO = rapapolvos

    TIE-UP = enlace, paralización (por huelga)

    embotellamiento (tráfico)

    TIP-OFF=advertencia clandestina, SOPLO

    aviso

    TURN-OUT=concurrencia, Nº de asistentes

    entrada, pdblico

    TURN-OVER=volumen de negocios,ventas

    rotación de existencias, Nº de

    mercancias

    H

    HANG-OVER = resaca (bebida/guerra)

    HANGERS-ON = parásitos, pegotes

    HIDE-OUT = escondrijo, guarida

    HOLD-UP = retraso, demora, ATRACO

    I

    INTAKE = admisión, entrada (alumnos)

    L

    LAY-BACK = trampa habitual

    LAY-OFF = paro involuntario

    LAY-OUT = plan, trazado, distribución

    LET-DOWN = decepción, chasco

    LEFT-OVERS = sobras (comida etc.)

    LET-UP = calma, respiro, tregua, RELAX

    LOOKER-ON = espectador, mirón/mirona

    LOOK-OUT = vigilancia, puesto de

    observación

    LOOK-OVER = echar un vistazo

    LOW-DOWN = informes confidenciales

    M

    MIX-UP = confusión, lRo

    O

    OFF-SHOOT = vástago (Bot), ramal

    sucursal subsidiaria

    OFF-CHANCE = posibilidad remota

    OUT-BREAK = brote, estallido, epidemia

    OUT-BURST = explosión

    OUTCOME = resultado

    OUT-CRY =grito, protesta pública (ruidosa)

    OUTLAY = desembolso, inversión

    OUT-LET = punto de venta, salida

    OUTLOOK = perspectiva, punto de vista,

    ACTITUD

    OUTPUT = producción

    ONSET = comienzo, ataque, arremetida

    P

    PAY-OFF = momento decisivo, COLMO

    coyuntura crítica

    R

    ROUND-UP = redada, rodeo, investigación a gran escala

    RUNNER-UP = subcampeón/subcampeona

    U

    UPBRINGING = educación

    UPKEEP = mantenimiento, conservaci\n

    UPSHOT = resultado, consecuencia

    UPSTART = arribista, insolente, presumido

    UP-SURGE = acceso, aumento grande

    UPTAKE = entendimiento, aprensión

    UPTURN = mejora, aumento

    W

    WALK-OUT = salida, huelga, retirada

    WASH-OUT = fracaso total, calamidad

    WRITE-OFF = perdida total, depreciación

    (coche inservible)

    WRITE-UP = reportaje/crónica muy

    Elogiosa

    Uses of main verbs DO and MAKE

    The general rule is that DO means "perform an action", while MAKE has a much more concrete meaning of "build", "prepare" etc. In addition to this, there are, of course, many idiomatic expressions where this basic rule is not always observed; the most common of these expressions are:

    DO = PERFORM AN ACTION MAKE = CREATE

    do something make a chair

    do nothing make a noise

    do some work make friends

    do an exercise make money

    do an examination make profits

    do good make the beds

    do wrong make war

    do a task make peace

    do well make a fuss

    do badly make a face

    do a favour make a trip

    do justice make room of

    do business make trouble

    do one's duty make one's heir

    do one's hair make a scene

    VERBOS IRREGULARES INGLESES

    Infinitive

    Pasado

    Participio

    Significado:

    to be

    was/were

    been

    ser o estar

    to bear

    bore

    borne/born

    soportar, sufrir

    to beat

    beat

    beaten

    golpear, vencer

    to become

    became

    become

    hacerse

    to begin

    began

    begun

    empezar

    to bend

    bent

    bent

    doblar, torcer

    to bite

    bit

    bitten

    morder

    to bleed

    bled

    bled

    sangrar

    to blow

    blew

    blown

    soplar

    to break

    broke

    broken

    romper

    to bring

    brought

    brought

    traer

    to build

    built

    built

    construir, edificar

    to burn

    burnt

    burnt

    quemar

    to burst

    burst

    burst

    estallar, reventar

    to buy

    bought

    bought

    comprar

    to catch

    caught

    caught

    coger, atrapar

    to choose

    chose

    chosen

    escoger, elegir

    to come

    came

    come

    venir

    to cost

    cost

    cost

    costar

    to cut

    cut

    cut

    cortar

    to dig

    dug

    dug

    cavar

    to do

    did

    done

    hacer

    to draw

    drew

    drawn

    dibujar, tirar de

    to dream

    dreamt

    dreamt

    soñar

    to drink

    drank

    drunk

    beber

    to drive

    drove

    driven

    conducir

    to eat

    ate

    eaten

    comer

    to fall

    fell

    fallen

    caer, caerse

    to feed

    fed

    fed

    alimentar, dar de comer

    to feel

    felt

    felt

    sentir, palpar

    to fight

    fought

    fought

    luchar

    to find

    found

    found

    encontrar

    to fly

    flew

    flown

    volar

    to forbid

    forbade

    forbidden

    prohibir

    to forgive

    forgave

    forgiven

    perdonar

    to forget

    forgot

    forgotten

    olvidar

    to freeze

    froze

    frozen

    helar, congelar

    to get

    got

    got

    conseguir, obtener

    to give

    gave

    given

    dar

    to go

    went

    gone

    ir

    to grow

    grew

    grown

    crecer, cultivar

    to hang

    hung

    hung

    colgar

    to have

    had

    had

    haber, tener

    to hear

    heard

    heard

    oir

    to hide

    hid

    hidden

    esconder

    to hit

    hit

    hit

    pegar, golpear

    to hold

    held

    held

    sostener, agarrar

    to hurt

    hurt

    hurt

    herir

    to kneel

    knelt

    knelt

    arrodillarse

    to know

    knew

    known

    saber, conocer

    to lay

    laid

    laid

    poner horizontal

    to learn

    learnt

    learnt

    aprender

    to leave

    left

    left

    abandonar, salir, marchar

    to lend

    lent

    lent

    prestar

    to let

    let

    let

    permitir, dejar, alquilar

    to lie

    lay

    lain

    yacer, tumbarse

    to light

    lit

    lit

    encender

    to lose

    lost

    lost

    perder

    to make

    made

    made

    hacer

    to mean

    meant

    meant

    significar, querer decir

    to meet

    met

    met

    encont rarse

    Infinitive

    Pasado

    Participio

    Significado:

    to pay

    paid

    paid

    pagar

    to put

    put

    put

    poner

    to read

    read

    read

    leer

    to ride

    rode

    ridden

    cabalgar, montar

    to show

    showed

    shown

    mostrar, enseñar

    to shut

    shut

    shut

    cerrar

    to sing

    sang

    sung

    cantar

    to sit

    sit

    sit

    sentarse

    to ring

    rang

    rung

    sonar, timbrar

    to rise

    rose

    risen

    levantarse, salir sol

    to run

    ran

    run

    correr

    to say

    said

    said

    decir

    to see

    saw

    seen

    ver

    to seek

    sought

    sought

    buscar

    to sell

    sold

    sold

    vender

    to send

    sent

    sent

    enviar

    to set

    set

    set

    establecer

    to shake

    shook

    shaken

    agitar

    to shine

    shone

    shone

    brillar

    to shoot

    shot

    shot

    disparar

    to sleep

    slept

    slept

    dormir

    to slide

    slid

    slid

    deslizarse

    to smell

    smelt

    smelt

    oler

    to speak

    spoke

    spoken

    hablar

    to spell(ed)

    spelt

    spelt

    deletrear

    to spend

    spent

    spent

    gastar, pasar el tiempo

    to spin

    spun/span

    spun

    hacer girar

    to spit

    spat

    spat

    escupir

    to spoil(led)

    spoilt

    spoilt

    desarramar, estropear

    to stand

    stood

    stood

    estar de pié

    to steal

    stole

    stolen

    robar

    to stink

    stank/stunk

    stunk

    oler mal

    to strike

    struck

    struck

    golpear, pegar

    to swear

    swore

    sworn

    blasfemar

    to sweep

    swept

    swept

    barrer

    to swell

    swelled

    swollen

    hinchar

    to swim

    swam

    swum

    nadar

    to swing

    swang

    swung

    mecer, balancear

    to take

    took

    taken

    tomar, llevar

    to teach

    taught

    taught

    enseñar

    to tear

    tore

    torn

    rasgar

    to tell

    told

    told

    decir, contar, ralatar

    to think

    thought

    thought

    pensar, creer

    to throw

    threw

    thrown

    arrojar, tirar

    to tread

    trod

    trodden

    pisar

    to undergo

    underwent

    undergone

    sufrir

    to understand

    understood

    understood

    entender, comprender

    to undertake

    undertook

    undertaken

    emprender

    to wake

    woke

    woken

    despertar

    to wear

    wore

    worn

    llevar puesto, usar

    to win

    won

    won

    ganar

    to wind

    wound

    wound

    dar cuerda

    to wring

    wrung

    wrung

    retorcer

    to write

    wrote

    written

    escribir

    TOP FORTY OF THE MOST FATAL MISTAKES

    1,. DIvide your writings into paragraphs.-

    2.- WORD ORDER:

    - S.V.O. - Remember nothing can come between the verb and its object.

    - Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time, place and manner usually come at the end of the sentence.

    - Adverbs of frequency and degree are usually placed before the main verb.

    - Adjectives come before the noun (Multiple Premodification)

    3.- VERBS:

    - If you are telloing a story in the PAST, use the PAST.

    - If the verb is irregular, you should know its forms too.

    - Don't forget the -s or -es of the third singular person.

    - With some verbs you have to use a certain pattern, be careful with:

    * Modal verbs (all of them take an infinitive withouit TO, except OUGHT TO and USED TO).

    * Make somebody do something.

    * Want somebody to do something.

    * Explain something to somebody.

    * Be/Get used to doing something.

    * Used to do something (expresses a habit in the past only, to refer to a habit in the present use the Present Simple with an adverb of frequency).

    * Suggest doing something (includes the speaker).

    * Suggest that somebody should do something.

    * Allow somebody to do soemthing.

    * Look forward to doing something.

    * Enjoy something/Enjoy doing something/Enjoy oneself.

    * Like or Dislike doing something.

    * I wish with the Simple Past expresses a wish regarding the PRESENT.

    * I wish with the Past Perfect expresses a wish regarding the PAST.

    4.- DETERMINERS and PRONOUNS:

    - A/ An.

    - Revise the use of definite and indefinite articles.

    - Be careful with This and These

    - Another/Other

    - Neither/None

    5.- PREPOSITIONS:

    - Think OF/ABOUT.

    - At that moment.

    - Arrive AT/IN.

    - UNTIL with expressions of TIME // AS FAR AS with expressions of PLACE.

    - Based ON

    - Get married TO somebody/Marry somebody (never WITH).

    - Fall OFF a bike, a horse, a table, etc.

    - ON with dates or days of the week.

    - IN with months, seasons (except AT Christmas/Easter), years, centuries, parts of the day (except AT night/midday).

    - ON television/Channel 2, etc.

    - BY goes with the agent of the passive voice.

    - ON the coast.

    - Depend ON.

    - Consist OF

    - Interested IN

    - If a verb is followed by a PREPOSITION, the GERUND (-ing form) must be used.

    6.- NOUNS:

    - Be careful with irregular plurals (men, women, children, feet ...).

    - Use a plural verb with a plural noun (people, police ...).

    - Remember every verb needs a subject but don't double IT.

    - The Saxon Genitive: use it only for people, be careful with the order of elements, the articles and plural possessors.

    7.- GRAMMAR IN GENERAL:

    - To express purpose use the infinitive with TO.

    - The construction FOR + GERUND is used when you are describing an object.

    - To express purpose it is also possible to use IN ORDER TO/SO AS or SO THAT, the problem is that the latter is only used when there are two different subjects:

    (e.g. I study English IN ORDER TO get a better job, but I've opened the window SO THAT we can breathe some fresh air).

    - Relative Clauses.

    * Use the appropiate relative in each case.

    * If the relative is the subject of the clause do not use another one.

    * Punctuation is crucial for the meaning. The distinction between Defining and Non-defining should be clear.

    * Double negatives.

    8.- SPELLING:

    - Nationality words with CAPITALS.

    - Days of the weeks with CAPITALS.

    - Double consonats.

    9.- VOCABULARY:

    - BORING / BORED, etc. (adj=aburrido=es aburrido/adj=aburrido=estar aburrido)

    - ACTUALLY (adv=realmente, en realidad)

    - STORY / HISTORY (cuento, historieta/historia (asignatura))

    - END / ENDING (fin/final)

    - AFTER / AFTERWARDS (prep,conj./adv.)

    - KNOW / MEET (saber, conocer/encontrarse con, toparse con)

    - EXIT / SUCCESS

    - WORK / JOB

    - TO REALISE SOMETHING / TO MAKE A DREAM COME TRUE

    - TRAVEL / TRIP / JOURNEY

    - NOTICE / NEWS

    - ON THE ONE HAND / ON THE OTHER HAND

    - PROGRAM / PROGRAMME

    - ATTEND / ASSIST

    - CAREER / UNIVERSITY COURSE

    - LIKE / AS

    - AVOID / PREVENT

    - FOLLOW / CONTINUE

    - LAST / LATEST

    - COOK / COOKER

    - ECONOMIC / ECONOMICAL

    - CLASSIC / CLASSICAL

    - PASS / SPEND

    These pairs of words frequently occur together in English, joined by and. Say which is the order in which they are generally used. Then put them into sentences that will illustrate their meanings and uses:

    example: seek Answer: hide and seek

    hide Sentence: The children are playing hide and seek in the garden.

    chips dry shoulders prim &

    fish & high & head & proper

    pros & tear buried cock &

    cons wear & dead & bull

    weather spick & steak & dried

    wind & span kidney cut &

    cat & song & blood eggs

    dog dance flesh & ham &

    fast far & bricks & by &

    hard & wide mortar large

    good & ladies & sick & figures

    chattels gentlemen tired facts &

    women rules & high-water needles

    men & regulations hell & pins &

    women & collar & to & waifs &

    children tie fro strays

    ink tooth & simple sticks &

    pen & nail pure & stones

    drakes bits & thunder odds &

    ducks & pieces blood & ends

    forks sound

    knives & safe &

    GRAMÁTICA ESPAÑOLA

    1.- El Artículo:

    Es el que va colocado delante del nombre para determinar o señalar su género y su número.

    Singular: el, la, lo (masculino, femenino, neutro)

    DETERMINADO

    Plural: los, las (masculino y femenino)

    Singular: un, una (masculino y femenino)

    INDETERMINADO

    Plural: unos, unas (masculino y femenino)

    ARTÍCULOS CONTRACTOS: al (a + el); del (de + el)

    • El artículo concuerda con el nombre en género y número.

    2.- El Adjetivo

    Es la parte de la oración que sirve para expresar ciertas cualidades del sustantivo o para limitar su sugnificación.

    Ej.: Mesa grande (cualidad)

    Esta mesa (se trata de una mesa en concreto)

    Por tanto el adjetivo se divide en determinativo y calificativo.

    DETERMINATIVO

    Son los que limitan la significación del sustantivo con indicación de lugar, posesión, número ... etc.

    Por tanto se dividen en: Demostrativos, Posesivos, Numerales e Indefinidos

  • Demostrativos: Acompañan al nombre e indican su proximidad o lejanía con

  • relación al que habla.

    Masculino

    Femenino

    Singular

    1ª persona: este

    2ª persona: ese

    3ª persona: aquel

    esta

    esa

    aquella

    Plural

    1ª persona: estos

    2ª persona: esos

    3ª persona: aquellos

    estas

    esas

    aquellas

  • Posesivos: Acompañan al nombre e indican que lo expresado por el sustantivo

  • pertenece a algun dueño.

    Masculino

    Femenino

    singular

    plural

    singular

    plural

    Singular

    1ª persona:

    2ª persona:

    3ª persona:

    mi

    tu

    su

    mis

    tus

    sus

    mi

    tu

    su

    mis

    tus

    sus

    Plural

    1ª persona:

    2ª persona:

    3ª persona:

    nuestro

    vuestro

    su

    nuestros

    vuestros

    sus

    nuestra

    vuestra

    su

    nuestras

    vuestras

    sus

  • Numerales: Son los que limitan la extensión del sustantivo indicando número u orden.

  • Ej.: veinte marcas de vehículos; segunda vez ... etc.

    CLASES:

  • Cardinales: que expresan número: uno, dos, tres ... mil etc.

  • Ordinales: que indican el lugar que un objeto ocupa en una serie ordenada de objetos.

  • Ej.: las primeras industrias regionales.

  • Indefinidos: Son aquellos que completan la significación del sustantivo, pero de

  • un modo vago y general.

    Ej.: algunos empleados; ciertas piezas .... etc.

    CLASES:

    Indefinidos cuantitativos

    Indefinidos distributivos

    Mucho bastante otro alguno

    Poco tanto tal unos

    Todo cuanto cualquiera ambos

    Varios demasiado cierto entrambos

    cada

    sendos

    unos ... otros

    CALIFICATIVOS

    Son los que dicen como son las personas, animales o las cosas.

    Ej.: carretero serio; mulas tordas; ruedas verdes

    El género y número del adjetivo siempre es el mismo que el de los sustantivos.

    Ej.: caballo delantero; mulas tordas.

    Según el género los adjetivos pueden ser de dos terminaciones: buen-o/-a; o de una terminación: verd-e, az-ul, valient-e.

    Para la formación del femenino o del plural, el adjetivo sigue generalmente las mismas reglas que el sustantivo.

    Apócope del adjetivo: Hay adjetivos calificativos que suprimen algunos de sus sonidos finales cuando van delante del sustantivo.

    Ej.: grande ... gran; bueno ... buen; santo ... san; malo ... mal.

    Grados del Adjetivo

    Los grados del adjetivo expresan las cualidades de un sustantivo poseidas en unas proporciones distintas.

    Ej.: el coche es rápido; el tren es más rápido; el avión es rapidísimo.

    Grados de significación del Adjetivo:

  • Positivo: Indica simplemente la cualidad: conquista prodigiosa.

  • Comparativo: Establece relación de la cualidad poseída entre dos sustantivos.

  • FORMAS:

    de IGUALDAD: el coche es tan rápido como el tren.

    de INFERIORIDAD: el coche es menos rápido que el tren.

    de SUPERIORIDAD: el coche es más rápido que el tren.

  • Superlativo: Expresa la cualidad de un sustantivo poseída en el más alto grado:

  • Ej.: avión rapidísimo

    CLASES:

    • ABSOLUTO: Es el que no compara la cualidad con ningun otro objeto

    Ej.: avión muy rápido o rapidísimo.

    • RELATIVO: Es el que expresa la cualidad de un sustantivo, poseída en el más alto grado, pero comparándola con la de otros:

    Ej.: Luis es el más alto de la clase.

    Comparativos y Superlativos Irregulares

    Positivo Comparativo Superlativo

    bueno mejor óptimo

    malo peor pésimo

    grande mayor máximo

    pequeño menor mínimo

    alto superior supremo

    bajo inferior ínfimo

    interno interior íntimo

    3.- El Pronombre

    El pronombre es la palabra que hace las veces del nombre, es decir, que se pone en

    en su lugar para evitar su repetición.

    CLASES:

  • PERSONALES

  • Singular

    Plural

    1ª Persona

    Yo

    Me

    Mi

    Conmigo

    Nosotros, Nosotras

    Nos Nos

    2ª Persona

    Te

    Ti

    Contigo

    Vosotros, Vosotras

    Vos Vos

    Os Os

    3ª Persona

    él, ella, ello

    le, le, lo

    se, se

    Ellos, Ellas

    Les Les

    se se

    2) DEMOSTRATIVOS

    Masculino

    Femenino

    Neutro

    Singular

    Éste

    Ése

    Aquél

    ésta

    ésa

    aquella

    Esto

    Eso

    Aquello

    Plural

    Éstos

    Ésos

    Aquellos

    éstas

    ésas

    aquellas

    Estos

    Esos

    Aquello

    3) POSESIVOS

    Masculino

    Femenino

    Neutro

    1ª Persona

    Mio

    Mios

    Nuestro

    Nuestros

    Mia

    Mias

    Nuestra

    Nuestras

    (lo) mio

    (lo) nuestro

    2ª Persona

    Tuyo

    Tuyos

    Vuestro

    Vuestros

    Tuya

    Tuyas

    Vuestra

    Vuestras

    (lo) tuyo

    (lo) vuestro

    3ª Persona

    Suyo

    Suyos

    Suya

    Suyas

    (lo) suyo

    4) REFLEXIVOS

    Singular

    Plural

    1ª Persona

    Yo mismo

    Me

    Nosostros mismos

    Nosotras mismas

    Nos

    2ª Persona

    Tú mismo

    Te

    Vosotros mismos

    Vosotras mismas

    Os

    3ª Persona

    Él mismo

    Ella misma

    (ello mismo)

    se

    Ellos mismos

    Ellas mismas

    (ellos mismos)

    se

    5) RECÍPROCOS

    Plural

    1ª Persona

    (uno a otro: dos)

    (unos a otros: + de dos)

    Nos

    2ª Persona

    (uno a otro: dos)

    (unos a otros: + de dos)

    Os

    3ª Persona

    (uno a otro: dos)

    (unos a otros: + de dos)

    Se

    6) RELATIVOS

    Masculino

    Singular: que, el que, cual, el cual, quien, cuyo

    Plural: que, los que, cuales, los cuales, quienes, cuyos

    Femenino

    Singular: que, la que, cual, la cual, quien, cuya

    Plural: que, las que, cuales, las cuales, quienes, cuyas

    7) INTERROGATIVOS

    Si los pronombres relativos se colocan al comienzo de la frase, sirven entónces para interrogar o preguntar y por eso de denominan INTERROGATIVOS, éstos siempre llevan acento (´) y no tienen antecedente

    8) INDEFINIDOS

    INDEFINIDOS: Son aquellos que designan las personas, animales o cosas de una

    Manera vaga, general, sin concretar claramente.

    Ej.: Algo tiene que comer. (ALGO indica un alimento pero no concreta de

    Cual se trata)

    Los más usados son:

    Para PERSONAS: alguién, nadie, cualquiera, uno.

    Para COSAS: algo, nada

    OTROS:

    Variables

    Invariables

    alguno todo uno

    ninguno cierto cualquiera

    varios otro quienquiera

    mucho bastante demasiado

    poco

    alguien

    nadie

    algo

    nada

    CONJUGACIÓN ESPAÑOLA (Resumen)

    Tiempos Verbales

    (simples)

    HABER

    SER

    Presente

    Preterito Imperfecto

    Preterito Indefinido

    Futuro Simple

    Condicional Simple

    He

    había

    hube

    habré

    habría

    soy

    era

    fuí

    seré

    sería

    Las tres conjugaciones: AM-AR, TEM-ER, PART-IR

    ConjugacionesIndicativo

    -AR

    -ER

    -IR

    Presente

    -o

    -o

    -o

    Pretérito Imperfecto

    -aba

    -ía

    -ía

    Pretérito Indefinido

    Futuro Simple

    -aré

    -eré

    -iré

    Condicional Simple

    -aría

    -ería

    -iría

    ConjugacionesSubjuntivo

    -AR

    -ER

    -IR

    Presente

    -e

    -a

    -a

    Pretérito Imperfecto

    -ara/-ase

    -iera/-iese

    -iera/-iese

    Pretérito Indefinido

    ---------

    -----------

    -----------

    Futuro Simple

    -are

    -iere

    -iere

    Condicional Simple

    ---------

    ----------

    -----------

    Los tiempos compuestos o perfectos que corresponden a los tiempos simples son:

    Simples

    Compuestos

    Presente

    Pretérito Perfecto

    Pretérito Imperfecto

    Pretérito Pluscuampecfecto

    Pretérito Indefinido

    Pretérito Anterior

    Futuro Simple

    Futuro Perfecto

    Condicional Simple

    Condicional Compuesto

    • Para formar los tiempos compuestos: se hacen con el correspondiente tiempo simple del verbo HABER + el Participio perfecto o Pasado de verbo que se conjuga:

    Pretérito Anterior de amar: Yo hube amado

    • Para formar la VOZ PASIVA: se hace con el tiempo correspondiente del verbo SER + el Participio Perfecto o Pasado del verbo que se conjuga:

    Pretérito Imperfecto Pasivo de amar: Yo era amado

    Correspondencia de tiempos españoles con los tiempos ingleses

    Tiempos simples

    Españoles

    Tiempos simples

    Ingleses

    Tiempos compuestos

    españoles

    Tiempos compuestos

    ingleses

    Presente Simple

    Simple Present

    Pretérito Perfecto

    Present Perfect

    Pretérito Imperfecto

    Simple Past

    Pret.Pluscuamperfecto

    Past Perfect

    Pretérito Indefinito

    Simple Past

    Pretérito Anterior

    Past Perfect

    Futuro Simple

    Simple Future

    Future Perfecto

    Future Perfect

    Condicional Simple

    Simple Conditional

    Cond. Compuesto

    Perfect Conditional

    1.- TABLE OF TENSES - ACTIVE VOICE

    Past

    Present

    Future

    Conditional

    Simple

    I sang

    I sing

    I shall sing

    I should sing

    -->[Author:p]Continuous

    I was singing

    I am singing

    I shall be

    singing

    I should be singing

    Perfect

    I had sung

    I have sung

    I shall have

    sung

    I should have

    sung

    Perfect

    Continuous

    I had been

    singing

    I have been

    Singing

    I shall have been singin

    I should have been singing

    Formas no personales del verbo

    Simple Infinitive

    Continuous Infinitive

    Perfect Infinitive

    Present Continuous Infintive

    Present Participle

    Past Participle

    Perfect Participle

    to sing

    to be singing

    to have sung

    to have been singing

    singing

    sung

    having sung

    2.- TABLE OF TENSES - PASSIVE VOICE

    Past

    Present

    Future

    Conditional

    Simple

    I was sung

    I am sung

    I shall be sung

    I should be sung

    Continuous

    I was being sung

    I am being

    Sung

    I shall be being

    sung

    I should be being sung

    Perfect

    I had been

    sung

    I have been sung

    I shall have been sung

    I should have been sung

    Perfect

    Continuous

    I had been being sung

    I have been being sung

    I shall have been being sung

    I should have been being sung

    Formas no personales del verbo

    Simple Infinitive

    Continuous Infinitive

    Perfect Infinitive

    Present Continuous Infintive

    Present Participle

    Past Participle

    To be sung

    To be being sung

    To have been sung

    To have been being sung

    Being sung

    Having been sung

    Expressing personal opinions

    In my opinion

    From my point of view

    In my view

    Personally

    As far as I'm concerned

    Expressing contrast

    However

    Nevertheless

    On the one hand

    On the other hand

    Although

    In spite of / Despite

    Expressing facts

    As a matter of fact

    In fact

    Actually

    Adding information

    Apart from this / that

    Moreover / In addition

    Giving examples

    For example / For instance

    Such as

    Rephrasing

    That is (to say)

    In other words

    Causes and results

    Because of this / that

    For this / that reason

    That's why

    Therefore

    As a result of

    Consequently

    So...

    Modifiers

    To a certain extent

    More or less

    At least

    Basically

    Especially

    In particular

    Above all

    Personal letters

    Thanks for your letter

    It was great to hear from you

    I'm writing to tell you

    How's it going

    By the way, how's your sister

    Well, Middleford isn't very big

    Anyway, I must stop writing now

    Write soon and tell me all your news

    Best wishes.

    Writing dialogues

    Really?

    You know, it's fast and cheap

    It doesn't fill you up, do you know what I mean?

    On the top of all that, it's so fatty

    To tell you the truth, I love fast food

    You're joking!

    Of course not.

    Formal letters

    Dear Sir / Madam

    I'm writing to you about

    I look forward to hearing from you

    Yours faithfully

    Yours sincerely

    Time connectors

    First of all

    Next / Then

    After that

    While

    In the meantime

    All of a sudden

    Finally

    In the end

    Summarising: In short / In conclusion

    On the whole / To sum up

    CONJUNCIONES Y CONECTORES DE FRASES

    1.- Tipos y usos:

  • Conjunciones coordinantes: and, or, but

  • Conectores: however, indeed

  • Conjunciones subordinantes:

  • - Temporales

    After

    As long as

    Before

    Till

    When

    Whenever

    As

    As soon as

    Since

    Until

    While

    Etc.

    • de lugar: where, wherever

    • causales: because, since, as

    • de finalidad: so that, in order that

    • consecutivas: as a result, so, then, so + adjetivo/adverbio + that,

    such + nombre + that

    • concesivas: although, though, even though

    • de manera: as, as if, as though

    2.- Significados

    2. 1 Relación aditiva

    And

    As well

    Furthermore

    Both ... and ...

    In addition to this

    And what's more

    Not only ... but also...

    Also

    Besides

    Likewise

    Too

    Moreover

    Again

    As well as

    2.2 Relación alternativa

    Or, either ... or...

    Neither ... nor...

    Whether ... or...

    Otherwise

    Or else

    Etc.

    2.3 Relación contrastiva

    But

    Still

    Whereas

    Yet

    Despite

    However

    Nevertheless

    While

    Notwithstanding

    On the other hand

    2.4 Relación de causa-efecto

    So

    Consequently

    Due to the fact that

    Therefore

    Because

    Etc.

    2.5 Relación de ordenación

    • Cronológica: conjunciones temporales

    • Lógica: Firstly ..., secondly..., and finally

    Comprensión de texto: Respuestas

    According to the text...

    The text mentions...

    The text says that...

    The text states that...

    The text refers to...

    Resumen del contenido del texto: Introducelo diciendo

    The text is about...

    This is the story of...

    The text deals with...

    The author states /suggests/criticizes/explains/points out /lists/highlights/argues/puts forwards...

    Preguntas hipotéticas: Respuestas

    Where would you like to spend your next few years? I would like to...

    Preguntas que solicitan tu opinión: Respuestas

    What do you think of...?

    Do you believe...?

    I think that...

    Well, personally, I feel...

    I believe...

    In my opinion...

    From my point of view...

    ASKING ABOUT LANGUAGE

    Asking for definitions

    What does `leather' mean?

    What's a tracksuit?

    What's the meaning of `shy'?

    Do you know the meaning of `garden centre'?

    Possible Answers

    It's a sort of...

    It's a kind of...

    It's used to...

    It's an object/thing ... used to/for...

    Asking for explanations

    How do you say (...) in English?

    What do they call (...)?

    How could I say (...) in English?

    Do you know any other word/expression for (...)

    How do you spell/write (...)?

    Asking for repetition

    Pardon?

    Excuse me?

    Could you repeat it, please?

    I didn't hear you. Can you say it again?

    I can't understand you. Can you say it more slowly?

    Read and learn this dialogue:

    Laura: Richard, please. What does `leather' mean?

    Richard: Excuse me?

    Laura: What's the meaning of `leather'?

    Richard: It's a kind of material made of animal skin. It is used to make shoes, jackets ...

    Laura: How do you spell it?

    Richard: L-E-A-T-H-E-R.

    Laura: Thank you. Just another question. How could I say `I don't feel very well' in other words?

    Richard: Well, you can say `I feel down', or `I feel blue'.

    Laura: Thanks a lot. You're a really good friend.

    ABOUT DIFFERENT FEELINGS AND ATTITUDES

    Asking how someone feels

    Are you all right/OK?

    Is everything OK?

    Are you sure you are all right/OK?

    You're not nervous/worried/unhappy (about)..., are you?

    Is anything the matter?

    How do you feel about...?

    What's wrong?

    How are you doing?

    Saying you are curious

    Can someone tell me what is going on?

    I'm interested to know...

    Can someone tell me about...?

    I'd like to know more about...

    Expressing optimism

    Everything will be fine.

    You wait and see. It's all going to be OK.

    Things will work out fine/all right.

    I feel quite sure (about)...

    Expressing pessimism

    Mm, I'm not so sure.

    I doubt that.

    I'm not at all sure.

    I don't really believe...

    There is no way...

    I'm not too happy about...

    Read and learn this dialogue:

    John: Hello, Mary! Is everything all right?

    Mary: Yeah, I guess

    John: Are you sure you are OK? You aren't worried about anything, are you?

    Mary: Well, I don't want to bore you with my problems.

    John: Please, I'm interested to know what is happening to you.

    Mary: I'm not sure my maths teacher like me. In fact, I think he hates me.

    John: Why are you saying that? I doubt it. He is a very pleasant man who seems to like everyone. I don't

    Really believe he can dislike you.

    Mary: Are you sure about that? I took a maths exam I don't think I'm going to pass.

    John: You wait and see. It'll all turn out fine, and I'm sure that you will pass.

    Mary: I really hope so.

    EXPRESSING LIKES AND PREFERENCES

    Asking and answering about likes

    Do you like/enjoy (+ noun or -ing)...?

    Are you keen on...?

    What are your feelings about...?

    I like/enjoy/adore/love/hate/dislike...

    I'm (not) keen on...

    I've always liked/hated/loved/enjoyed...

    I've been mad about...

    I think ... is great/brilliant/fantastic/fun.

    There's nothing I like/enjoy more than...

    Asking and answering about preferences

    Do you prefer (+ noun or -ing) to (+ noun or -ing)?

    We can ... or ..., what do you think?

    Do you like ... better/more than ...?

    Which do you prefer ... or ...?

    I'd rather (+ inf. s/to) than (+ inf. s/to).

    I like/enjoy ... better/more than ...

    I much prefer ... to ...

    ... appeals to me more than ...

    Read and learn the following:

    Student 1: Do you enjoy jazz festivals?

    Student 2: Well, I'm not very keen on jazz.

    Student 3: We can go to a concert or to the cinema. What do you prefer?

    Student 4: I much prefer listening to music to watching a film.

    Student 5: Laura, do you enjoy listening to classical music?

    Student 6: There's nothing I enjoy more than listening to classical music.

    Student 7: Do you prefer folk music to opera?

    Student 8: Not really, I much prefer opera to pop music.

    ASKING FOR AND GIVING PERMISSION

    Formal

    Informal

    Would it be possible...?

    Would you mind if...?

    I wonder if I could...?

    May I...?

    Do you mind...?

    Do you think I could...?

    Could I...?

    Can I...?

    Would it be possible if I came back home later?

    Yes, of course.

    Would you mind if she finishes my work?

    No, I don't mind it at all.

    I wonder if I could see your dictionary.

    Sure./ I'm sorry, but I'm already using it.

    May I come in?

    Yes, you may.

    Do you mind if Arthur comes to the party with us?

    No, I don't. Please tell him to come.

    Do you think I could go to the U2 concert tomorrow?

    I'm afraid you can't.

    Could I have a ham sandwich?

    Yes, here you are.

    Can I go with my sister to the cinema tonight?

    Yes, you can.

    Read these dialogues and find out which expressions are used when you talk to somebody for the first time:

    • Amy, let me introduce David López. This is Amy Anderson, the language coordinator.

    • Please to meet you Mr López

    • How do you do Mrs Anderson?

    • Is this your first time in Ireland?

    • Yes, it is.

    • And what do you think about it?

    • (...)

    • Hello, Liz. I'm Iris. Your mother talked to you about me, didn't she?

    • Yes, she did. Nice to meet you, Iris. Are you enjoying your stay in Dublin?

    • Sure, Dublin is a wonderful city. Could you show me around?

    • Of course, Let's see. First, we could go to the city centre and then visit Stephen's Park. Then, ...

    IDIOMS

    An IDIOM is an idiomatic expression. There are many idioms in English and people like using them very much in conversation. They are quite colloquial.

    There are idioms related to colours such as to be the black sheep, to be in the red, to feel blue, to have got green fingers, etc. Most of them are body idioms which are related to parts of the body:

    Choose the right colour to complete these colour idioms.

  • She was white/green with envy.

  • The police caught the thief green/red-handed.

  • “How are you?”, “I'm in the pink/blue as my holiday starts today.”

  • When I started driving i was very red/green and I had to learn a lot.

  • He was white/red in the face with cold.

  • A blue/white lie is sometimes justified.

  • Read these situations and choose a body idiom for each one.

    1) To turn one's ________ on somebody. 6) To make one's ________ stand on end.

    2) To be wet behind the _______. 7) To be all ________ and thumbs

    3) To put one's ________ down. 8) To pull somebody's ________.

    4) To _________ the music. 9) To be a pain in the ________.

    5) To _________ one's way. 10) To pay through the ________.

    • You buy something and pay a very high price for it.

    • You have done something bad and you are going to be criticised or punished for it.

    • You can use this expression when talking about a horror film.

    • You say this about a person who can't do anything with his/her hands.

    • If you do this to a friend, you don't help him/her when he/she needs it.

    • When you go to s disco and there are many people, you do this to be able to move around.

    • When a person doesn't have much experience of things and doesn't realised all the dangers of something.

    • When you tell someone something that is not true and they believe you, but they will laugh when they realise that it is not true.

    • You use this idiom to refer to a person you find very annoying and irritating.

    • When you do this, you are firm in your position, you use your authority to prevent something from happening.

    Practise the idioms above as in the example:

    • I've bought a new CD.

    • How much was it?

    • £30.

    • You paid through the nose, didn't you?

    EXPRESSING CERTAINTY, UNCERTAINTY, POSSIBILITY, AND IMPOSSIBILIY

    To express you are sure

    I am (completely) sure that...

    I know for sure that...

    I am a hundred per cent sure that...

    I am positive that...

    To express you are not sure

    I am not really sure...

    I am not convinced that...

    I can't say for sure that...

    I am not certain that...

    To say that something is possible or probable

    That will probably...

    It's possible/probable that...

    It's likely that...

    I bet that...

    There's a good chance that...

    Perhaps/Maybe...

    To say that something is impossible or improbable

    It's impossible/not possible/not probable that...

    That's unlikely...

    It is very doubtful that...

    I can't believe that...

    I don't think that is the case.

    Example:

    A: I am positive this is a television.

    B: I don't think that is the case. Perhaps it is a computer.

    APOLOGIZING

    Apology

    Sorry,

    I'm very sorry. It was my fault.

    I'm terribly sorry.

    I apology for/about...

    Please, accept my apologies (for...)

    That was very foolish/careless of me, I'm afraid.

    Excuse

    Excuse me for...

    Please, forgive me for...

    I'm afraid...

    Responses

    That's all right/OK.

    Don't worry.

    Forget it.

    Not at all.

    It doesn't matter at all.

    Please, think nothing of it.

    It's perfectly all right.

    There's no reason to apologise (for)...

    Make dialogues for these situations using varied structures.

  • Apologise to a friend for arriving late for his party.

  • Apologise to your brother/sister for forgetting his/her birthday.

  • Apologise to your parents for coming back home late. Give an excuse.

  • You are riding your bike. A person step off the pavement. You have to stop fast in order to avoid hitting him/her. You are angry. The other person is frightened.

  • You are a customer of a hostel and the room is dirty and the bed hasn't got any sheets. Your partner is the receptionist who tries to apologise.

  • COMMUNICATING

    To maintain a conversation with an interlocutor is not easy. Sometimes, while you are talking, you may need some time to think of what you are going to say next. In these cases, you do not usually stop the conversation, but you use some expressions such as the following:

    Taking some time to think

    Err, let's see/Let me see... Um, let me think/Let's think...

    Well, mm, you se... (...), you know, (...)

    (...), I mean, (...) Oh, wait a second...

    If you want to change topics, that is, what the conversation is about, you can say expressions like these:

    Changing topics during a conversation

    By the way,

    Oh, before I forget, ...

    While I remember, ...

    Oh, I almost forgot to tell you...

    Finally, when you have been talking for a while and want to finish your intervention, you can use expressions like these ones:

    Finish one's intervention

    In short, ...

    To sum up, ...

    Briefly, ...

    In conclusion, ...

    The point I'm trying to make is...

    Read this dialogue:

    Alex: So, what is it you wanted to say before?

    Mary: Let's see, what I wanted to say is that, you know, the working class conditions of factory workers have

    changed a lot over the years.

    Alex: But, that has been mentioned before, I mean, that is not the reason why we are here today.

    Mary: I think you didn't understand very well what I meant, mm, you see, our salary, job safety and so on,

    have improved.

    Maggie: By the way, I would like to know if we are going to fight for a pay rise this year.

    Alex: Why not? I have always been in favour of yearly pay rise.

    Mary: Oh, I almost forgot to tell you, the manager called this morning to tell me he wanted to talk to us about

    something very important.

    Alex and Maggie: And you tell us now! In conclusion, we have been wasting our time, he probably wants to

    talk to us about all this.

    Mary: But I thought...

    DEBATING

    A debate is a conversation among several people who may have different opinions on a topic. In a debate there is a moderator, a neutral person who does not show his/her opinion on the topic, and the partcipants who show their point of view. The moderator's job is to set the times for the participants to talk.

    Rules for debating

    Select people who have different opinions.

    Be well-informed on the topic.

    Respect the turns and the time.

    Follow the debate line.

    Respect other people's opinions.

    Stating the facts

    For example, ...

    As we know, ...

    On the issue of...

    My point is...

    Beginnings

    I'd like to start by saying that...

    I must say...

    Disagreeing

    I see what you mean, but...

    I'm afraid I don't agree...

    That argument ignores...

    That's true, but...

    I'm not sure...

    This is nonsense.

    Offering solutions

    It'd be much better...

    Why don't we...?

    I think we should...

    Read this debate's sample:

    Presenter: Good afternoon, everybody. I'm Arthur Newton. It's seven o'clock and this is another edition of Let's talk about. The subject of today's discussion is: extraterrestrial life. In the studio we have to guests to open the debate. If you want to take part, call 01-66-77-55. Our first guest is AB.

    AB: my point is...

    Presenter: thank you. Over to you, JJ

    JJ: I completely disagree. That argument ignores...

    Presenter: Thanks, so now it's over to you, the viewers. Our first caller is...

    FUNCTIONS

    Asking for advice

    I've got a small problem...

    I'm not sure what to do...

    Could you give some advice?

    Do you think I should/ought to...?

    What should I do?

    What would you advise me to do?

    What would you recommend?

    Giving advice

    I (don't) think you should...

    I (don't) think you ought to...

    If I were you, I would...

    You'd better...

    You could...

    Why don't you....

    Apologizing

    I'm really very sorry about...

    It was my fault.

    Sorry about....

    How silly of me.

    Accepting

    That's all right.

    Don't worry.

    That's OK.

    Forget it.

    Agreeing

    I quite agree with you

    I think you are right.

    You're are absolutely right.

    That's absolutely true.

    I couldn't agree with you more!

    Right!

    Disagreeing

    Do you really think so?

    I'm sorry, but I don't agree (with...)

    I think that's nonsense.

    You can't be serious.

    Partially agreeing

    I see what you mean, but...

    Yes, but on the other hand...

    I can see that, but...

    I suppose you could be right, but...

    Expressing boredom

    I don't think that's very interesting

    How boring!

    *It turns me off!

    *So what?

    Checking that someone has understood you

    Do you see what I mean?

    Do you understand?

    Do you see?

    *OK?

    *Do you get it?

    Saying something in a different way

    I mean...

    What I mean is...

    What I'm trying to say is...

    Expressing excitement

    How exciting!

    That's fantastic!

    Saying goodbye

    Excuse a moment.

    I'm afraid I really must go now.

    Bye for now.

    See you later

    Interrupting

    Sorry to interrupt you, but...

    May I interrupt you for a second?

    Hold on a moment!

    Introducing yourself Answer

    How do you do? My name's is... How do you do? I'm...

    Hello. I'm... Hello. My name's....

    *Hi

    Introducing others

    This is John How do you do? How do you do?

    Please to meet you.

    Hi, nice to meet you. Hello, John.

    Invitations

    Would you like to...?

    What about...?

    How about...?

    Do you fancy... -ing?

    Why don't you....?

    Accepting

    Thank you very much.

    That's very kind of you.

    That would be very nice.

    Lovely!

    Declining

    Thank you very much, but...

    I wish I could, but...

    I'd love to, but...

    I'm afraid I can't, because...

    Asking about languages

    How do you say...? When do we use...?

    How do you pronounce...? What does... mean?

    How do you spell...? What's the meaning of...?

    Do you say... or ...? What's another word for...?

    Is this right?

    Presenting a gift Thanking

    Please accept this... That's extremely kind of you.

    Allow me to present you with... I'm extremely grateful.

    It gives me great pleasure to present... I appreciate... very much.

    Expressing regret

    I wish I had / hadn't (done...) I'm sorry I (did...)

    I should / shouldn't have (done...) What a pity I (did...)

    If only I had / hadn't (done...) How silly of me (to do...)

    Expressing pleasure

    I'm so glad...

    Thank goodness...

    Isn't it wonderful that...

    Expressing relief

    What a relief!

    Thank goodness for that!

    Asking for an opinion

    What do you think of...?

    How do you feel about...?

    What's your opinion of...?

    Giving an opinion

    I think...

    I believe...

    I'd say...

    Personally, I feel...

    In my opinion, ...

    It seems to me that...

    As far as I'm concerned,...

    Saying you are not sure

    I'm not really sure.

    I don't think...

    Saying you don't know

    I'm afraid I don't know very much about...

    I've no idea.

    I wish I knew.

    Asking someone to repeat

    Sorry?

    What did you say?

    Could you repeat that pleae?

    I didn't quite catch that.

    *What?

    Expressing request Granting Refusing

    Could you...? Yes, of course I'm afraid not.

    Would you...?

    Will you...?

    Do you think you could...?

    Would you mind... -ing? Not, not at all. I'd rather not

    Suggesting

    Shall we...?

    Let's...

    We could...

    Why don't we...?

    Why not...?

    I think we should...

    I suggest that we...

    I suggest (possessive) -ing...

    How about... -ing?

    What about... -ing?

    Agreeing with suggestions

    That's a good idea.

    What a good idea!

    That sounds like a very good idea.

    Yes, why not!

    Yes, let's.

    Disagreeing with suggestions

    I don't think that's a very good idea.

    That doesn't sound like a very good idea to me.

    No, don't let's.

    SUBJECTS (note the stress)

    EASILY CONFUSED WORDS

    Latin

    mathematics (maths)

    science

    physics

    chemistry

    biology

    botany

    zoology

    geography

    history

    religious education (RE)

    physical education (PE)

    Course

    Career

    Marks

    Qualifications

    Qualities

    Subjects

    Degree

    Lecture

    SOME EXPRESSIONS

    Gets my goat, he wouldn't say “Boo!” to a goose

    mutton dressed as lamb

    pulls your socks up

    Personality: WHAT'S HE/SHE LIKE?

    self-confident

    attractive

    hard-working

    good at

    helpful

    original

    witty, clever

    optimistic

    organised, efficient

    tidy

    conservative

    generous

    cheerful, good-humoured

    sympathetic, understanding

    shy, reserved

    ugly

    lazy, a shirker, a tease

    bad at

    unhelpful

    unoriginal

    dull

    pessimistic

    disorganised, inefficient

    untidy

    adventurous

    mean

    bad-tempered

    unsympathetic

    Appearance: WHAT DOES HE/SHE LOOK LIKE?

    He

    He/She

    She

    broad-shoulder

    bald

    Handsome

    tall, average height

    well built

    of medium build

    fat, thin, slim

    fair, dark, red-haired

    weather-beaten

    suntanned

    pale

    wide, small, generous mouth

    long, hooked, broad, snub nose

    freckles

    wrinkles

    good-looking

    a nice figure

    delicately built

    blonde, brunette

    a good complexion

    pretty, beautiful

    CLOTHES

    ACCESORIES

    MATERIALS

    VERBS

    Skirt

    Trousers

    Jeans

    Shirt

    Blouse

    Cardigan

    Twinset

    Sweater

    Pullover

    Waistcoat

    Tie

    bow-tie

    jacket

    suit

    pyjamas

    nightdress

    tights

    slippers

    bracelet

    earrings

    necklace

    chain

    brooch

    ring

    pearls

    belt

    handbag

    Silk

    Satin

    Cotton

    Tweed

    Velvet

    Linen

    Wool

    Lace

    get dressed

    undressed

    ready

    changed

    wear

    put on a coat etc.

    take off

    try something on

    sit

    fit

    match

    go with

    shorten

    lengthen a dress

    take in trousers

    let out etc.

    IN FASHION/OUT OF FASHION

    Mini

    Maxi

    Midi skirt

    Full

    Pleated

    Straight

    Flared

    bell-bottom trousers

    narrow

    SCHOOL SYSTEM

    HIGHER OR FURTHER EDUCATION

    VERBS

    Playgroup

    Playschool

    Kindergarten

    Compulsory education

    Junior

    Primary

    Comprehensive

    secondary school

    grammar

    public school

    University

    Polytechnic

    Teacher Training College

    Trade School

    Night School

    evening classes

    day release

    sit

    take an exam

    pass / fail

    do a course

    follow

    pay attention to

    apply for a place at

    got to University

    lectures

    get a first class degree

    second

    do research (into)

    112

    123

    LAS ORACIONES y SUS CLASES

    ORACIONES SIMPLES

    Por el tono del verbo

    Copulativas

    Transitivas

    Activas

    Intransitivas

    Reflexivas

    Pasivas

    Recíprocas

    Impersonales

    Enunciativas

    Interrogativas

    Deliberativas

    Exhortativas

    Por la índole del verbo

    ORACIONES COMPUESTAS

    Copulativas

    Disyuntivas

    COORDINADAS Distributivas

    Adversativa

    Ilativa

    YUXTAPUESTAS (Sin conjunción)

    Sujeto

    Complemento Directo

    SUSTANTIVAS Complemento Indirecto

    (COMPLETIVAS) Complem. Circunstancial

    Complem. Nominal

    Aposición

    ADJETIVAS o

    SUBORDINADAS de RELATIVO (Hacen el oficio de un adjetivo)

    Finales

    Concesivas

    Lugar

    ADVERBIALES Modales (modo)

    Temporales (tiempo)

    Causales (causa)

    Consecutivas

    Condicionales