Applied Linguistics

English Language Teaching. Origins of Language. Properties. Functions. Interlanguage. Bilingualism. Phonetics. Phonology. Words. Syntax. Morphology. Semantics

  • Enviado por: Víctor Cassi
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: España España
  • 70 páginas
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Index

  • Introduction . . . . . . . . 3

  • What is language? What is Linguistics? Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching.

  • Task: Class activity. . . . . . . . 4

  • Origins of Language. The properties of human language. Functions of human language. Linguistic and communicative competence. Task: Class activity: Caretaker's speech.

  • Task: The development of writing in G. Yule The study of language

    . . . . . . . . . . 10

  • How do we learn languages? The critical period. First language acquisition The holophrastic stage. Telegraphic speech. Caretaker speech. Interaction.

  • Task: Language and the brain in G. Yule The study of language.

    . . . . . . . . . 15

  • Second language acquisition. The concept of interlanguage. Interlanguage development. Input, output, interaction. Learner factors.

  • Task: Class activity. Checking own beliefs

    Task: Class activity. English class video . . . 22

  • Bilingualism. Educational aspects of bilingualism. BICS and CALP Plurilingual and pluricultural competence.

  • Task: Self evaluation of linguistic and communicative performance and skills in the languages you know. . . . . 29

  • The study of language. Levels of analysis. Linguistic context. Social context.

  • Task: Spanish, Catalan and English vowels. . . . 34

  • Phonetics and phonology. Phonemes. Phones and allophones. Minimal pairs and sets. Concepts and applications.

  • Task: Teacher's speech analysis. . . . . 36

  • Words and word-formation processes. Coinage. Borrowing. Compounding. Blending. Clipping. Derivation. Prefixes and suffixes.

  • Task: Morpheme identification. . . . . . 40

  • Morphology. Morphemes: Free and bound morphemes. Derivational versus inflectional. . . . . . 47

  • Syntax. Sentence. Clause. Constituent. Phrase: Noun phrase, verb phrase. Preposition phrase.

  • Task: Grammar sentences. . . . . . 49

  • Semantics. Lexical relations. Pragmatics. Discourse analysis.

  • . . . . . . . . . . 53

  • Applications. Syllabus Design. Types of syllabus. Language in textbooks The teaching of grammar: deductive, inductive teaching. Explicit and implicit learning/teaching. Focus on form. Incidental focus on form: pre-emptive and reactive.

  • Task: Early starters written compositions: sentences, clauses. Coordinated and complex sentences . . . . 56

    13. Glossary . . . . . . . . 70

  • INTRODUCTION:

  • This task begun with the first linguistic class last February.

    The idea was to include in this portfolio all the tasks and works done in class and at home through the following months. I really didn't realise then that it was to be such a hard work.

    I have chosen the first twelve units as they were explained by the teacher as to have a logical and gradual approach to the topics considered in this subject. Each item has one or two specific portfolio tasks included, most of them explained in the same unit by the explanation given in it and some with the class notes written during the activity.

    As a conclusion, a glossary with all the specific terms used in this subject by their order of appearance in the units as presented in the handout of the subject.

  • What is language? What is Linguistics? Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching

  • 14-II-2005

    What is language?

    Is a communicative skill by signs or codes used by people?

    Animals have reactive answers.

    Men have a proactive response.

    So we could talk about Homo Loquens as well as Homo Sapiens

    Animals have an immediate and present (or context) memory, but humans we have the capability of creating a new context in the mind.

    Children learn language through and about his/her social group: all kind of information arrives us through language.

    But, is language an endowment or an accomplished skill?

    Chomsky prefers to think we have a natural capability with which we are born = endowment. This is the cognitive point of view.

    Halliday prefers the idea of an accomplishment. This is the social point of view. Halliday points out that language evolved slowly but firmly through ages. But human beings have not in some million years. So, it is society that has created language: the social point of view.

    What is Linguistics?

    Linguistics is the discipline that studies human language.

    This study has got two different orientations:

    Formal orientation:

    • Language is a system: a set of elements (sounds, letters, words, sentences...) which can or cannot occur or can or cannot combine.

    • Linguistics competence: is the knowledge of the grammatical rule-system.

    Functional orientation:

    • Uses of language in human life

    • Communicative competence:

    Linguistics and social knowledge to create communication acts which are not only grammatical correct but socially correct.

    Linguistics has several aspects:

    • Phonology

    • Semantics compose the speech event

    • Syntax (act of communication)

    And are defined as Descriptive linguistics.

    There are new fields of study:

    • Psycholinguistics: study the first language acquisition.

  • How humans learn a language

  • The mental processes that a person uses in producing and understanding language.

    • Sociolinguistics: study of language and society.: how social factor influence the structure and use of language.

  • Study of language in relation to social factors: social class, educational level, age...

  • Detailed study of communication

  • Variations in the language used by a group of people (bilingualism, language attitudes, etc)

    • Neurolinguistics: Study of the function the brain perform in language:

  • Research on how the structure of the brain influences human learning.

  • How and in which parts of the brain language is stored.

  • How damage of the brain affects the ability to use language.

  • Applied linguistics:

    Is...

    “... the theoretical and empirical investigation of real world problems in which language is a central issue” Brumfit. (1991:46)

    “...applied linguistics has been called a problem-based activity. The problems are solved or the questions are answered according to the principles or knowledge derived from the scientific study of the structure of language, how it is learnt and its role in society” Corder. (1973:137-139)

    The applications are:

    • Translation: interpretation of a text encoded in one language that has to be translated into another.

    • Critical discourse analysis: How language is used n politics, commercials, etc. to manipulate opinion and how can express an ideology.

    • Forensic linguistics: how to interpret linguistic evidence in a court of law.

    • Language teaching

    17-II-2005

    Task :Class Activity

    El bilingüismo modifica el cerebro. Josef Grodzinsky. La Vanguardia 8-7-2004.

    De la lectura del artículo destaco los siguientes puntos:

    • Grodzinsky lleva toda la vida pensando en cómo transferimos el pensamiento a la palabra.

    • Indica que es más fácil declarar que responder.

    • Está especializado en el tratamiento de afasia, es decir, una afección o alteración del habla debida a un ataque al corazón, con los que hace un trabajo de ingeniería inversa.

    • Dice también que la resonancia magnética permite analizar imágenes específicas del cerebro en actividad.

    • A partir de ese análisis imagina que los científicos podrán predecir el comportamiento humano.

    • Por los problemas que tiene que tratar ha deducido que cada idioma que las personas conocen ocupa un lugar/espacio diferente en el cerebro.

    • Sugiere que hay que perseverar ante los errores al hablar en otra lengua y que cuánto más se cambia de lengua más fácil es utilizarlas.

    • Desde su trabajo intenta averiguar si un error es relevante o no. Porque quizá el error puede ser revelador del mecanismo del lenguaje.

    • Con esa idea del análisis de la lengua y del error, considera que los neurólogos y los lingüistas deben trabajar juntos.

    • Como colofón queda en el aire la pregunta de si los humanos nacemos con la capacidad de hablar o la aprendemos socialmente.

    Lo más interesante de esta entrevista es la aparición -al menos para mí- de una nueva manera de trabajar a partir de los usos de las lenguas como sistema de análisis del cerebro y a la vez su interacción con los sistemas de comunicación humanos. Es un aspecto del que desconozco absolutamente todo y por lo menos me ha invadido la curiosidad por saber un poco más.

    Cuando comenta la posibilidad de predecir el comportamiento humano desde el análisis con resonancia magnética -o quizá otros métodos todavía por llegar- me invade una cierta sensación de indefensión y miedo: predecir el comportamiento equivale, desde mi punto de vista, a impedir la libre actuación de los individuos. No tengo clara cuál puede ser la utilidad práctica de esa predicción, al menos en lo científico. En otros aspectos, como la posibilidad de dominar el comportamiento, me asusta.

    En la misma sesión se comenta un artículo publicado en el diario Avui el 19 de octubre de 2004. La llengua del melting pot. De Eduard Vallory i Subirà, politólogo i periodista.

    “Els nord-americans es refereixen sovint al melting pot per dir que la seva identitat és el resultat d'una amalgama d'herències culturals que han vingut d'arreu. Així, la lleialtat al país i la voluntat de contribuir al progrés general aportant-hi l'esforç personal són els ingredients necessaris per esdevenir nord-americà. El patriotisme constitucional en estat pur.
    L'11-S va fer trontollar aquesta visió, en emergir la següent pregunta: ¿a qui serien lleials els àrabs nord-americans davant un conflicte amb el món àrab? Per si de cas, la política antiterrorista de l'administració Bush ha colpit moltes famílies humils d'origen àrab, deportant persones totalment integrades que feia anys que vivien als EUA.
    En aquestes eleccions, un segon factor fa trontollar la teoria del melting pot: la llengua. A diferència d'altres col·lectius, la immigració centreamericana està expandint la presència de l'espanyol més enllà dels seus barris. I així, moltes ciutats són ja a la pràctica bilingües, o van camí de ser-ho: els autobusos de Chicago, més pròxim al Canadà que a Mèxic, tenen els rètols en anglès i espanyol. Fins al punt que l'autor d'El xoc de civilitzacions, Samuel Huntington, el març passat va publicar un llibre (Who Are We?) en què avisa que la immigració mexicana "amenaça de dividir els EUA en dos pobles, dues cultures i dues llengües".
    El miratge del melting pot, doncs, funcionava sota la premissa invisible que la llengua única era l'anglès i que les altres llengües eren detalls folklòrics als barris italià, xinès o polonès de les grans ciutats. De fet, la comunitat afroamericana, hereva dels antics esclaus i que representa un 12% de la població, mai ha parlat altra llengua que l'anglès.
    Però ara els hispanos són cada cop més i no abandonen la seva llengua. I, malgrat els intents per frenar aquesta immigració, en pocs anys el vot hispà serà molt més rellevant que el dels abstencionistes afroamericans. Ja ho és avui a la decisiva Florida. Per això, tant Kerry com Bush tracten amb delicadesa el terreny de la immigració hispana, la llengua i la diversitat cultural. Perquè, com a Europa, res ja no tornarà a ser com abans.”

    Valory nos ofrece su punto de vista sobre el futuro de las lenguas en los EE.UU. partiendo de la idea, ya del pasado, de que la única lengua, la que unificaba a todos sus habitantes era el inglés. Ahora con la aparición de la nueva emigración latinoamericana, que no abandona su idioma materno, en este caso el español, se produce un reto a las antiguas creencias sob re el melting pot americano. Así, la pregunta que muchos bienpensantes WASP se formulan es ¿cuál será nuestro futuro como país?

    En algunas zonas la lengua ya es un factor determinante a la hora de escoger un candidato a un puesto político. Así lo hemos visto en las últimas elecciones, donde los presidenciables se han esforzado en hablar en español para llegar a un electorado que ya no tiene el inglés como lengua materna.

    21-II-2005

    What pedagogical applications can be found to applied linguistics?

    A first question we must do to ourselves is:

    Why have we chosen English? Why not Russian?

    That's due to different aspects:

    • Power

    • Technological power

    • Culture power

    Actually, we can say that nowadays, English is the new lingua franca.

    There are more than six thousand languages in the world. About an 80% of them will disappear in the next hundred years due to media globalisation effects.

    Catalan is in a risk position.

    Then if English is the new lingua franca - used in a very simple version- other languages may become the second language. So bilingualism and multilingualism are new decisions that we'll find in the future as a part of sociolinguistics.

    What can linguistics offer? What to teach?

    Curriculum is for a whole block (i.e. primaria)

    Syllabus for a complete academic year.

    We must take decisions about topics, based on semantics and linguistic discussion.

    Which models of learning?

    Teaching:

    Explicitly: giving the rules in class (i.e. a or an before noun)

    Implicitly: to learn in contact with a language (street learning)

    Young children learn implicitly: syllabus, grammar though teacher lessons and street learning.

    2. Origins of Language. The properties of human language. Functions of human language. Linguistic and communicative competence.

    Origins of language

    There are several points of view:

  • Divine source:

  • This was the first representation about the origin of language. As we can read in the Genesis (2:19):

    “...He brought them to the man to see how he would call them, and whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name.”

  • Natural source:

  • Our ancestors could hear animal noises. Then tried to imitate them. And perhaps interjections related to emotional reactions: guau, grrr... etc.

  • Words from their sound:

  • Some word to imitate the noises, as:

    - splash like in: splashing in the bath

    - Gargling like in: gargling with salt water.

    - Creak like in: That step always creaks

    - Crash like in: car crash

    - Mumble like in Speak up. Don't mumble.

    But language is more than to put a name to the different things. When starting the learning of a language we use words and sentences or clauses as: Favor donde tren. So there is more than just words, they have a relation with our environment.

    The properties of human language

    Chien

    Gos

    Allga

    Quen

    Arbitrariness: The linguistic form has no natural or “iconic” relationship with that four-legged barking object out in the world. The word dog is nothing to do with perro or the sound the dog produces, as guau.

    When languages are close, the arbitrariness is more similar.

    Duality: Provides language with enormous productive power.

    Language work combining. For instance the 3 letters B- I - N

    You have BIN or NOB. Every combination has got its own meaning, as in Catalan:

    NOMS or MONS

    Other properties:

    • Displacement: To talk about events not present in the immediate environment.

    • Productivity: The potential number of utterances (emisiones verbales) in any human language is infinite.

    • Cultural transmission: Language is passed from one generation to the next.

    24-II-2005

    Language is related to society and men. Men to mind. So, we find a relationship between

    LANGUAGE - MIND - SOCIETY

    We can name things and build what is called propositions.

    i.e. In football Kick the ball

    This is a proposition which allows me to have an interactional function.

    Functions of human language

    Ideational function: Allows to talk about our environment

    Gives structure to our knowledge

    Interpersonal function:

    • Interactional function: to indicate friendliness, co-operation, hostility, pleasure...

    • Transactional function: ability to communicate knowledge skills and information i.e. When reading a book, we establish that function between writer and reader.

    Linguistic and communicative competence

    What is to be competent in a language?

    Learning a language as a natural human accomplishment involves:

    To be able to do something

    Getting to know something

    PERFORMANCE

    COMPETENCE

    Parole - Saussure. 1916

    Langue - Saussure. 1916

    Performance

    Chomsky. 1965

    Competence

    Chomsky. 1965

    We can define competence as something internalised.

    Performance is the normal use.

    So, Communicative competence has two different fields:

    Linguistic competence:

    • Language is a code (but this is not enough, you need more than the grammatical rules)

    Communicative competence:

    - Not only the grammatical rules, but also to know when and where to use these sentences, how and to whom.

    Task: Class activity. Caretakers speech.

    As a class activity we heard a tape with a recording of a conversation between a baby and her caretaker. The baby's name is Ariadna.

    The caretaker speaks to her in a very special manner, and there is a lot of negotiation of meanings.

    Humans have an intuition system to communicate with younger children. When teaching them, we do similar adjustments in our language and musicality of our sentences.

    As an example we talk about a Japanese visitor: if a tourist ask us something, we do adjustments in our language code to favour communication, we accompany our speech with signs and gesticulate to be understood.

    Task: The development of writing. The study of language G. Yule

    Writing followed speech communication. Was a way to represent the ideas being communicated. The first men represented their ideas through pictograms (a picture with a linguistic message which was similar to everybody)and ideograms (a representation of a more abstract idea). Some of these evolved into writing systems or logograms that represented a word in an specific language.

    From the logograms men evolved to rebus writing, that is the representation os previously existing symbols to represent the sound of language. Every symbol could be used in a different way, with a variable and usually wide range of meanings.

    To reduce the number of symbols used appeared the syllabic writing, that is, a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of words.

    Later appeared the alphabet and so the alphabetic writing. An alphabet is a set of symbols to represent a single sound.

    The development of alphabetic systems came to different systems till the Greeks used separated symbols to represent the vowel sounds as distinct entities.

    With some minor changes it is basically our alphabet.

    1-3-2005

    3. How do we learn languages? The critical period. First language acquisition The holophrastic stage. Telegraphic speech. Caretaker speech. Interaction.

    How do we learn languages?

    The critical period hypothesis

    Do canaries sing? Not all of them sing, because there is a critical period of time in their life to learn how to sing. So, if in their environment there are not other canaries for it to hear, it will not sing.

    • There is a specific and limited period for language acquisition.

    • Critical age in children ranges from 5 years old to the early

    • teens.

    • Evidences are: brain injuries, “wolf children”, etc. That is, field cases in which wild children were found after their critical period, so it was very difficult for them to learn how to speak.

    They do not learn because they are not exposed to language

    Is there a critical period for the learning of a second language?

    There is a period (i.e. up to certain age 6, 12, 14?) during which learners can acquire a second language easily and achieve a native-like competence.

    After this certain period, the second language acquisition becomes more difficult and is rarely entirely successful.

    Who is better in learning a second language?

    Children? Adolescents? Adults?

    Only younger people can improve a native like acquisition of a second language. Earlier of 6 you can attain native proficiency.

    Other theories say till 14. Probably 14 is a critical period for grammar. Of course, there are exceptions, but very few adult people attains native proficiency when learning a second language. Adults can learn vocabulary and grammar structures and then use them. Probably they will not have an accurate accent. But it's better not to bother about it. The only way is to use a language, to communicate: to hear the radio, watch TV and movies, etc. to improve it.

    There were some studies in the 70's about people of different ages who were set in the USA at different ages. Only the people who arrived to the USA when they were very young had improved a native like proficiency. The rest could speak English very well, but as foreigners.

    Children need some conditions to be successful:

    • Teachers need to interact

    • Objectives have to be realistic

    • There must be plenty of exposure

    • Adequate objectives

    • The need to communicate.

    In the example seen in class, the conversation between a little baby girl Ariadna and her caretaker (or mother)

    1. Input characteristics

    (A child needs to hear

    the language)

  • Analysis of interaction adjustments

  • (A child needs to interact with other

    language users)

  • Analysis of baby talk

  • (a child acquires language)

    Chomsky thinks children have the capacity to learn a language if they are exposed to that language.

    3-3-2005

    First language acquisition

    When you learn a language through communication you emit utterances and sentences as “ME NO GO” as most of street learners do.

    In an English school they will probably teach you complete sentences.

    When children learn a language they tend to simplify I.e.

    • What are you wearing?

    • (A) Scarf

    (Usually the article will be avoided by children.)

    There are different stages in the babies general acquisition process of a first language:

    • Pre-language: “cooing”, “babbling” between 3-10 months. There is not a language but a communication process. Babies learn that their sound have a response.

    • Holophrastic stage: single unit utterances: “bup-bup” “mama” “iaia” “mem” “xo” (between 12 and 18 months). It's a one word stage, but each words means a complete sentence. Second language learners do something similar and are not aware of the different words that compose a sentence: ya está “iatá”

    • Two word stage: “mama sopa” “posa pijama” the meaning depends on the context. (since 18 months). We can understand babies because we interact with them.

    • Telegraphic speech: Only the main words appear: “iaia dona meva” “jersei nina petita” (between 2-3 years old).

    Communication takes place in all of the stages. Children produce speech and receive feedback (la riqueza recibida como respuesta).

    Language and the brain in G. Yule The study of language.

    The ability to use language is located

    in the brain NEUROLINGUISTICS

    Broca's Area

    (Speech Motor Cortex

    production) muscle movement

    Arcuate fasciculus

    (connection)

    Wernicke's

    Area

    (comprehension)

    Localisation view: the activity involved in hearing a word, understanding it and then saying it, would follow a definite pattern:

    1. Heard and comprehended via Wernicke's area

    2. Transferred via the arcuate fasciculus to Broca's area

    (where preparations are made to produce it)

    3. The motor cortex physically articulates the word

    Investigation always through indirect sources: we cannot obtain direct physical evidence of linguistic processes in the brain.

    Tongue tips and slips

    Through different errors and occasional difficulties of speech researchers found clues to the linguistic organisation of our brain:

    Tip of the tongue phenomenon:

    Words probably stored on the basis of phonological similarities?

    Secant / sextet / sexton sextant

    Slip of the tongue phenomenon:

    Sounds carried from one word to the next?

    You beel fetter You feel better

    Black bloxes Black boxes

    Slips of the ear phenomenon:

    How the brain tries to make sense of the auditory signal?

    great ape grey tape

    Difficulties constantly suffered

    Aphasia

    Impairment of language due to cerebral damage, almost always left hemisphere.

    Leads to:

    Difficulty in understanding and producing linguistic forms

  • Broca's aphasia

  • Reduced amount of speech, distorted articulation, slow effortless speech. Also called agrammatic aphasia:

    I eggs and eat and drink coffee breakfast

  • Wernicke's aphasia

  • Fluent speech which is difficult to make sense of:

    It's blowing, on the right and er there is four letters in it, and I think it begins with C when you start it then goes right up in the air. I would I would have to keep racking my brain how I would spell that word. That flies, that that doesn't fly, if you pull it round, it goes up in the air. Kite

  • Conduction aphasia (less common than previous)

  • What is heard and understood cannot be transferred to the speech production area

    Dichotic listening test

    It's usually accepted that most of the people have language functions in the left hemisphere. How to confirm?

    Through experiments we know that:

    Anything experienced in the right hand side of the body is processed in the left hemisphere of the brain.

    Anything in the left hand side is processed in the in the right hemisphere.

    The specialisation of left hemisphere for language -lateralisation- is an early process. Coincides with the critical period.

    8-III-2005

  • Second language acquisition. The concept of interlanguage. Interlanguage development. Input, output, interaction. Learner factors.

  • How do we learn languages?

    Task 1 chapter 4

    Checking our own beliefs about a second language learning:

    OUTPUT

    One clue to know that you are learning a language is through your mistakes: mistakes are not imitation, so they demonstrate you are creating learning mechanisms.

    10-III-2005

    Ways to make English speech comprehensible:

  • Simplify the input

    • prefabricated language

    • slower speech rate

    • clear enunciation

    • longer and natural pauses

    • controlled vocabulary

    • controlled sentence length and complexity

    • fewer pronouns

  • Adding contextual clues

    • kinesics: gestures, facial expressions, acting out meanings

    • concrete referents: visuals, realia (real things)

    • topics known to the children

    • exaggerate intonation at times

  • Promoting communicative interaction

    • Confirmation checks

    • Comprehension checks

    • Clarification requests

    • Repetitions

    • Expansions

    • Variety of question types

    • Information gap

    • Personalise the conversation

  • Promoting a positive attitude

    • be enthusiastic

    • maintain a low anxiety level

    Task: Class activity. English class video

    At this point we were shown an English class video. The teacher interacts with 7 year old children to teach numbers, colours, parts of the human body and garments.

    She is very active, ask a lot of easy questions to her pupils so they cans answer. She says “very good” all the time to reinforce their collaborating attitude.

    Is a good example of the work of a teacher in an English class for beginners.

    The concept of interlanguage

    When you tray to use all the concepts you have learnt in your previous English classes and you do your best effort, the language as a result of you try is called interlanguage.

    At this point we heard a tape recording of a boy explaining (trying to explain) the drawings of a book. It is the story of two children having some fun in the country.

    Before mastering a language you go on your learning in different stages. The stages appear when learners produce language freely. But you need to use a language. If you don't use a language you do not acquire the use of speaking.

    15-III-2005

    The interlanguage so, is the type of language produced by second (foreign language) learners who are in the process of learning a language.

    There are always errors. What is an error?

    When writing and speaking, is the use of a linguistic item (a word, a grammatical item, a speech act, etc.) resulting in an unacceptable utterance and sentence. It occurs because the learners have not yet internalised the rules of the code.

    The Natural Route: L2 learners go through a number of transitional states en route to acquire the target language rules: Natural order, developmental sequence).

    We can say all the people learn driving by the same highway. But there a lot of differences between them: the speed, the stops... all by the same road, but with different acquisition speeds in the different stages.

    Which are these stages?

    Silent period

    • variability between firsts learners

    • contribution to learning (TPLR: total physical response)

    • natural approach

    • immersion programmes

    Memorised language

    • types: formulas, patterns, scripts

    • memorised language identification

    • functions: communicative function, production strategies, learning strategies.

    Reduced system

    • lexic reduction

    • propositional reduction

    • syntactic simplifications

    • structural simplification (omisión morfemas y palabras funcionales)

    Morphologic instability : formulaic speech

    It consist of expressions which are learned and unanalysed wholes or “chunks” (words learned as a whole, i.e. “how are you?”)

    Formulaic language: routines on speech.

    17-III-2005

    Interlinguistic strategies.

    The interlanguage does not follow the rules of the target language. Usually learners repeat to negotiate the meaning and uses the expansion to develop interaction.

    There is not automatic speech production: there are stops to look for word and find them.

    Interlanguage does not follow the rules of the target language. It has:

    • Simple short sentences

    • Many pauses

    • Sentences patterned by subject-verb-object (canonic order)

    • Similar words to overcome problems

    • Class learning is focussed in form but children acquire it partially

    There is a phenomena that may occur and is called fossilisation. It is whereby linguistic items (particularly erroneous ones) become permanent in a learners interlanguage. It may occur in relation to any linguistic level.

    Questions

    • Display questions: a question to which the one who asks already knows the answer. (Ex. What colour is you T-shirt?)

    • Genuine questions: They are asked when there is a focus on information. The one who asks does not know the answer in advance. (Ex. What did you do at the weekend?)

    NEGOTIATION OF MEANING

    When learners interact with native speakers, language teachers or learners, they often experience considerable difficulties in communicating. This leads to substantial interactional efforts by the conversational partners to secure mutual understanding.

    This work if often called negotiation of meaning (modified interactions)

    Task: Class activity. Checking own beliefs29-III-2005

    5. Bilingualism. Educational aspects of bilingualism. BICS and CALP Plurilingual and pluricultural competence

    Bilingualism

    We are facing a multilingual situation.

    What does it mean competence in language?

    Bilingualism can be analysed:

    • at a macro level: SOCIAL BILINGUALISM.

    • from an individual level: INDIVIDUAL LANGUAGE

    How do we use language among us?

    We can analyse the competence and the use of a language to communicate.

    Individual: Popular speech: bilingual is “a person who speaks 2 languages equally well”

    Or could we say “a person who has some functional ability in a second language”?

    It is preferred to consider that bilingualism has differet levels:

    A top level: or balanced bilingualism (expert translators)

    A low level: limited ability : recent immigrant.

    Of course there are many intermediate situations with their different level of competence.

  • Way of acquisition

  • Age and time

    L.1 : baby dominant mother tongue

    L.2 : additional language : English in England / Spanish in Spain.

    FL. : School subject : English in Spain

  • Skills

    • Speaking

    • Reading

    • Writing

    • Understanding

    With different level of competence

    Functions

    We use the language for:

    • Internal functions :

    • Thinking

    • Calculating

    • Dreaming

    • External functions (sometimes depends on the context)

    • Individual selection for the language a book is written

    • Lecture language

    • Relationship

    • Computer use

    The use depends on:

    • Who are you

    • Who are you talking to

    • Where are you

    Multilingualism

    A person who knows or uses 3 or more languages. Usually does not know all the languages equally well.

    The situations are:

    • Speak and understand 1 language best

    • Be able to write in only one

    • Use each language in different types os situation (home, work...)

    • Use each language for different communicative purposes (talking about science, religious purposes, personal feelings...)

    The European linguistic trend in Europe

    • Is being interested in knowing languages

    • To interest children to understand and develop an open attitude to language and other countries

    • To become aware of language differences

    • Multilingualism can be favoured in school using the same children of the schools

    31-III-2005

    Analysis of attitudes towards target language through psychological positions.

    Attitude towards Native culture Target culture

    ADDITIVE BILINGUALISM

    Positive with L.1 and target language

    +

    +

    Subtractive bilingualism

    Negative with own culture. Positive with target culture

    -

    +

    Semilingualism

    All negative: forget L.1 and no target language

    -

    -

    Monolingualism

    Only interested in L.1 no interested or negative target language

    +

    -

    All of them are a question of degree

    There is an intersection between the own language and the L.1 language of a new culture (country)

    The theory says the intersection between L.1 and a target language plays a very important role to arrive or not to proficiency in the new language.

    Definition of the previously stated aspects:

    Additive bilingualism: a speaker adds a second language without any loss of competence in L.1

    Subtractive bilingualism: The addition of a second language leds to a gradual erosion of competence in the first language

    Semilingualism: In some contexts, when learners of a L.2 develop negative attitude towards both their owns attitude and that of the target language: the learners fail to develop full proficiency in either language (this point is controversial)

    BICS

    BICS means: Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills.

    Is the kind of proficiency that learners require in order to engage effectively in face-to-face communication (context-embeded uses of language)

    CALPS

    CALPS means: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

    Is the kind of proficiency required to engage effectively in academic study. It involves the ability to communicate messages in tasks that are context-reduced and cognitively demanding.

    So we can say that BICS is the proficiency in face to face communication plus context and CALPS is the proficiency in academic communication with reduced context.

    Task: Self evaluation of linguistic and communicative performance and skills in the languages you know.5-IV-2005

    6. The study of language. Levels of analysis. Linguistic context. Social context

    Linguistic context

    • Graphological: writing system, spelling

    • Phonological: phonemes, intonation

    • Words: morphology, lexemas

    • Syntax: structure of sentences

    • Cohesion: the ties that connect up units of speech

    Social context

    • Discourse: The use of language in speech and writing to achieve pragmatic meaning. The larger the units we deal with, the less we idealise the data.

    Task: Spanish, Catalan and English vowels.7. Phonetics and phonology. Phonemes. Phones and allophones. Minimal pairs and sets. Concepts and applications

    Phonetics

    The study of speech sounds.

    ARTICULATORY PHONETICS: The way in which speech sounds are produced (position of the lips, tongue, vocal cords, etc.)

    ACOUSTIC PHONETICS: Transmissions of speech sounds through the air (sound waves) . Use of instruments.

    PHONETIC SYMBOLS: Special symbols which express the sounds of a spoken utterance in writing.

    The sound can be:

    Bilabials, labiodental, dental, alveolar, alveopalatal, velar and glotal.

    12-IV-2005

    Phonetics: Describes the sounds and how people articulates to produce speech.

    Phonology: Branch of linguistics that investigates the sound systems of human language. So, it describes phonemes.

    A phoneme: is the smallest sound segment which can differentiate meanings. They are units of analysis and abstractions from the set of sounds.

    The learners, when speaking L.2 have a tendency to unify. So, their pronunciation looks for the vowel pronunciation reference of the first language.

    Minimal pair test

    seat sit

    pull pool

    zoo shoe

    cap cup

    free three

    meanings are different

    But there are other words that can receive a different pronunciation although they do not have a different meaning:

    These are Allophones: The very in the same phoneme: not everybody has the same pronunciation even between the people who masters the language or L.1 speakers

    seed

    seen

    key

    car

    lull (adormecer)

    Contrasting the sounds, exploring the sounds, we describe differences between words.

    At a phonetic level, confusions are between sounds that are very similar each other.

    There are not pronunciation classes in primary schools, but pronunciation is very important to allow communication and is a basic communicational skill.

    IPA : International Phonetic Alphabet

    Allows people who doesn't master a language to pronounce with certain accuracy the words they have never heard before through an phonetic alphabet that can be used for all languages.

    In English the IPA transcribes the standard British English pronunciation. But in certain dictionaries it is possible to find a variety of pronunciation transcriptions from different countries (Canada, Australia, USA and even from different social classes)

    Supra Segmental features

    Pronunciation is not only a question of phonemes but a question of stress.

    The stress is the pronunciation of a word or a syllable with more force than the surrounding words or syllables (more air from the lungs)

    The stress of a word can be found in a dictionary through the phonetic transcription.

    Teachers may use songs to teach stress to young learners, as this one:

    Five little monkeys jumping on the bed

    one fell off and bumped his head.

    Mummy phoned the doctor and the doctor said:

    “No more jumping on the bed.”

    Task: Teachers speech analysis

    14-IV-2005

    8. Words and word-formation processes. Coinage. Borrowing. Compounding. Blending. Clipping. Derivation. Prefixes and suffixes.

    Learning a word

    Ability to make sense Ability to activate

    of a word (understand) the word automatically

    RECEPTIVE PRODUCTIVE

    (passive) (active)

    There are words that users understand but are incapable to use. They understand them by context or because they have already known the word although they have forgotten it.

    Other words they know are never used to produce speech because the process is not automated. So, they must retrieve them looking for them in their memory. So users probable will choose another word to replace it.

    People do not know words automatically. They need to retrieve them, so they need time to find them before they produce speech. They look for the words in their long term memory.

    Other words that are forgotten is because they are only in the short term memory. Usually words are first stored in the short term memory. But they can be easily forgot.

    Also words learnt by heart are forgotten easily.

    The only really useful memory is the long term memory by constant use and also when there is a significative store of words.

    How does memory store words?

    INPUT OUTPUT

    (spoken/written words) (spoken/written words)

    Receptive Productive

    retrieval retrieval

    When a learner learns a word, is learning the:

    • writing

    • sound (phonetic)

    • meaning (or at least a part of its meaning)

    • use (in which context may be used)

    Foreign language classes need different activities and repetitions to let students learn new words.

    Which is the storage to learn a word?

  • Learners must be exposed to that words. Orally first, then written. If both at a time, may probably occur that only one of the forms will be learnt (probably written form).

  • So. first of all is the phonological shape, then written shape.

  • Words are stored probably by association:

  • strawberries/cream

    mountain/tree

    Considering this aspect, to play word chains in class is a good way to learn new words and store them in the long term memory (associating words to a topic: birthday/cake/presents, etc.)

    Allowing to insert the news words in the long term memory and practising them and being exposed to the words, it will be easier to retrieve the words for an everyday use: the learner will have a retrieving knowledge and practice to produce speech.

    The basic English as a core (fundamental) list of words was designed in 1930. It was a list of 850 words.

    In 1953 the General Service List determined that 2000 words were basic to speak English.

    We usually understand that 850 words involve some 12.000 different meanings.

    In the other hand, a common vocabulary to everybody implies a problem because there are different needs and interests.

    Now, you find a list of topics: everyday life for instance. By analysing words formation or how each word associate can be helpful for learning:

    Coinage: invention of new words

    Borrowing: words from other languages

    Eponyms: words originated from a previous name.

    Examples:

    Aspirin: Coinage: new word

    Nylon: Coinage: new word

    Yoghurt: Borrowing

    Kleenex: Coinage: new word

    Chauvinism: Eponym

    Cashmere Eponym

    Muslin: Eponym

    Damask: Eponym

    Suede: Eponym

    Tweed: Eponym

    Tupperware: Eponym

    Saxophone: Eponym

    Gypsy Borrowing

    Magnolia: Eponym

    Boycott: Eponym

    28-IV-2005

    Learners invent and borrow new words. Sometime children try to give an English pronunciation to words:

    The panch (la pancha)

    Borrowings:

    Germanic words French origin equivalent

    Cow Beef

    Calf veal

    Sheep mutton

    Pig pork, bacon

    Deer venison

    There are also blended words (mixed words):

    Brunch...........breakfast/brunch

    Smog............Smoke/fog

    Spanglish.......Spanish/English

    Motel............motor/hotel

    Clipping: to reduce a word to a piece of it

    Fax...............facsimile

    Ad................advertisement

    Fan..............fanatic

    Flu...............influenza

    Board...........blackboard

    Fridge..........refrigerator

    Abbreviations and acronyms:

    Acronyms: NATO, AIDS, LASER.

    Abbreviations:

    PM.........Prime Minister

    MP.........Member of Parliament

    BBC.......British Broadcasting Corporation

    CIA.......Central Intelligence Agency

    COMPOUNDING:

    Two or more words combine to create a meaning that differs from that of its parts:

    • Letter box

    • Tin opener

    • Bank account

    • Baby sitter

    • Alarm clock

    • Blood donor

    • Pocket money

    • Brain drain

    • Death penalty

    • Welfare state

    • Generation gap

    • Sound barrier

    CONVERSION:

    A change is introduced in the function of the word:

    Have you buttered the toast?

    The team summered in Colorado.

    Fax it tomorrow

    DERIVATION:

    The formulation of new words by adding affixes (prefixes and suffixes)

    Employees/employee

    Retype / reread

    Monologue / monotonous

    Undercooked / under worked

    Misinform / mislead

    Trainer /trainee

    Task: Morpheme identification18-IV-2005

    9. Morphology. Morphemes: Free and bound morphemes. Derivational versus inflectional

    Morphology is the study of morphemes and their different forms (allomorphs) and the way they combine.

    The morpheme is the minimal part of a word with a meaning: the smallest meaningful unit in a language.

    Examples:

    Kind (one morpheme)

    If the d is removed, then the word changes to kin, which has a different meaning.

    If the K is removed, then you have IN.

    Unkindness (3 morphemes)

    The stem kind is the main part, it has a prefix which is un- and a noun forming suffix -ness.

    There are different types of morphemes:

    If we say SHE TALKS

    Talk is the stem

    -s is the third person

    The -s and -ed are grammatical morphemes. There are not many grammatical morphemes in English although there are a lot in Spanish.

    Grammatical morphemes do not have a meaning by themselves.

    To form words, children use the prefixes and suffixes.

    Kinds of morphemes:

    Free lexical morphemes: they have a meaning by themselves. Connect words or open class words: adjectives lexical verbs (not to be) and nouns

    Free functional morphemes: closed class words: articles, prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns.

    Bound derivational: are useful to create new words:

    -er -ness -ly

    Bound inflectional: third person -s, plurals -s, past -ed

    3.5.2005

    Levels of analysis

    Linguistic Context Social context

    Graphological: writing system/spelling Discourse: the

    Phonological: phonemes, intonation use of language

    Words: morphology, lexemes in speech and

    Syntax: structure of sentences writing to

    Cohesion: the ties that connect up achieve a

    Different units of speech pragmatic

    Text meaning

    The larger the units we deal with, the less we idealise the data.

    10. Syntax. Sentence. Clause. Constituent. Phrase: Noun phrase, verb phrase. Preposition phrase.

    The sentence is the language unit with a minimum sense of completeness and unity. In the written language we recognise sentences because the begin with a capital letter and have a full stop at the end.

    In a sentence we can find:

    • Simple sentences (clauses)

    • Complex sentences (co-ordinated and subordinated clauses

    A sentence may have different clauses. Each clause has got a verb. Clause may have linkers as: and, but, when...

    Usually for children to learn a second language or a foreign language we use books called bridge books, that have a simplified construction to let a easy reading with simple sentences. They may include some co-ordinated clauses. Never subordinated.

    Clause: A single sentence consists of only one clause. Whereas a complex sentence consist of more than one clause.

    Constituent:

    The term refers generally to a linguistic unit which is a component of a larger construction. For example phrases (sintagmas) that make up any clause, the words that make up a phrase or the morphemes that make up a word.

    Example:

    His elbow rested on his hand

    NP VP PP

    Noun phrase Verb phrase preposition phrase

    His: posses. Adj (rest-ed)

    Elbow: noun

    Task: Grammar sentences. Grammar for English Teachers. Martin Parrot

    Sentences

    Sentences: Oración. Begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop. Simple = clause Compuesta = sentence

    But must have sense:

    El lindo se pajaro al comió gatito.

    We know the meaning of the individual words, but the sequence as a whole does not make sense, so, we cannot consider this structure as a sentence.

    El gatito lindo se comió al pájaro.

    Sintagma: cuando no tiene verbo: el lindo gatito (phrase)

    Constituents: parts of a sentence that can be replaced by any word or group of words.

    El lindo gatito camina por la calle Pedro camina por la calle

    The order of the information provided in a sentence is a crucial factor to be clearly understood: the familiar information and basic information is at the beginning of the clause.

    There are different kind of phrases:

    noun phrases : This old kettle

    verb phrases : want to speak

    preposition phrase : on the corner

    adjective phrases : not very old

    adverb phrases : only once5.5.2005

    A proform is a word to refer to something that has been stated before.

    Noun Phrases

    S

    VP

    PP

    NP NP

    Det N V P Det N

    This present is from my sister

    NP. Noun phrase

    VP: verb phrase

    PP: preposition phrase

    S: sentence

    • There are also one word phrases: Angela, She, people.

    • Groups of words including a headword as in:

    An illness, my sister, this present, this old kettle.

    Analysing the noun phrases we can find the difficulty degree of a text.

    Verb phrases:

    Are the part of the sentence which contains the main verbs and also any object(s), complements(s) and adverbial(s)

    One word: came

    Multiword: look up

    Auxiliary verbs: has, been doing, will not come

    Two main verbs: like playing, want to go

    Exercises:

    Sentence

    NP VP

    Det noun V Adj. Phrase

    Her brain is clear

    Sentence

    VP

    PP

    NP NP

    Proform V P Pos N

    You are sitting on my chair

    11. Semantics. Lexical relations. Pragmatics. Discourse analysis

    The componential analysis is the inventory of the semantic features encoded in lexical forms.

    Bachelor

    + Human

    diff. Entries

    + male + the one who has the first academic degree

    + Who has not married

    Words have different meanings in the dictionary. Each word has a Denotation.

    We may analyse the different semantic possibilities.

    Even if you know the word, may be you don't do an accurate use of it. Depending on the culture and language, meanings chance.

    An even a native speaker may not have a complete idea of all its meaning or at least, the accurate features of all its meanings.

    In the other hand, affixes and suffixes may add more meanings. So, semantics have to consider anything that adds meaning t a word.

    Lexical relations

    Synonyms: cease / stop - broad / wide

    Antonyms: quick / slow - North / South - hot / cold

    Hyponyms: Rose / flower - meat / food - lettuce / vegetable

    Co-hyponyms: horse, dog, hen, pig, etc.

    A lexical field are families of words:

    - means of transport: train, ship, car

    Different synonyms require a careful use, because the context has something to do with it.

    Homophones: different spelling same pronunciation

    Sale - sail

    Homonyms: Same spelling, different meaning

    The Bank - The bank of a river

    Applications at school are the lexical families to learn vocabulary:

    With lexical families, find the wrong one (odd word out)

    And the same with synonyms and antonyms.

    Also allows to copy words and play with them. For instance, different association of words as:

    Dinner / mother / cook / hot / table / chair / cushion / soft / hard / stone / fall / cut / blood / hospital / doctor / home

    Each one said by one of the students as in a chain, producing a lexical relationship between this series of words.

    It is very difficult to teach vocabulary, so all resources to facilitating this task are necessary.

    Pragmatics. Discourse analysis

    It is not enough to know the rules or system of a language. We need to know the social context and the social use of a language to be able to interact with it to other speakers.

    And there are rules of use of a language: it is not the same to speak to a little girl than speaking to an adult.: speech varies with our different necessities to communicate and to relate with other people.

    All communicative acts have an intention: when we talk we have a representation about something or a belief that is communicated to another person.

    The paralinguistic information is all the information that is not oral: gesture, intonation, etc. Some sentences change completely its meaning through this phenomena of paralinguistics.

    Pragmatics studies all that information together with oral information, focusing on meaning. People tries to adapt their speaking rules or dialect to the geographical area where they are talking.

    There is always an adaptation to the place where you are.

    Young people, as well, have their own register and probably an adult or older one would not understand.

    Registers have to do with intention and not only with literal meaning of the words.

    As a conclusion, pragmatics is the study of the speaker meaning (invisible meaning including context, culture, attitudes, situation and paralanguage)

    10.5.2005

    12. Applications. Syllabus Design. Types of syllabus. Language in textbooks The teaching of grammar: deductive, inductive teaching. Explicit and implicit learning/teaching. Focus on form. Incidental focus on form: pre-emptive and reactive.

    The Grammar-translation method

    GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD

    It is the traditional method of learning a second language: a system of rules with isolated sentences that are not related to communication.

    In the communicative approach, the rules of grammar are implicit in the examples. Tendencies in teaching have follow the pendulum law. And from grammar-translation method, the tendency went to DIRECT METHOD.

    DIRECT METHOD