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Marketing Mix. Message. Agency. Communication campaign. Advertising. Role of advertising

  • Enviado por: Antonio Arroyo
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: España España
  • 15 páginas

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1. Introduction………………………………………………………1

2. The role of advertising in Marketing Mix………………….1

3. Analyses of advertising………………………………………..5

3.1. History………………………………………………..….5

3.2. Objective………………………………….……………..6

3.3. Message………………………………….………………7

3.4. Agency…………………………….……….………….…8

4. Introduction of Benetton…………………………………….9

4.1. Benetton communication campaign……………..9

4.2. Advertising of Benetton……………………………11

4.3. Actual campaign of Benetton…………….……..12

5. Conclusion …………………………………………………….12

6. Appendix………………………………………………………13


1- Introduction

Nowadays, advertisements are something habitual in the live of people. Through TV, bus, cinema radio or billboards, we receive continually information (imagines and message), but the advertising world is not really known. When two months ago I had the opportunity to write about a topic. I though in something which it is not always well known: advertising. To invest, analyze and learn this passionate field of marketing will be entertainment for author and reader, as well will learn new concepts about adverts.

Benetton will have an important place in this essay, because it is essential if modern advertising is studied, the politic of this brand in this kind of promotion will serve to illustrate with examples the theory.

Thus, the objective of this essay is to teach some new about advertising. I hope when you the reader finish to read this project is satisfied to the time employed.

2.The role of advertising in Marketing Mix

Marketing Mix is a group of variables, known as four P's (price, promotion, product and place), through those the company develops the marketing strategy. This new matter called marketing in last twenty years has had considerable change. Known as selling since the commerce began, to sell product to the customer has been the principal function. Nowadays, with the great competence which exist in the market, it has been necessary to remodel a new technique to sell the product. Marketing Mix has developed the four P's which are important for different aspect of the product. Furthermore, each variable has different way to be developed. Adverting is the most potent tool that the company is able to promote a product, service or idea. As the graphic shows, companies spend more than half of budget of promotion in advertisements.

Expenditure in promotion in the UK by companies in 1999.

Análisis: Anuncios de Benneton

Source: based on information from Brassington F. and Pettitt S.1999 PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING pg. 679.

Advertising is a non-personal information that the company sends to mass audience through such as TV, radio, billboards or print. Firstly, the advantages for the companies of adverting will inspect then the disadvantages.

Advertising is a manner to differentiation of competence. There are many products very similar in the market. Companies inform to the audience about which characteristics have their product, which are different to others. By way of advertising companies can send this information easily to the audience. There are many places where advertisements can be shown to the audience. The companies use channels where are better for them to contact with the target customers. Thus each company can adopt the advertisements to present its requirement.

Advertising offers to the audience a positive image of the company. Usually, advert relates one product or brand with a pleasure situation. The people create a sublimate and positive relation between the product and the delightful situation. For example, in most advertisements of car, the companies do not offer characteristic about quality, power, engineer or high speed of the car, however advert shows a person, in an along motorway, without traffic jam and with a nice atmosphere. Thus advertisements will do good relation between imagines and products.

Others products, such as water, or banking service are very difficult to be different, thus through advertising the company can transmit the characteristic that induce the customer to buy this product. Therefore, advertisement helps the company; it gives the ideal characteristic that a customer is seeking.

However, advertising has disadvantages as well. With extra cost, that advertising has, is very difficult that the small companies can pay it. To do an advertisement campaign, a company needs to pay the advertising agency for create commercial, but the most expensive cost is to buy the medium, through the information can be received by the audience. Hence too much information which bombard the audience every day. Thus, it is difficult for the audience to pay attention to all the advertisements. Advertising has to use the humor, strong image to catch the target audience's attention. If this it does not engender people use to remote control when ads appear.

Company can not select exactly kind that of people who will see the advertisement. For example how effective is advertisement for cat food on the TV, if only 5%of audience owns a cat. In this case the company which does this type of promotion will waste a 95% of the budget of that campaign.

Thus, although the advertisements have many advantages to promote products to the audiences, have disadvantages that the companies should examine before sending plenty of money on this.

3. Analyses of advertising

3.1- History of advertising

Although marketing is a new popular subject, archaeologists have discovered in the Mediterranean countries pictures which are first advertisements in the history. Romans, Phoenicians and Greeks painted walls to announce gladiator flights, politician asked for votes or even to sell cosmetics.

However, advertisements had not been analysed until 1908, when the first book that analysed the psychology of advertising was published. Since then, many researches have been doing investigating, giving information about motivation, human behaviour, how to persuasive the audience even a favourable atmosphere to advert. Thus advertisement can be considered today as a science.

Nevertheless, although with the spirit advertisement than two thousand years ago to transmit and persuade people by advertisements it has been changed completely:

  • 414 billion dollars are spent each year on advertisement in whole world. Multinational company such as Procter &Gamble, General Motors or Philip Morris spent in 1997 more that 2000 millions dollars in advertisement each one. There are multinational companies that spend more than 10 % of their sales in advertisements, such as Ford or General Motors. For this reason advertising is a business which moves each year more money.

  • New mediums are used for adverting. Although two thousand years ago the advertisements were principally limited to walls. At the present time, TV, print, radio or even Internet delivers the message to consumers. New ways to transmit are been using.

Therefore although the usefulness of advertisements was known long time ago, it was in the last centenary when began a complete development of this form of promotion, until now, the advertisement is considered in the principal way that companies have to contact with the audience.


Companies hope to reach their goal through the advertising. The objective that companies have with the advertising is to obtain extra income, because through the advertisement campaign of one product this product will become more popular and company can gain more benefit. But although in the long term the objective in advertising is the same, there are three kinds of strategies that the adverts follow.

Firstly, advertisement which gives information about new product or new characteristic of old product. For example the cosmetic company informs to the audinece that a new cream which is more effective against the wrintles. As a result, many companies prefer using advertising to communicate their message.

Secondly advertisement is use to promote a product has already been very popular. This kind of advertisement tries to recall the audience that old product is able in the market. For example, in the case of Coca-Cola most people know this drink, however the advertisements of this brand can be frequently seen and it is always attractive in summer or holiday, when people will consume especially more this product. Thus the advertisement remind continually the audience that product is obtainable.

Advertisements influence the audience seriously, especially those expensive products, such as cars or house. As the customers ponder the decision before bying the product. Thus the company tries with the advertising to make easy to buy the product.

Thus the strategy of advertisement will be different for different products. Thus advertisements operate always in different ways to achieve the last objective for a company is selling more products.

3.3. Message

Message is a sentence or idea which summarises the content of one advertisement. The message must attract the audience, keep their attention and curiosity, giving a strong feeling about the product. The message is not only what is said, but also on how it is said. The process to learn the message is in the next illustration.

Process to give information from adverts

But the message has to have several characteristics:

  • Clear: easily to be understood target audience.

  • Short: easily to remember.

  • Summarise: it has to summarise an idea or principal attributes of one


Therefore, a message is essential in one advertisement which gives much information to the audience, hence the message has to highlight and accent the features of the product.

3.4. Agency

Agency develops and executes advertising programs. Advertising field is each day more complicate. Thus it is usually, even in companies with a strong marketing department, to contract special people to give the company all the services necessary in advertisement campaign in the same pack. Thus, the agency will develop all advertisement publicity working under the company.

Agencies including full services in relation with the advertisement: researching, artwork, media buying or creative work are only the standard service that agencies offer nowadays.

However, although most agencies offer similar services at the customer there are many different among agencies. The creative, culture and experience ability to transmit the message to target market are different qualities from agency to another. The right or wrong selection of an agency could be the success or failure of an advertising campaign. Therefore is not enough to have a large budget to guarantee the success in advertisement campaign, the know-how of the agency will be essential in the triumph.

The agency usually has to find one characteristic or invented this to distinct one product from others products in the market. Consequently, agencies elaborate and choose the message diverse mediums and decide the structure of the advertisement. Other times the agency presents various campaign with several slogans and kinds of advertisement, in this case the company takes the responsibility to choose the camping.

4.Benetton Introduction

Benetton an Italian brand of clothes was founded in 1955 by Luciano Benetton in Treviso an Italian town near the Alps. At the beginning Benetton was created with the objective of getting extra cash for the modesty Benetton's family. But few years after this company employed more than ten employees and developed incessantly new technical to produce. Benetton has been always an innovate company which was installed in more than thirty countries at beginning of 1980's. However, Benetton is universal known by aggressive advertisement campaign, which will be analyse next.

4.1.Communication Benetton

In 1980's Benetton began with its campaign of communication. Since then, several channels have been choosing to transmit a common and unique message to world-wide each year. The graphic shows, famous people, sport and overcoat advertisement have got that Benetton was known in the entire world.

The first pillar that Benetton used in its communication promotion in 1980's was publicity. Princes Carolina of Monaco and Diana, Princess of Wales, gave Benetton universal fame. People want to use the same product that notorious people use. Publicity happens when the medium or famous people unpaid choose to inform about the companies and its activities. Many time brands utilise famous people to do publicity of their brand because for the audience famous people have more credibility. Adolescent young girls who had Diana and Carolina as idols decided to wear the kind sportswear clothes of Benetton. Thus one most effective way to be known by the audience had been using successfully by Benetton without any cost.

Secondly Benetton sponsored several sport. Formula one, rugby, volleyball and basketball have been sport where Benetton invested money. Many people like to see a particular sports, Benetton has given a good imagine support sport teams.

Thirdly advertising has been the other pillar used to promote its brand and product. May be the most controversial way to promote, because Benetton began to use a different strategy in advertising been studied and analysed for many experts. In the next piece will be explain with more details the policy in advertising that Benetton has developed in the last fifteen years.

In conclusion, 1980's it was the watershed in the politics of communication of Benetton, when from a normal clothe brand to become in one most popular brands of clothe for young people, the reason of this spectacular change image has been the publicity, sponsorship and advertisement campaigns.

4.2.Advertising of Benetton

In 1984, Benetton began to develop a different strategy to other manufacturing of clothes. Jersey, pullover, T-shirts and trousers left to be the protagonist of advertisement. Benetton commenced to use young people from different countries and races. The first campaign known as “All the Colors o World” was published in 14 countries and in some of them the controversy began such as South Africa when black and white people appeared together in some picture in advertisement without relation with clothes. Thus a new form of commercial has been born.

For Olivero Toscani, notorious photograph who has done all advertising of Benetton since 1984 “ ad agencies are obsolete, there out of touch with the times”. Toscani knew that it was very difficult to do an successful advertising campaign. There were, like at present, many adverts in all mediums that send information to the audience constantly. It was necessary to do something new, imagines with a social meaning and impact, on the whole controversy imagines which cased discussion. Thus Benetton began to work with “real world” breaking system in the advertisement.

Benetton tries to caugh attention of the audience with strong images which are relational only with its logo. There are many advertising every day. Thus, it is usual the people change of their TV or do not read advertisement printed. Audience reflect to see the images, thus at the same time that picture is remembered the logo of the company as well. In conclusion Benetton has got popularity with advertisement and therefore to sell more product.

4.3.The last campaign of Benetton

With the new millenium Benetton has begun a new advertisement campaign “LOOKING AT DEATH IN THE FACE”. This time, Olivero Toscani has photographed the people who are in the death rows in several American Prisons. LOOKING AT DEATH IN THE FACE tries reveals of convicts on death row.

Once more Benetton wants to do advertising through impact images. The death penalty is a confrontational topic. Thus, all the information which will be seen with detail and Benetton's logo as well.

Therefore, Benetton continues with the same kinds of advertisements though it has been very popular in last years and has increased its sales.


There is much information published about advertisement. This projectc has tried to do an analysis of all the part that form one advertising campaign. Advertising field is one way that companies have to promote their products. This area under discussion, has changed suddenly in the last century. Nowadays is a complicate matter where the companies invest much money.

However advertisement has been studied more deeply. The different component that it has and the steps to follow when it transmits information have been aspect important in this project.

Many examples have been giving to explain the theory. Thus peculiar strategy that Benetton has in advertising which is known in the world is very important. But, may be the major conclusion that we could have when read this project, it is the use the advertising has for the companies.


It is difficult to imagine the repercussion that Benetton advertising has had in whole the world. Some of most popular imagines of Benetton are shown in this apart to understand better the Benetton strategy in advertisement.


Benetton web-side: 9/2/2000:

Brassington F. and Pettitt S.1999 PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING London Brown and Company

Brierley S.1995 THE ADVERTISING HANDBOOK London Routledge

Bullmore J. 1998 2nd ed BEHING THE SCENES IN ADVERTISING 1998 Oxfordshire Admap Publications

Dyer G. 1982 ADVERTISING AS COMMUNICATION Routlegde Methuen &Co.Ltd.

Kotler P. and Armstrong G. 1999a 8th ed PRINCIPES OF MARKETIN London Prentie-Hall International


Nava M. et al 1997 BUY THIS BOOK London Routledge


Weinreich L. 1999 11 STEPS TO BRAND HEAVEN London Kogan Page

The advertisements analysis

















Give information

Message summarise important information

Audiences understand the message

Repetition of advertising:

Ads is learnt